Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 220
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1261-1262, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667516
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e010951, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594431

RESUMO

Background Weight regain after weight loss is common. The impact on cardiometabolic risk factors is not well established. Methods and Results Publicly available data were analyzed from participants of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial with ≥3% initial weight loss (n=1561) during a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention and with year 4 follow-up data. Participants who regained (regainers) or maintained (maintainers) weight loss were defined with 5 dichotomized cut points (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) of percentage weight loss regained (weight change from years 1-4 as percentage of first year weight loss). Change in cardiometabolic risk factors after initial weight loss was compared in maintainers and regainers, after controlling for demographics, medications, and baseline and year 1 change in body mass index. The effect was assessed separately in participants with <10% and ≥10% initial weight loss, and women and men. Maintainers exhibited significant improvements to the cardiometabolic risk factors assessed compared with regainers. No weight regain cut point maximized risk difference between maintainers and regainers across risk factors or sex/initial weight loss subgroups. For many risk factors, allowing more regain as part of maintenance (increasing cut point) diminished the cardiometabolic benefit among maintainers. Conclusions Maintaining weight loss was better than regain for all risk factors. No single cut point maximized the risk difference between maintainers and regainers. Maintainers who kept off ≥75% of weight lost had the greatest benefit. These findings emphasize the importance of intervention programs focusing not only on weight loss but weight loss maintenance, given the adverse consequences of the latter. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00017953.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 742-749, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes in metabolic and nutrient signaling pathways play important roles in lifespan in model organisms and human longevity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relation of a quantitative measure of healthy diet to gene expression in a community-based cohort. METHODS: We used the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI) score to quantify key dietary recommendations of an overall healthy diet. Our current analyses included 2220 Offspring participants (mean age 66 ± 9 y, 55.4% women) and 2941 Third-Generation participants (mean age 46 ± 9 y, 54.5% women) from the Framingham Heart Study. Gene expression was profiled in blood through the use of the Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study of DGAI adjusting for age, sex, smoking, cell counts, and technical covariates. We also constructed a combined gene score from genes significantly associated with DGAI. RESULTS: The DGAI was significantly associated with the expression of 19 genes (false discovery rate <0.05). The most significant gene, ARRDC3, is a member of the arrestin family of proteins, and evidence in animal models and human data suggests that this gene is a regulator of obesity and energy expenditure. The DGAI gene score was associated with body mass index (P = 1.4 × 10-50), fasting glucose concentration (P = 2.5 × 10-11), type 2 diabetes (P = 1.1 × 10-5), and metabolic syndrome (P = 1.8 × 10-32). CONCLUSIONS: Healthier diet was associated with genes involved in metabolic function. Further work is needed to replicate our findings and investigate the relation of a healthy diet to altered gene regulation.

5.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2422-2436, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. METHODS: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). RESULTS: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(4): 1154-1163, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early protein intake may program later body composition and height growth, perhaps mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). In infancy, higher protein intake is consistently associated with higher IGF-I concentrations and more rapid growth, but associations of protein intake after infancy with later growth and IGF-I are less clear. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine associations of protein intake in early childhood (median 3.2 y) with height, IGF-I, and measures of adiposity and lean mass in mid-childhood (median 7.7 y) and early adolescence (median 13.0 y), and with changes in these outcomes over time. We hypothesized that early childhood protein intake programs later growth. METHODS: We studied 1165 children in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort. Mothers reported children's diet using food-frequency questionnaires. We stratified by child sex and examined associations of early childhood protein intake with mid-childhood and early adolescent BMI z score, skinfold thicknesses, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) fat mass, DXA lean mass, height z score, and IGF-I concentration. We adjusted linear regression models for race/ethnicity, family sociodemographics, parental and birth anthropometrics, breastfeeding status, physical activity, and fast food intake. RESULTS: Mean protein intake in early childhood was 58.3 g/d. There were no associations of protein intake in early childhood with any of the mid-childhood outcomes. Among boys, however, each 10-g increase in early childhood total protein intake was associated with several markers of early adolescent size, namely BMI z score (0.12 higher; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.23), DXA lean mass index (1.34% higher; 95% CI: -0.07%, 2.78%), and circulating IGF-I (5.67% higher; 95% CI: 0.30%, 11.3%). There were no associations with fat mass and no associations with any adolescent outcomes among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood protein intake may contribute to programming lean mass and IGF-I around the time of puberty in boys, but not to adiposity development. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02820402.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875784

