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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish feasibility and reproducibility of fetal proportion volumetric measurements, using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and a Virtual Reality (VR) system. METHODS: Within a population-based prospective birth cohort, 3D ultrasound datasets of 50 fetuses in the late first trimester were collected by three sonographers in a single research center. V-scope software was used for volumetric measurements of total fetus, extremities, head-trunk, head, trunk, thorax, and abdomen. All measurements were performed independently by two researchers. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were analyzed using Bland and Altman methods. RESULTS: Intraobserver and interobserver analyses of volumetric measurements of total fetus, head-trunk, head, trunk, thorax and abdomen showed ICCs above 0.979, CV below 7.51% and mean difference below 3.44%. The interobserver limits of agreement were within the ±10% range for volumetric measurements of total fetus, head-trunk, head and trunk. The interobserver limits of agreement for extremities, thorax and abdomen were -26.09 to 4.77%, -14.14% to 10.00% and -14.47% to 8.83%, respectively. CONCLUSION: First trimester fetal proportion volumetric measurements using 3D ultrasound and VR are feasible and reproducible, except volumetric measurements of the fetal extremities. These novel volumetric measurements may be used in future research to enable detailed studies on first trimester fetal development and growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Psychosom Med ; 83(3): 256-264, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poor mental health in childhood is associated with a greater risk of cardiometabolic disease in adulthood, but less is known about when these associations begin to emerge. This study tests whether poor mental health (indexed by emotional and behavioral problems) in early childhood predicts increases in cardiometabolic dysregulation over 4 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data are from 4327 participants in the Generation R Study. Problem behaviors were reported by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist at age 6 years. Repeated measurements of six cardiometabolic parameters were collected at ages 6 and 10 years: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, C-reactive protein, and body mass index. Standardized measures were used to create continuous cardiometabolic dysregulation scores at ages 6 and 10 years. Change in dysregulation was defined as the difference in dysregulation scores over time. Cross-sectional and prospective associations were tested using linear regression, sequentially adjusting for relevant confounders. Additional analyses examined whether prospective relationships were robust to adjustment for baseline levels of dysregulation. RESULTS: There was no association between child problem behaviors and cardiometabolic dysregulation at age 6 years. However, higher levels of problem behaviors predicted increases in cardiometabolic dysregulation (ß = 0.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.00-0.23) from ages 6 to 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Worse child mental health may be associated with increases in cardiometabolic dysregulation by preadolescence. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that adverse physiologic effects of psychological distress identified in adult populations may be observed as early as childhood.

3.
Pediatrics ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to assess the associations over time between poverty and child weight status, asthma, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). METHODS: We analyzed data for 3968 children from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Net household income and the number of adults and children living from this income were measured at 4 time-points (during pregnancy and at ages 2, 3, and 6). Poverty was defined on the basis of the equivalized household income being <60% of the median national income. Child health outcomes were measured at age 6 years. The association was explored by using logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS: In this cohort, 9.8% of children were born into poverty and 6.0% had experienced 3 to 4 episodes of poverty. Independent of current poverty status, children born into poverty had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.68 for having overweight/obesity and a lower physical HRQoL (OR = -1.32) than those not born into poverty. Children having experienced 3 to 4 episodes of poverty had an OR of 1.94 for having asthma and a lower physical HRQoL (OR = -3.32) compared with children from never-poor families. Transition out of poverty before age 2 was associated with lower risk of asthma and a higher physical HRQoL compared with children who remained in poverty. CONCLUSIONS: Being born into poverty or experiencing multiple episodes of poverty is associated with negative child health outcomes, such as having overweight, asthma, or a lower HRQoL. Support for children and families with a low household income is warranted.

4.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and lower circulating homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy seem to be associated with fetal development. These micronutrients may also be associated with cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVE: We examined the associations of circulating folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy and in neonates with childhood cardiometabolic outcomes. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onward. We sampled blood in early pregnancy and cord blood. We measured cardiometabolic outcomes in the children at school age. Among 4449 children aged 10 y (median: 9.7; 95% range: 9.3, 10.7), we examined associations of plasma folate, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in early pregnancy and at birth with BMI, body fat distribution, heart rate, blood pressure, and insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations, using linear regression models. Using logistic models, we examined the associations of these micronutrients with risks of overweight/obesity and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: One standard deviation score (SDS) higher maternal plasma folate concentration was associated with lower BMI (-0.04 SDS; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (-0.04 SDS; 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01), systolic blood pressure (-0.06 SDS; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.03), risk of overweight (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (OR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.91). One SDS higher maternal serum total B-12 concentration was associated with lower glucose (-0.06 SDS; 95% CI: -0.10, -0.02) and higher HDL cholesterol concentrations (0.04 SDS; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.08). Cord blood folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were not consistently associated with cardiometabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Subtle differences in circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in early pregnancy may be associated with child cardiometabolic health at age 10 y. The causality and mechanisms underlying these associations need further study.

