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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597047

RESUMO

Background Obesity has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in asthma, but the underlying role of general and organ fat is unclear. We hypothesized that organ fat, rather than the total fat mass, increases the risk of asthma. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 5,421 children aged 10 years we measured general fat including body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and organ fat including subcutaneous fat index, visceral fat index, pericardial fat index and liver fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Current asthma was assessed by questionnaire. Results A higher BMI and fat mass index were associated with a higher FEV1 (Z-score difference (95% CI): 0.16 (0.14, 0.19) and 0.06 (0.03, 0.09) per standard deviation score increase, respectively), a higher FVC (0.19 (0.17, 0.22) and 0.07 (0.04, 0.10)), a lower FEV1/FVC ratio ((-0.07 (-0.10, -0.05) and -0.03 (-0.06, -0.00)), but not with FEF75 or asthma. A higher visceral fat index, independent of fat mass index, was associated with a higher FVC (0.07 (0.03, 0.10)), a lower FEV1/FVC (-0.05 (-0.09, -0.01)), and a higher risk of asthma (Odds Ratio (95%CI): 1.20 (1.01, 1.43) per standard deviation score increase). No other organ fat measures were independently associated with lung function or asthma. Conclusion The obesity-asthma link is mainly driven by visceral fat, independent of total fat mass. Hence, abdominal fat might contribute to asthma development.

3.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-9, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that low birth weight and fetal exposure to extreme maternal undernutrition is associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a clinical entity characterized by severe nausea and excess vomiting leading to a suboptimal maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several studies also showed that different measures related to hyperemesis gravidarum, such as maternal daily vomiting or severe weight loss, are associated with increased risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes. Not much is known about long-term offspring consequences of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum and related measures during pregnancy. We examined the associations of maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy, as a measure related to hyperemesis gravidarum, with childhood cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 4,769 mothers and their children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we measured childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, preperitoneal fat mass area, blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. We used multiple regression analyses to assess the associations of maternal vomiting during early pregnancy with childhood cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the children of mothers without daily vomiting during early pregnancy, the children of mothers with daily vomiting during early pregnancy had a higher childhood total body fat mass (difference 0.12 standard deviation score [SDS]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.20), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (difference 0.13 SDS; 95% CI 0.04-0.23), and preperitoneal fat mass area (difference 0.10 SDS; 95% CI 0-0.20). These associations were not explained by birth characteristics but partly explained by higher infant growth. Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy was not associated with childhood blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy is associated with higher childhood total body fat mass and abdominal fat mass levels, but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to explore the underlying mechanisms and to assess the long-term consequences.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

6.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common pediatric disease and frequent reason for antibiotic treatment. We aimed to identify environmental and host factors associated with AOM and assess which determinants were associated with AOM at specific ages. METHODS: This study among 7863 children was embedded in the Generation R Study: a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards. Data on outcome and possible determinants were collected using questionnaires until 6 years. We used generalized estimating equation models to examine associations with AOM with longitudinal odds at different ages, considering correlations between repeated measurements. RESULTS: Male gender increased odds of AOM in children at 2, 3, and 4 years but not at other ages. Postnatal household smoking, presence of siblings, and pet birds increased odds of AOM. Breastfeeding decreased AOM odds, most notably in the first 2 months of life. No association was found for season of birth, maternal age, ethnicity, aberrant birth weight for gestational age, prenatal smoking, furry pets, and daycare attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of childhood AOM varies with age. Significant association with AOM was found for gender and breastfeeding at specific ages and for household smoking, presence of siblings, and pet birds at all the studied ages.

7.
Diabetologia ; 62(10): 1880-1890, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392381

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The study aimed to assess the associations of maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels with fetal growth throughout pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 6116 pregnant women, maternal non-fasting glucose levels were measured in blood plasma at a median 13.2 weeks of gestation (95% range 9.6-17.6). We measured fetal growth by ultrasound in each pregnancy period. We obtained information about birth outcomes from medical records and maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors from questionnaires. RESULTS: Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were associated with altered fetal growth patterns, characterised by decreased fetal growth rates in mid-pregnancy and increased fetal growth rates from late pregnancy onwards, resulting in an increased length and weight at birth (p ≤0.05 for all). A weaker association of maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels with fetal head circumference growth rates was present. Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were also associated with an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant, but decreased risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.16, 1.41], OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.79, 0.98] per mmol/l increase in maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels, respectively). These associations were not explained by maternal sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors or BMI. Maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were not associated with preterm birth or delivery complications. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels are associated with decreased fetal growth rates in mid-pregnancy and increased fetal growth rates from late pregnancy onwards, and an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant. Future preventive strategies need to focus on screening for an impaired maternal glucose metabolism from preconception and early pregnancy onwards to improve birth outcomes.