RESUMO

Public interest in popular diets is increasing, in particular whole-food plant-based (WFPB) and vegan diets. Whether these diets, as theoretically implemented, meet current food-based and nutrient-based recommendations has not been evaluated in detail. Self-identified WFPB and vegan diet followers in the Adhering to Dietary Approaches for Personal Taste (ADAPT) Feasibility Survey reported their most frequently used sources of information on nutrition and cooking. Thirty representative days of meal plans were created for each diet. Weighted mean food group and nutrient levels were calculated using the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) and data were compared to DRIs and/or USDA Dietary Guidelines/MyPlate meal plan recommendations. The calculated HEI-2015 scores were 88 out of 100 for both WFPB and vegan meal plans. Because of similar nutrient composition, only WFPB results are presented. In comparison to MyPlate, WFPB meal plans provide more total vegetables (180%), green leafy vegetables (238%), legumes (460%), whole fruit (100%), whole grains (132%), and less refined grains (-74%). Fiber level exceeds the adequate intakes (AI) across all age groups. WFPB meal plans failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)s for vitamin B12 and D without supplementation, as well as the RDA for calcium for women aged 51⁻70. Individuals who adhere to WFBP meal plans would have higher overall dietary quality as defined by the HEI-2015 score as compared to typical US intakes with the exceptions of calcium for older women and vitamins B12 and D without supplementation. Future research should compare actual self-reported dietary intakes to theoretical targets.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Nutr ; 148(12): 1961-1967, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517729

RESUMO

Background: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation in clinical trials. It is unclear whether body mass index (BMI) and inflammation might explain the observed association between higher fiber intake and the lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (SXKOA). Objectives: We quantified the extent to which BMI and inflammation influenced the relation between dietary fiber and SXKOA. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study. At baseline of each study, men and women (mean age: 61 y) with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis were followed for 48 mo in the OAI. Adults (mean age: 53 y) were followed for 9.5 y in the Framingham study. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Measured weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in the Framingham study only. Incident SXKOA was defined as new onset of a combination of knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. We applied marginal structural models to quantify the mediation through BMI in the OAI and the sequential mediation through BMI and CRP in the Framingham study. Results: Incident SXKOA occurred in 861 knees among 2876 persons in the OAI and in 143 knees among 971 persons in the Framingham study. In persons whose fiber intake was ≥21 g/d compared with those with intakes <21 g/d, the OR (95% CI) was 0.70 (0.53, 0.91) for the overall association with SXKOA and was 0.93 (0.92, 0.95) for the mediation via BMI (per kg/m2) in the OAI. In the Framingham study, the overall association was 0.57 (0.30, 1.09), the mediation through BMI (via BMI and the influence of BMI on CRP) was 0.94 (0.85, 1.02), and the mediation through CRP (per milligram per liter) was 0.99 (0.84, 1.19). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the inverse association of fiber intake and the risk of incident symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is partially mediated by BMI.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247514

RESUMO

Background: Higher protein intake is linked to maintenance of muscle mass and strength, but few studies have related protein to physical function and disability in aging. Methods: In participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring, we examined associations between protein intake (g/d), estimated from food frequency questionnaires, and maintenance of functional integrity, as a functional integrity score based on responses to 17 questions from Katz Activities of Daily Living, Nagi, and Rosow-Breslau questionnaires, repeated up to five times (1991/1995-2011/2014) over 23 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk of incident loss of functional integrity (functional integrity score ≤ 15th percentile). Results: In 2,917 participants (age 54.5 [9.8] years), baseline protein intake was 77.2 (15.6) g/d. The functional integrity score (baseline, mean 98.9, range 82.4-100.0) was associated with objective performance (gait speed, grip strength) and lower odds of falls, fractures, and frailty. Across follow-up, there were 731 incident cases of loss of functional integrity. In fully adjusted models, participants in the highest category of protein intake (median 92.2 g/d) had 30% lower risk of loss of functional integrity (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.70 [0.52, 0.95], p trend = .03), versus those with the lowest intake (median 64.4 g/d). However, sex-stratified analyses indicated the association was driven by the association in women alone (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.49 [0.32, 0.74], p trend = .002) and was nonsignificant in men (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.14 [0.70, 1.86], p trend = .59). Conclusions: Higher protein intake was beneficially associated with maintenance of physical function in middle-aged, high-functioning U.S. adults over the span of two decades. This association was particularly evident in women.