5.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher maternal cow-milk intake during pregnancy is associated with higher fetal growth measures and higher birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the associations of maternal milk intake during pregnancy with body fat measures and cardiometabolic risk factors at the age of 10 y. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of Dutch mothers and their children (n = 2466) followed from early pregnancy onwards, we assessed maternal first-trimester milk intake (milk and milk drinks) by food-frequency questionnaire. Maternal milk intake was categorized into 0-0.9, 1-1.9, 2-2.9, 3-3.9, 4-4.9, and ≥5 glasses/d, with 1 glass equivalent to 150 mL milk. For children at the age of 10 y, we calculated BMI and obtained detailed measures of body and organ fat by DXA and MRI. We also measured blood pressure and lipid, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Compared with children whose mothers consumed 0-0.9 glass of milk/d during their pregnancy, those whose mothers consumed ≥5 glasses of milk/d had a 0.29 SD (95% CI: 0.10, 0.48) higher BMI, 0.27 SD (95% CI: 0.08, 0.47) higher fat mass, 0.26 SD (95% CI: 0.07, 0.46) higher lean mass, 0.30 SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.50) higher android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio and 0.38 SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.67) higher abdominal visceral fat mass. After correction for multiple comparisons, groups of maternal milk intake were not associated with pericardial fat mass index, liver fat fraction, blood pressure, or lipid, insulin, or glucose concentrations (P values >0.0125). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that maternal first-trimester milk intake is positively associated with childhood general and abdominal visceral fat mass and lean mass, but not with other cardiometabolic risk factors.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardio-metabolic risk factors might have an adverse effect on respiratory outcomes, but associations in children are unknown. We aimed to study the longitudinal associations of cardio-metabolic risk factors with lung function and asthma at school-age. We also examined whether any association was explained by child's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: In a population-based cohort study among 4,988 children cardio-metabolic risk factors were measured at 6 and 10 years and included blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. At age 10 years, lung function was measured by spirometry and current physician diagnosed asthma was assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, child's BMI and multiple testing, we observed that a higher diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6 years was associated with a higher forced vital capacity (FVC) at the age of 10 years (Z-score difference (95% CI): 0.05 (0.01, 0.08), per SDS increase in diastolic blood pressure). Also, child's CRP concentrations above the 75th percentile at both age 6 and 10 years were related to a lower FVC as compared to CRP concentrations below the 75th percentile at both ages (Z-score difference (95% CI) -0.21 (-0.36, -0.06)). No consistent associations of other cardio-metabolic risk factors with respiratory outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION: Blood pressure and CRP, but not lipids and insulin, were associated with lung function but not with asthma. The underlying mechanisms and long-term effects of these associations require further investigation.

7.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency during early life could affect the developing lung and immune system, and influence child's respiratory or allergy outcomes in later life. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of maternal iron status during early pregnancy with child's lung function, asthma, inhalant allergic sensitization, and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy at school-age. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, among 3825 mother-child pairs, ferritin, transferrin concentrations, and transferrin saturation were measured from maternal venous blood samples during early pregnancy. In children at the age of 10 years, spirometry was used to determine child's lung function, current asthma and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy were assessed by questionnaires, and inhalant allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests. We used multivariable regression models to examine the associations. RESULTS: After adjustment for gestational age at maternal iron status measurement and sociodemographic or lifestyle-related confounders, a higher maternal transferrin concentration was associated with a higher risk of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.13 [1.01 to1.26]), but not with lung function, asthma, or inhalant allergic sensitization. This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for maternal hemoglobin levels or early growth factors. We observed no consistent association of maternal ferritin concentrations or transferrin saturation with child's respiratory or allergy outcomes. CONCLUSION: Higher maternal transferrin concentrations during pregnancy, reflecting lower serum iron levels, were associated with an increased risk of child's physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy but not lung outcomes. Underlying mechanisms and clinical implications need to be explored.