8.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(2): 229-237.e4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The growth of the craniofacial complex is important for establishing a balanced relationship among the teeth, jaws, and other facial structures. However, there is still a lack of information about craniofacial parameters that are affected by the rate of dental development. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental development and craniofacial morphology in school-age children. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. In 3,896 children aged 8 to 11 years, dental development was assessed from panoramic radiographs and craniofacial morphology was assessed by combining cephalometric parameters into 9 uncorrelated principal components, each representing a distinct skeletal or dental craniofacial pattern. The statistical analysis was performed using linear and nonlinear regression model. RESULTS: Dental development was positively associated with the bimaxillary growth (ß = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.08). Children with above-average dental development had a tendency toward Class II jaw relationship (ß = -0.08; 95% CI -0.13 to -0.04). Regarding dental parameters, the proclination increased for incisors and lips with advanced dental development (ß = 0.15 [95% CI 0.10 to 0.19] and ß = 0.13 [95% CI 0.09 to 0.17], respectively), but the incisor proclination remained more pronounced in children that had above-average dental development. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this large population-based study show that dental development is associated with specific dental and skeletal cephalometric characteristics in school-age children. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm the observed effects over time.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Odontogênese , Cefalometria , Criança , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Faciais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Incisivo , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Má Oclusão , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Países Baixos , Radiografia Panorâmica
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(10): 1507-1517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414213

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic diseases in children is markedly increasing to epidemic proportions. The aim of this study is to describe the presence and examine associated parental and child characteristics of allergic sensitization and physician-diagnosed allergy in Dutch children at age 10 years. This study among 5471 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort from fetal life onwards. Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests. Physician-diagnosed allergy and parental and child characteristics were collected by questionnaires. In children aged 10 years, inhalant and food allergic sensitization was present in 32.2% and 7.1%, and physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy in 12.4% and 2.3%. Maternal and paternal history of allergy, eczema or asthma was associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (aOR (95% CI) 1.44 (1.23-1.70) and 1.59 (1.30-1.94), respectively), but not with food allergy. Asthma and eczema ever at age 10 years were associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (4.60 (3.55-5.96) and 2.42 (1.94-3.03), respectively). Eczema ever at age 10 years was associated with an increased risk of physician-diagnosed food allergy (5.78, 3.04-9.52), with the highest risk of cashew (7.36, 3.20-16.94) and peanut (5.58, 3.08-10.10) food allergy.Conclusions: We found strong effects of parental history of allergy, eczema or asthma on the presence of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy in children at age 10 years. Eczema ever at age 10 years was a strong risk factor for the development of physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy. What is Known: • The prevalence of allergic diseases in children has markedly increased. • Early-life influences are critically important in the development of allergic diseases. What is New: • Maternal and paternal history of allergy, eczema or asthma is associated with increased risks of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy but not with food allergy. • Eczema ever at age 10 years is associated with an increased risk of physician-diagnosed food allergy, with the highest risk for cashew and peanut food allergy.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87005, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perturbations in fetal growth may have adverse consequences for childhood and later life health. Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight at delivery but results are not consistent. We investigated this question by utilizing ultrasound measures of size in utero in combination with measures from delivery. METHODS: Within Generation R, a population-based prospective cohort conducted between 2002 and 2006 in Rotterdam, Netherlands, we measured dialkyl phosphates (DAPs), OP metabolites, in urine samples from early, middle, and late pregnancy and created a subject-specific average to estimate OP exposure ([Formula: see text]). Ultrasound measures of head circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight from middle and late pregnancy and delivery measures were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS). Associations with DAP average were examined in linear mixed effects models that included an interaction term between gestational age at measurement and DAP average to investigate whether the relationship differed over time. Windows of vulnerability to exposure were assessed by modeling urinary DAPs from each visit in relation to growth measurements. RESULTS: A 10-fold increase in average DAPs was associated with a [Formula: see text] SDS decrease in fetal length (95% [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and a [Formula: see text] SDS decrease in estimated fetal weight (95% [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) at 20 weeks of gestation. These differences corresponded to 5% and 6% decreases relative to the mean. Effect estimates were greatest in magnitude for DAP concentrations measured early in pregnancy. Associations between average DAPs and growth measures at delivery were positive but not significant for head circumference and length and were null for weight. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal urinary DAPs were associated with decreased fetal weight and length measured during mid-pregnancy, but not at delivery. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4858.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e012821, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405324