10.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096913

RESUMO

Consumption of whole grains have been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases in many observational studies; yet, results of intervention studies are mixed. We aimed to use evidence mapping to capture the methodological and reporting variability in whole grain intervention studies that may contribute to this inconsistency. We conducted a reproducible search in OVID Medline for whole grain human intervention studies (published 1946 to February 2018). After screening based on a priori criteria, we identified 202 publications describing a total of 213 unique trials. Over half (55%) were acute trials, lasting ≤1 day, 30% were moderate duration studies (up to 6 weeks) and 15% were of longer duration (more than 6 weeks). The majority of acute trials (75%) examined measures of glycaemia and/or insulinemia, while most of the longer trials included measures of cardiometabolic health (71%), appetite/satiety (57%) and weight/adiposity (56%). Among the moderate and long duration trials, there was a wide range of how whole grains were described but only 10 publications referenced an established definition. Only 55% of trials reported the actual amount of whole grains (in grams or servings), while 36% reported the amount of food/product and 9% did not report a dose at all. Of the interventions that provided a mixture of whole grains, less than half (46%) reported the distribution of the different grain types. Reporting of subject compliance also varied and only 22% used independent biomarkers of whole grain intake. This evidence map highlights the need to standardize both study protocols and reporting practices to support effective synthesis of study results and provide a stronger foundation to better inform nutrition scientists and public health policy.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Dieta Saudável , Tamanho da Porção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Grãos Integrais , Determinação de Ponto Final , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Cooperação do Paciente , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(16): 2998-3010, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein plays a role in counteracting age-related muscle loss. However, limited long-term data exist on protein intake and markers of cardiometabolic health, which tend to deteriorate with age. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. FFQ-derived protein intake (g/d) and cardiometabolic markers were assessed up to five times across 20 years. Markers included systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, circulating lipids (total, HDL and LDL cholesterol; TAG), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting glucose (FG), weight and waist circumference (WC). Mixed models accounting for repeated measures were used to estimate adjusted mean annualized changes in outcomes per quartile category of protein. SETTING: Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, USA. SUBJECTS: Participants (n 3066) with 12 333 unique observations, baseline (mean (sd)) age=54·0 (9·7) years, BMI=27·4 (4·9) kg/m2, 53·5 % female. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, there were favourable associations (mean (se)) of total protein with annualized changes in SBP (lowest v. highest intake: 0·34 (0·06) v. 0·04 (0·06) mmHg, P trend=0·001) and eGFR (-1·03 (0·06) v. -0·87 (0·05) ml/min per 1·73 m2, P trend=0·046), unfavourable associations with changes in FG (0·013 (0·004) v. 0·028 (0·004) mmol/l, P trend=0·004) and no associations with weight, WC, DBP or lipids. Animal protein was favourably associated with SBP and unfavourably with FG and WC; plant protein was favourably associated with FG and WC. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that protein intake may influence changes in cardiometabolic health independent of change in weight in healthy adults and that protein's role in cardiometabolic health may depend on the protein source.