8.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1628-1636, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy is an important risk factor for childhood adiposity. Maternal dietary glycemic index during pregnancy directly influences maternal and fetal glucose concentrations. We examined the associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with offspring general, abdominal and ectopic fat accumulation among normal weight and overweight or obese pregnant women and their offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study among 2488 Dutch pregnant women and their children, we assessed maternal dietary glycemic index by food frequency questionnaire at median 13.4 (95% range 10.7; 21.1) weeks gestation. Dietary glycemic index was used continuously and categorized into low (≤55), normal (56-69) and high (≥70) glycemic index diet. We measured offspring BMI, total fat mass and android/gynoid fat mass ratio by DXA, and visceral fat mass and liver fat fraction by MRI at 10 years. RESULTS: No associations of maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index with offspring adiposity were present among normal weight women and their children. Among overweight and obese women and their children, 1-Standard Deviation Score (SDS) increase in maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index was associated with higher childhood BMI (0.10 SDS, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.01; 0.19), total fat mass index (0.13 SDS, 95% CI 0.05; 0.22), visceral fat mass index (0.19 SDS, 95% CI 0.07; 0.32) and tended to be associated with a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio (0.09 SDS, 95% CI -0.01; 0.19) and higher risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% CI 0.97; 1.48). Overweight and obese women consuming an early-pregnancy low-glycemic index diet, as compared to an early-pregnancy normal-glycemic index diet, had children with lower BMI, total fat mass index, visceral fat mass index and android/gynoid fat mass ratio at 10 years (p-values<0.05). No women consumed a high-glycemic index diet. No associations were explained by maternal socio-economic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics, birth or childhood characteristics. No associations with liver fat fraction were present. CONCLUSIONS: In overweight or obese women and their children, a higher maternal early-pregnancy dietary glycemic index is associated with childhood general, abdominal and visceral fat accumulation, but not with liver fat. Intervention studies among overweight and obese pregnant women may need to target the dietary glycemic index to prevent childhood adiposity.

9.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify possibly distinct acute otitis media (AOM) trajectories in childhood and identify determinants associated with specific AOM trajectories. To explore which child will become prone to recurrent AOM episodes and which will not. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study among 7863 children from birth until 10 years and their mothers. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study: a population-based prospective cohort study. Data on AOM and determinants were collected by repeated parental questionnaires. Distinct AOM trajectories within the population were identified with latent-class analyses. Next, using multivariate analysis we checked whether specific determinants were associated with specific trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinct trajectories were identified; that is, non-otitis prone, early AOM-that is children who suffered AOM episodes until 3 years of age but not beyond, and persistent AOM-that is children who remained otitis-prone. Male gender (OR: 1.26, CI: 1.11-1.43) and day-care attendance (OR: 1.31, CI: 1.06-1.60) were associated with increased odds of early AOM. Breastfeeding was beneficial for children in both the early-AOM and persistent-AOM trajectories (OR: 0.78 and 0.77, respectively). Birth in the summer or autumn as compared with birth in the spring decreased odds of AOM only in the persistent-AOM trajectory. Half of all AOM-prone children recovered after the age of 3 years. CONCLUSION: Specific determinants are associated with different AOM trajectories. Future research is needed to better predict which child will remain otitis-prone and which recovers after the age of 3 years to better tailor treatment towards the needs of the individual child.

10.
Environ Int ; 151: 106443, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610054

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Exposure to phthalates may affect fetal growth, but previous studies are inconsistent and have not explored the trimester-specific effects of phthalates on repeated measures of fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations with fetal growth measures and birth outcomes and identify potential windows of vulnerability to exposure. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study, the Generation R Study (2002-2006). Data analysis was performed from November 2019 to June 2020. SETTING: Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 1379 pregnant women. EXPOSURES: Maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations in first, second and third trimester. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Fetal head circumference, length and weight measured in the second and third trimester by ultrasound and at birth and preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. RESULTS: Higher pregnancy-averaged phthalic acid, low molecular weight phthalate (LMWP), high molecular weight phthalate (HMWP) and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) concentrations tended to be associated with lower fetal weight SDS across gestation. The associations of phthalic acid and LMWP with fetal weight became stronger as pregnancy progressed (differences -0.08 (95% CI -0.14 to -0.02) SDS and -0.09 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.02) SDS at 40 weeks per interquartile range increase in phthalic acid and LMWP, respectively). Higher concentrations of specific LMWP, HMWP and DEHP metabolites were also associated with smaller head circumference and lower length SDS at birth and an increased risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth (p-values < 0.05). We observed differences by timing of exposure in these associations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Higher maternal phthalate metabolites urine concentrations seem to be related with fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Phthalates may have trimester specific effects on fetal growth and birth outcomes. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and long-term consequences.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(1): 119-134, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450751

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is known to play a pivotal role in childhood health and development, but a comprehensive characterization of genome-wide DNAm trajectories across this age period is currently lacking. We have therefore performed a series of epigenome-wide association studies in 5019 blood samples collected at multiple time-points from birth to late adolescence from 2348 participants of two large independent cohorts. DNAm profiles of autosomal CpG sites (CpGs) were generated using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Change over time was widespread, observed at over one-half (53%) of CpGs. In most cases, DNAm was decreasing (36% of CpGs). Inter-individual variation in linear trajectories was similarly widespread (27% of CpGs). Evidence for non-linear change and inter-individual variation in non-linear trajectories was somewhat less common (11 and 8% of CpGs, respectively). Very little inter-individual variation in change was explained by sex differences (0.4% of CpGs) even though sex-specific DNAm was observed at 5% of CpGs. DNAm trajectories were distributed non-randomly across the genome. For example, CpGs with decreasing DNAm were enriched in gene bodies and enhancers and were annotated to genes enriched in immune-developmental functions. In contrast, CpGs with increasing DNAm were enriched in promoter regions and annotated to genes enriched in neurodevelopmental functions. These findings depict a methylome undergoing widespread and often non-linear change throughout childhood. They support a developmental role for DNA methylation that extends beyond birth into late adolescence and has implications for understanding life-long health and disease. DNAm trajectories can be visualized at http://epidelta.mrcieu.ac.uk.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(2): 409-417, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of urinary phthalates and bisphenols at age 6 years old with body fat and cardiovascular risk factors at 6 and 10 years and with the change from 6 to 10 years. METHODS: Among 471 Dutch children, the phthalates and bisphenols urinary concentrations at 6 years and BMI, fat mass index, android fat mass, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, and lipids blood concentrations at 6 and 10 years were measured. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) metabolites concentrations at 6 years was associated with an increased risk of overweight at 6 and 10 years (odds ratio: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.11-1.87, and 1.43; 95% CI: 1.09-1.86, respectively). Also, higher DNOP metabolites concentrations were associated with higher fat mass index at 6 years, higher systolic blood pressure at 10 years, a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an increase in triglycerides concentrations from 6 to 10 years (P < 0.05). Higher total bisphenols and bisphenol A concentrations were associated with a decrease in BMI from 6 to 10 years (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: DNOP metabolites are associated with overweight and an adverse cardiovascular profile in childhood. Total bisphenols and bisphenol A are associated with a decrease in BMI from 6 to 10 years.

13.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolismo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low folic acid, folate and vitamin B12 might affect tooth formation and mineralization. The conversion of folic acid into folate is catalysed by the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) enzyme which is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Among 3728 mothers and their 10-year-old children from the Generation R Study, we investigated associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and prenatal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations with child dental development. Secondly, we checked the modifying effect of MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. METHODS: Information on folic acid supplementation was obtained by questionnaires. Concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were measured from venous samples taken in early pregnancy. Developmental stages of teeth were defined by the Demirjian method at the age-10 assessment. In addition, dental age of the children was calculated using the Dutch standard. GLM and multivariate linear regression models were built to study the associations. RESULTS: Folic acid supplementation started when pregnancy was known (ß = -0.09; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.01) and folic acid supplementation started prior to known pregnancy (ß = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04) were both associated with decelerated dental development by 1-2 months lower dental age of 10-year-old children. Folate (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.02) and vitamin B12 (ß = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.00, 0.06) were not associated with dental age. MTHFR-C677T did not modify the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folic acid supplementation delays dental development of children by 1-2 months dental age, whereas maternal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in early pregnancy do not affect the timing of child dental development.