RESUMO

Background An adverse fetal environment leads to fetal hemodynamic adaptations with cardiac flow alterations that may subsequently affect cardiac development. We examined the associations of third trimester placental and fetal cardiac hemodynamics with cardiac outcomes in school-age children. Methods and Results We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 547 mothers and their children. At a gestational age of 30.4 (95% range 28.4-32.7) weeks, we measured umbilical and cerebral artery resistance, cardiac output, and tricuspid and mitral E/A waves with Doppler. At the median age of 10.0 years (95% range 9.4-11.7) we measured cardiac outcomes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiac outcomes included right ventricular end-diastolic volume) and right ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass, and left ventricular mass-to-volume ratio as left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume. Higher third-trimester umbilical artery resistance was associated with higher childhood right ventricular ejection fraction (P value <0.05), but not with other cardiac outcomes. The third-trimester umbilical artery-cerebral artery pulsatility index ratio was not associated with childhood cardiac outcomes. Higher third-trimester fetal left cardiac output was associated with lower childhood left ventricular ejection fraction and higher left ventricular mass-to-volume ratio (P value <0.05). Third-trimester fetal right cardiac output was not associated with childhood cardiac outcomes. A higher third-trimester fetal tricuspid valve E/A ratio was associated with higher childhood right ventricular ejection fraction (P value <0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal cardiac fetal blood flow redistribution may have long-term effects on cardiac structure and function. These results should be considered as hypothesis generating and need further replication.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

13.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 39(4): 245-252, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ocular biometry varies within groups of emmetropic, hyperopic or myopic children. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of foetal and infant growth on ocular biometry in early childhood, to determine the most important period for this association, and to examine genetic overlap with height and birth weight. METHODS: 5931 children (50.1% girls) from a population-based prospective birth cohort study underwent intra-uterine and infant growth measurements at second and third trimester, and from birth to 72 months. An ophthalmic examination including axial length (mm) and corneal radius of curvature (mm) was performed at 6 years of age. The associations between prenatal and postnatal growth variables and axial length and corneal radius of curvature were assessed with conditional linear regression analyses. Weighted genetic risk scores for birth weight and height were calculated and causality was tested with Mendelian randomisation. RESULTS: Weight and length from mid-pregnancy to 2 years of age were most important prognostic factors for axial length and corneal radius of curvature at age 4.9-9 years (mean 6.2 years S.D. 0.5). For height (Standard deviation score), the association with axial length and corneal radius of curvature was highest for the measurement at 12 months (ß 0.171 p < 0.001 and 0.070 p < 0.001). The genetic height and birth weight risk scores were both significantly associated with ocular biometry. CONCLUSIONS: Larger neonates had longer axial length and greater corneal radius of curvature. Growth during pregnancy and 2 years postnatally is the most important period underlying this association and may be partly genetically determined by genes associated with height.

14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used to define fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, FGR describes a slowdown in fetal growth and is not synonymous with SGA, which may introduce misclassification. We investigated the effect of both on delivery and childhood outcomes. METHODS: From a prospective population-based cohort study we included 7959 live singleton births with data available on second trimester estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birth weight. We used a decrease in growth of > 40 percentiles between second trimester EFW and birthweight to define a deceleration in growth. SGA was defined as birthweight

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

18.
Child Obes ; 15(5): 313-322, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058541

RESUMO

Background: Psychological distress during pregnancy may influence offspring adiposity. No studies assessed the associations with organ fat measures. We examined the associations of maternal psychological distress, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy with child general and organ fat measures. Methods: In 4161 mother-offspring pairs, psychological distress was self-reported in pregnancy. We obtained general fat measures, including BMI and fat mass index by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and organ fat measures (in a subsample of 2447 children), including subcutaneous, visceral, and pericardial fat indices and liver fat fraction by magnetic resonance imaging at 10 years. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Results: Children of mothers with psychological distress had higher fat mass index [difference 0.14 (95% confidence interval {CI} 0.04-0.24) standard deviation scores (SDS)] and higher risk of obesity [odds ratio (OR) 1.73 (95% CI 1.09-2.74)]. Maternal anxiety was associated with higher BMI [difference 0.16 (95% CI 0.05-0.26) SDS], fat mass index [difference 0.19 (95% CI 0.10-0.28) SDS], and higher risks of overweight and obesity [OR 1.36 (95% CI 1.03-1.81), 1.78 (95% CI 1.13-2.81)]. Maternal anxiety was associated with higher subcutaneous and visceral fat indices and liver fat fraction [differences 0.16 (95% CI 0.03-0.29), 0.15 (95% CI 0.01-0.29), and 0.16 (95% CI 0.02-0.29) SDS]. No associations were observed for maternal depression. Conclusions: Psychological distress and anxiety, but not depression, during pregnancy were associated with higher child general and organ fat measures. A healthy mental state during pregnancy may be important for preventing child adiposity.

19.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 788-794, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feeding practices have been implicated in childhood overweight, but the long-term effects of using food to comfort a distressed child remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether the use of food to soothe in infancy was associated with later body composition, and whether children's eating behaviors mediate this relation. METHODS: Participants were 3960 children of Generation R, a population-based birth cohort in the Netherlands. Parents reported on the use of food to soothe when infants were 6 mo old and on child eating behavior (food responsiveness, emotional eating) at ages 4 and 10 y. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and fat-free mass were measured at ages 6 and 10 y. Linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted, accounting for various potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The use of food to soothe when infants were 6 mo old predicted a higher BMI from age 6 y onwards, independently of infant weight, maternal BMI, and other confounders. Specifically, frequent use was associated with a BMI z score 0.13 higher at age 10 y (95% CI: 0.03, 0.22) as compared with never use. Children's emotional eating mediated this association (indirect effect B = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.06). The feeding-body composition association was most evident for fat mass (P for trend = 0.014) and somewhat less for fat-free mass (P for trend = 0.079). CONCLUSIONS: The use of food to comfort a distressed infant was consistently associated with obesogenic eating behaviors and an unhealthy body composition throughout middle and late childhood. As our design precludes conclusions on causal associations, we recommend further studies with precise, repeated assessments of infant feeding practices. Such research can help ascertain the direction of effect, which is needed for establishing evidence-based guidelines for parents regarding the use of food to soothe early in life.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A balanced diet in childhood is important for growth and development. We aimed to examine associations of overall diet quality in both early and mid-childhood with trajectories of growth and body composition until age 10 years. METHODS: We included 3991 children from the Generation R Study, a population-based, prospective cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child's ages of 1 and 8 years, dietary intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires to calculate diet quality scores (0-10), which measure adherence to age-specific dietary guidelines. Height and weight were measured repeatedly between ages 1 and 10 years. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ages 6 and 10 years. We calculated sex- and age-specific SD-scores for body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and body fat percentage (BF%). RESULTS: After adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, results from linear mixed models showed that higher diet quality at 1 year was associated with higher height, weight, and BMI up to age 10 years. Using linear regression analyses, similar associations were observed for diet quality at 8 years. For diet quality at both time points, positive associations with BMI were fully driven by a higher FFMI (ß = 0.07 SDS, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.10 for diet quality at 8 years), and not FMI or BF%. Most of the observed associations were independent of diet quality at the other time point. CONCLUSION: We observed that better diet quality in both early and mid-childhood was associated with higher height, weight, and FFMI, but not with body fatness up to age 10 years. This was independent of diet quality at an earlier or later time point. Our findings suggest that dietary intake according to dietary guidelines may have a beneficial impact on growth and body composition throughout childhood.

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