12.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037726

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common and overall graft survival is suboptimal among kidney transplant recipients. Although albuminuria is a known risk factor for adverse outcomes among persons with native chronic kidney disease, the relationship of albuminuria with cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in transplant recipients is uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Post hoc longitudinal cohort analysis of the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcomes Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Stable kidney transplant recipients with elevated homocysteine levels from 30 sites in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. PREDICTOR: Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at randomization. OUTCOMES: Allograft failure, CVD, and all-cause death. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Multivariable Cox models adjusted for age; sex; race; randomized treatment allocation; country; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; history of CVD, diabetes, and hypertension; smoking; cholesterol; body mass index; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); donor type; transplant vintage; medications; and immunosuppression. RESULTS: Among 3,511 participants with complete data, median ACR was 24 (Q1-Q3, 9-98) mg/g, mean eGFR was 49±18 (standard deviation) mL/min/1.73m2, mean age was 52±9 years, and median graft vintage was 4.1 (Q1-Q3, 1.7-7.4) years. There were 1,017 (29%) with ACR < 10mg/g, 912 (26%) with ACR of 10 to 29mg/g, 1,134 (32%) with ACR of 30 to 299mg/g, and 448 (13%) with ACR ≥ 300mg/g. During approximately 4 years, 282 allograft failure events, 497 CVD events, and 407 deaths occurred. Event rates were higher at both lower eGFRs and higher ACR. ACR of 30 to 299 and ≥300mg/g relative to ACR < 10mg/g were independently associated with graft failure (HRs of 3.40 [95% CI, 2.19-5.30] and 9.96 [95% CI, 6.35-15.62], respectively), CVD events (HRs of 1.25 [95% CI, 0.96-1.61] and 1.55 [95% CI, 1.13-2.11], respectively), and all-cause death (HRs of 1.65 [95% CI, 1.23-2.21] and 2.07 [95% CI, 1.46-2.94], respectively). LIMITATIONS: No data for rejection; single ACR assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of stable kidney transplant recipients, elevated baseline ACR is independently associated with allograft failure, CVD, and death. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether reducing albuminuria improves these outcomes.

13.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 2(5): nzy012, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955724

RESUMO

Background: Although there is interest in popular diets such as vegan and vegetarian, Paleo, and other "whole food" diets, existing cohort studies lack data for these subgroups. The use of electronic data capture and Web-based surveys in nutrition research may be valuable for future studies by allowing targeting of specific dietary subgroups. Objective: The aim was to perform a Feasibility Survey (FS) to assess the practicality of Web-based research methods to gather data and to maximize response rates among followers of popular diets. Methods: The FS was an open, voluntary, 15-min survey conducted over 8 wk in the summer of 2015. Recruitment targeted self-identified followers of popular diets from a convenience sample, offering no incentives, via social media and e-newsletters shared by recruitment partners. Feasibility was assessed by number of responses, survey completion rate, distribution of diets, geographic location, and willingness to participate in future research. Results: A total of 14,003 surveys were initiated; 13,787 individuals consented, and 9726 completed the survey (71% of consented). The numbers of unique visitors to the questionnaire site, view rate, and participation rate were not captured. Among respondents with complete demographic data, 83% were female and 93% were white. Diet designations were collapsed into the following groups: whole-food, plant-based (25%); vegan and raw vegan (19%); Paleo (14%); try to eat healthy (11%); vegetarian and pescatarian (9%); whole food (8%); Weston A Price (5%); and low-carbohydrate (low-carb) (4%). Forced-response, multiple-choice questions produced the highest response rates (0-2% selected "prefer not to answer"). The percentage who were willing to complete future online questionnaires was 86%, diet recall was 93%, and food diary was 75%; the percentages willing to provide a finger-stick blood sample, venipuncture blood sample, urine sample, and stool sample were 60%, 44%, 58%, and 42%, respectively. Conclusions: This survey suggests that recruiting followers of popular diets is feasible with the use of Web-based methods. The unbalanced sample with respect to sex and race/ethnicity could be corrected with specific recruitment strategies using targeted online marketing techniques.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 155(1): 107-117, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary modification has been recommended for treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not clear whether improving diet quality can prevent its development. We performed a prospective study to examine the association between diet quality change and change in liver fat. We also examined the association between genetic risk score and liver fat change in individuals with different levels of diet quality change. METHODS: Our study included 1521 participants who attended the seventh and eighth examinations (1998-2001 and 2005-2008) of the second-generation cohort or attended the first and second examinations (2002-2005 and 2008-2011) of the third-generation cohort in the Framingham Heart Study. The self-administered semiquantitative 126-item Harvard food frequency questionnaire was used to determine dietary intake in the year leading up to an examination. We assessed levels of liver fat using liver-phantom ratio (LPR) on computed tomography images from 2002 through 2005 and again from 2008 through 2011. LPR values are inversely related to liver fat: increased LPR indicates decreased liver fat. We examined associations of changes in 2 diet scores, the Mediterranean-style diet score (MDS) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), with changes in liver fat and new-onset fatty liver. We evaluated interactions between diet score change and a weighted genetic risk score for NAFLD, determined based on multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of NAFLD. The primary outcome was change in LPR between baseline and follow-up measurement. RESULTS: For each 1 standard deviation increase in MDS, the LPR increased (meaning liver fat decreased) by 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-0.86; P < .001) and the odds for incident fatty liver decreased by 26% (95% CI 10%-39%; P = .002). For each 1 standard deviation increase in AHEI, LPR increased by 0.56 (95% CI 0.29-0.84; P < .001) and the odds for incident fatty liver decreased by 21% (95% CI 5%-35%; P = .02). Increased diet scores were also associated with reduced odds of developing more-advanced fatty liver. Higher genetic risk scores were associated with increased liver fat accumulation in participants who had decreased MDS (P < .001) or AHEI scores (P = .001), but not in those with stable or improved diet scores (P for gene-diet interaction <.001). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of participants in the Framingham Heart Study, increasing diet quality, determined based on MDS and AHEI scores, is associated with less liver fat accumulation and reduced risk for new-onset fatty liver. An improved diet is particularly important for individuals with a high genetic risk for NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 11(6): 347-358, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674390