15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 257: 51-58, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and metabolic health affect pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether maternal metabolic profiles are associated with placental and fetal hemodynamics. STUDY DESIGN: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1175 women we examined the associations of an adverse maternal metabolic profile in early pregnancy with placental, fetal cerebral and cardiac hemodynamic development. We obtained maternal pre-pregnancy BMI by questionnaire and measured blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose concentrations at a median gestational age of 12.6 (95 % range 9.6-17.1) weeks. An adverse maternal metabolic profile was defined as ≥4 risk factors. Placental and fetal hemodynamics were measured by pulsed-wave-Doppler at a median gestational age of 30.3 (95 % range 28.8-32.3) weeks. RESULTS: An adverse maternal metabolic profile was associated with a 0.29 Z-score higher (95 %CI 0.08-0.50) fetal cerebral middle artery pulsatility index (PI), but not with placental or fetal cardiac hemodynamic patterns. When the individual components of an adverse maternal metabolic profile were assessed, we observed that higher maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were associated with a higher cerebral middle artery PI (Z-score, 0.09 (95 %CI 0.02-0.15), 0.09 (95 %CI 0.03-0.15) per Z-score increase). Higher total and HDL maternal cholesterol concentrations were also associated with a higher aorta ascendens peak systolic velocity (PSV) Z-score, 0.08 (95 %CI 0.01-0.14)), and a larger left cardiac output (Z-score, 0.08 (95 %CI 0.00-0.15), respectively). CONCLUSION: An adverse maternal metabolic profile, especially higher cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, are associated with increased fetal cerebral vascular resistance and larger fetal aorta ascendens diameter, PSV and left cardiac output, but not with placental vascular resistance indices. Further studies are needed to identify long-term consequences of the observed associations.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e017503, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356384

RESUMO

Background The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet improves blood pressure in nonpregnant populations. We hypothesized that adherence to the DASH diet during pregnancy improves hemodynamic adaptations, leading to a lower risk of gestational hypertensive disorders. Methods and Results We examined whether the DASH diet score was associated with blood pressure, placental hemodynamics, and gestational hypertensive disorders in a population-based cohort study among 3414 Dutch women. We assessed DASH score using food-frequency questionnaires. We measured blood pressure in early-, mid-, and late pregnancy (medians, 95% range: 12.9 [9.8-17.9], 20.4 [16.6-23.2], 30.2 [28.6-32.6] weeks gestation, respectively), and placental hemodynamics in mid- and late pregnancy (medians, 95% range: 20.5 [18.7-23.1], 30.4 [28.5-32.8] weeks gestation, respectively). Information on gestational hypertensive disorders was obtained from medical records. Lower DASH score quartiles were associated with a higher mid pregnancy diastolic blood pressure, compared with the highest quartile (P<0.05). No associations were present for early- and late pregnancy diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure throughout pregnancy. Compared with the highest DASH score quartile, the lower DASH score quartiles were associated with a higher mid- and late pregnancy umbilical artery pulsatility index (P≤0.05) but not with uterine artery resistance index. No associations with gestational hypertensive disorders were present. Conclusions A higher DASH diet score is associated with lower mid pregnancy diastolic blood pressure and mid- and late pregnancy fetoplacental vascular function but not with uteroplacental vascular function or gestational hypertensive disorders within a low-risk population. Further studies need to assess whether the effects of the DASH diet on gestational hemodynamic adaptations are more pronounced among higher-risk populations.

17.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cumulative evidence shows that low maternal folate levels during pregnancy are associated with offspring neuropsychiatric disorders even in the absence of neural tube defects. However, the relationship between prenatal exposure to folate and brain development in late childhood has been rarely investigated. METHODS: In 2095 children from a prospective population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we examined the association of maternal folate levels during pregnancy with downstream brain development in offspring. Maternal folate concentrations were measured from venous blood in early gestation. Child structural neuroimaging data were measured at age 9-11 years. In addition, measures of child head circumference using fetal ultrasound in the third trimester and total brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging at age 6-8 years were used for analyses with repeated assessments of brain development. RESULTS: Maternal folate deficiency (i.e., <7 nmol/L) during pregnancy was associated with smaller total brain volume (B = -18.7 cm3, 95% CI -37.2 to -0.2) and smaller cerebral white matter (B = -7.2 cm3, 95% CI -11.8 to -2.6) in children aged 9-11 years. No differences in cortical thickness or surface area were observed. Analysis of the repeated brain assessments showed that children exposed to deficient folate concentrations in utero had persistently smaller brains compared to controls from the third trimester to childhood (ß = -0.4, 95% CI -0.6 to -0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal folate levels during pregnancy are associated with altered offspring brain development in childhood, suggesting the importance of essential folate concentrations in early pregnancy.

18.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170364

RESUMO

Ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease are well-known and may originate in early-life. We examined the ethnic differences in cardiac structure and function in children using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a European migrant population, and whether any difference was explained by early life factors. We used a prospective population-based cohort study among 2317 children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. We compared children from Dutch (73%), Cape Verdean (3.5%), Dutch Antillean (3.3%), Moroccan (6.1%), Surinamese-Creoles (3.9%), Surinamese-Hindustani (3.4%), and Turkish (6.4%) background. Main outcomes were cMRI-measured cardiac structures and function. Cardiac outcomes were standardized on body surface area. Cape Verdean, Surinamese-Hindustani, and Turkish children had smaller right ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular end-diastolic volume relative to their body size than Dutch children (p < 0.05). These results were not fully explained by fetal and childhood factors. Right ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between ethnicities after adjustment for fetal and childhood factors.Conclusion: Right ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular end-diastolic volume differ between ethnic subgroups in childhood, without affecting ejection fraction. Follow-up studies are needed to investigate whether these differences lead to ethnic differences in cardiac disease in adulthood. What is Known: • Ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease are well-known and may originate in early-life. • The prevalence of cardiovascular disease differs between ethnic groups. What is New: • We examined ethnic differences in left and right cardiac structure and function in children using cMRI. • Right and left cardiac dimensions differ between ethnic groups in childhood and are only partly explained by fetal and childhood factors.

19.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140427

RESUMO

Sugar-containing beverage intake is a major risk factor for obesity in both children and adults and appears to be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sugar-containing beverage intake in infancy and liver fat accumulation and NAFLD among school-aged children. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 1,940 infants, we assessed sugar-containing beverage intake at 1 year with a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Liver fat fraction and NAFLD (liver fat fraction ≥5.0%) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Higher sugar-containing beverage intake in infancy was not associated with higher liver fat accumulation at 10 years of age when assessed continuously (0.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02, 0.07, per 1 serving/day increase of sugar-containing beverage intake) or categorically (P value for trend 0.38). However, compared to infants with <1.0 serving/day, those with >2.0 servings/day had the highest odds of NAFLD at 10 years of age (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% CI, 1.34, 6.83). These associations remained borderline significant after additional adjustment for sugar-containing beverage intake and body mass index (BMI) at school age (P value 0.13). Stratified analyses showed stronger associations between sugar-containing beverage intake in infancy and NAFLD at 10 years of age among children of mothers with lower educational attainment (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12, 1.97) and among children with overweight or obesity (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05, 2.07). Conclusion: Higher sugar-containing beverage intake in infancy was associated with NAFLD in school-aged children, independent of sugar-containing beverage intake and BMI at school age. Limiting the intake of sugar-containing beverages in infancy may help prevent liver steatosis at school age.

20.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12752, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concerns are raised about the influence of rapid growth on excessive fat mass (FM) gain in early life and later cardiometabolic health of infants born preterm. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between postnatal weight gain trajectories and body composition in infancy in infants born very preterm. METHODS: In infants born <30 weeks gestation, we evaluated associations between weight Z-score trajectories for three consecutive timeframes (NICU stay, level-II hospital stay and at home) and body composition, measured at 2 and 6 months corrected age by air-displacement plethysmography. RESULTS: Of 120 infants included, median gestational age at birth was 27+5 (interquartile range 26+1 ;28+5 ) and birth weight 1015 g (801;1250). The majority of infants did not make up for their initial loss of weight Z-score, but growth and later body composition were within term reference values. Weight gain during NICU stay was not associated with fat mass (absolute, %FM or FM index) in infancy. Weight gain during NICU and level II hospital stay was weakly associated with higher absolute lean mass (LM), but not after adjustment for length (LM index). Weight gain in the level-II hospital was positively associated with fat mass parameters at 2 months but not at 6 months. Strongest associations were found between weight gain at home and body composition (at both time points), especially fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain in different timeframes after preterm birth is associated with distinct parameters of body composition in infancy, with weight gain at home being most strongly related to fat mass.

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