RESUMO

Background: Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars (fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers.Methods: The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26-84 years, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data were first collected between 1991 and 1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods, and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate, and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted.Results: No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption, and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk (HR: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04-2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity (HR: 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01-2.50; Ptrend = 0.057).Conclusions: In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity.Impact: These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy. Cancer Prev Res; 11(6); 347-58. ©2018 AACR.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186456, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts. RESULTS: Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (FreqA = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (~1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10-8). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10-7). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
19.
J Nutr ; 147(9): 1764-1775, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768835

RESUMO

Background: Inconsistent evidence describes the association between dietary intake of dairy and milk-based products and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.Objective: Our objective was to assess associations between consumption of milk-based products, incident prediabetes, and progression to T2D in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.Methods: Total dairy and milk-based product consumption was assessed by ≤4 food-frequency questionnaires across a mean of 12 y of follow-up in 2809 participants [mean ± SD age: 54.0 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 27.1 ± 4.7; 54% female]. Prediabetes was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 to <7.0 mmol/L (≥100 to <126 mg/dL), and T2D was defined as the first occurrence of fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (≥126 mg/dL) or diabetes treatment. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of incident outcomes relative to dairy product intake in subsets of the cohort who were at risk of developing the outcomes. Spline regressions were used to examine potential nonlinear relations.Results: Of 1867 participants free of prediabetes at baseline, 902 (48%) developed prediabetes. Total, low-fat, and high-fat dairy consumptions were associated with a 39%, 32%, and 25% lower risk of incident prediabetes, respectively, in the highest compared with the lowest intakes (≥14 compared with <4 servings/wk). Total, low-fat and skim milk, whole-milk, and yogurt intakes were associated nonlinearly with incident prediabetes; moderate intake was associated with the greatest relative risk reduction. Neither cheese nor cream and butter was associated with prediabetes. Of 925 participants with prediabetes at baseline, 196 (21%) developed T2D. Only high-fat dairy and cheese showed evidence of dose-response, inverse associations with incident T2D, with 70% and 63% lower risk, respectively, of incident T2D between the highest and lowest intake categories (≥14 compared with <1 serving/wk for high-fat dairy, ≥4 compared with <1 serving/wk for cheese).Conclusion: Associations of dairy with incident prediabetes or diabetes varied both by dairy product and type and by baseline glycemic status in this middle-aged US population. Baseline glycemic status may partially underlie prior equivocal evidence regarding the role of dairy intake in diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Laticínios , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Animais , Manteiga , Queijo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Valores de Referência , Estados Unidos , Iogurte
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA