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1.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439678

RESUMO

Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that may occur de novo or in the context of a previous hematologic malignancy or mediastinal germ cell tumor. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing and RNA-Seq on twenty-one archival cases of primary histiocytic sarcoma. We identified a high number of genetic alterations within the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in 21/21 cases, with alterations in NF1 (6/21), MAP2K1 (5/21), PTPN11 (4/21), BRAF (4/21), KRAS (4/21), NRAS (1/21) and LZTR1 (1/21), including single cases with homozygous deletion of NF1, high-level amplification of PTPN11 and a novel TTYH3-BRAF fusion. Concurrent NF1 and PTPN11 mutations were present in 3/21 cases, and 5/7 cases with alterations in NF1 and/or PTPN11 had disease involving the gastrointestinal tract. Following unsupervised clustering of gene expression data, cases with NF1 and/or PTPN11 abnormalities formed a distinct tumor subgroup. A subset of NF1/PTPN11 wild-type cases had frequent mutations in B-cell lymphoma associated genes and/or clonal IG gene rearrangements. Our findings expand the current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this rare tumor and suggest the existence of a distinct subtype of primary histiocytic sarcoma characterized by NF1/PTPN11 alterations with predilection for the gastrointestinal tract.

5.
Blood ; 133(26): 2753-2764, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064750

RESUMO

Patients with classic hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) typically have high levels of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in T cells and/or natural killer (NK) cells in blood and skin lesions induced by sun exposure that are infiltrated with EBV-infected lymphocytes. HVLPD is very rare in the United States and Europe but more common in Asia and South America. The disease can progress to a systemic form that may result in fatal lymphoma. We report our 11-year experience with 16 HVLPD patients from the United States and England and found that whites were less likely to develop systemic EBV disease (1/10) than nonwhites (5/6). All (10/10) of the white patients were generally in good health at last follow-up, while two-thirds (4/6) of the nonwhite patients required hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonwhite patients had later age of onset of HVLPD than white patients (median age, 8 vs 5 years) and higher levels of EBV DNA (median, 1 515 000 vs 250 000 copies/ml) and more often had low numbers of NK cells (83% vs 50% of patients) and T-cell clones in the blood (83% vs 30% of patients). RNA-sequencing analysis of an HVLPD skin lesion in a white patient compared with his normal skin showed increased expression of interferon-γ and chemokines that attract T cells and NK cells. Thus, white patients with HVLPD were less likely to have systemic disease with EBV and had a much better prognosis than nonwhite patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00369421 and #NCT00032513.

6.
Histopathology ; 75(2): 282-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938862

RESUMO

Intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare, aggressive, extranodal large B cell lymphoma characterised by growth of tumour cells within the lumen of vessels, particularly capillaries. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that interacts with programmed death 1 (PD-1) on the T cell surface, leading to modulation of the immune response. PD-L1 is a targetable immune check-point molecule that is expressed on neoplastic cells in various cancers, including a subset of lymphomas. We correlated the expression of PD-L1 with clinical and pathological findings in this rare disease. Eleven cases of IVLBCL were identified in the archives of Laboratory of Pathology at the National Cancer Institute, NIH. A panel of immunostains (CD20, CD3, CD5, PD-L1) was performed. The cases were classified as the classic form or the variant associated with haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) based on published 2017 WHO criteria. Three cases (27.3%) were HPS variant and eight cases (72.7%) were the classic form. Five (45.5%) of 11 cases were CD5-positive; two of three (66%) were HPS variants and three of eight (37.5%) were classic form. Overall, four of nine evaluable cases (44.4%) were positive for PD-L1, three of which were classic. Only one CD5-positive case was PD-L1-positive, a classic variant. In summary, a subset of IVLBCL express PD-L1. Although limited, these data suggest that PD-L1 is expressed in both the so-called classic form as well as the HPS variant. PD-L1 is expressed irrespective of CD5 expression. Finally, detection of PD-L1 expression in a subset of IVLBCL lymphoma cases may identify patients who might benefit from targeted immunotherapy.

7.
Haematologica ; 104(9): 1822-1829, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733272

RESUMO

Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration is characterized by pathological features and gene expression profile resembling those of Burkitt lymphoma but lacks the MYC rearrangement and carries an 11q-arm aberration with proximal gains and telomeric losses. Whether this lymphoma is a distinct category or a particular variant of other recognized entities is controversial. To improve the understanding of Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration we performed an analysis of copy number alterations and targeted sequencing of a large panel of B-cell lymphoma-related genes in 11 cases. Most patients had localized nodal disease and a favorable outcome after therapy. Histologically, they were high grade B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (8 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (2 cases) and only one was considered as atypical Burkitt lymphoma. All cases had a germinal center B-cell signature and phenotype with frequent LMO2 expression. The patients with Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration had frequent gains of 12q12-q21.1 and losses of 6q12.1-q21, and lacked common Burkitt lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma alterations. Potential driver mutations were found in 27 genes, particularly involving BTG2, DDX3X, ETS1, EP300, and GNA13 However, ID3, TCF3, or CCND3 mutations were absent in all cases. These results suggest that Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration is a germinal center-derived lymphoma closer to high-grade B-cell lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than to Burkitt lymphoma.

8.
Blood ; 133(15): 1664-1676, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782609

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a group of complex clinicopathological entities, often associated with an aggressive clinical course. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) are the 2 most frequent categories, accounting for >50% of PTCLs. Gene expression profiling (GEP) defined molecular signatures for AITL and delineated biological and prognostic subgroups within PTCL-NOS (PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21). Genomic copy number (CN) analysis and targeted sequencing of these molecular subgroups revealed unique CN abnormalities (CNAs) and oncogenic pathways, indicating distinct oncogenic evolution. PTCL-GATA3 exhibited greater genomic complexity that was characterized by frequent loss or mutation of tumor suppressor genes targeting the CDKN2A /B-TP53 axis and PTEN-PI3K pathways. Co-occurring gains/amplifications of STAT3 and MYC occurred in PTCL-GATA3. Several CNAs, in particular loss of CDKN2A, exhibited prognostic significance in PTCL-NOS as a single entity and in the PTCL-GATA3 subgroup. The PTCL-TBX21 subgroup had fewer CNAs, primarily targeting cytotoxic effector genes, and was enriched in mutations of genes regulating DNA methylation. CNAs affecting metabolic processes regulating RNA/protein degradation and T-cell receptor signaling were common in both subgroups. AITL showed lower genomic complexity compared with other PTCL entities, with frequent co-occurring gains of chromosome 5 (chr5) and chr21 that were significantly associated with IDH2 R172 mutation. CN losses were enriched in genes regulating PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling in cases without IDH2 mutation. Overall, we demonstrated that novel GEP-defined PTCL subgroups likely evolve by distinct genetic pathways and provided biological rationale for therapies that may be investigated in future clinical trials.

9.
Blood ; 133(16): 1753-1761, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782610

RESUMO

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive HIV-associated lymphoma with a relatively poor prognosis in the era of effective HIV therapy. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent, and ∼80% of tumors are coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A better understanding of how KSHV-related immune dysregulation contributes to the natural history of PEL will improve outcomes. Twenty patients with PEL diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, including 19 treated with modified infusional etoposide, vincristine, and doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide and prednisone (EPOCH), were identified. We compared their clinical, virologic, and immunologic features vs 20 patients with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 19 patients with symptomatic interleukin (IL)-6 related KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Survival analyses of treated patients with PEL were then performed to identify prognostic factors and cancer-specific mortality. Compared with HIV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, PEL was associated with significant hypoalbuminemia (P < .0027), thrombocytopenia (P = .0045), and elevated IL-10 levels (P < .0001). There were no significant differences in these parameters between PEL and KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Median overall survival in treated patients with PEL was 22 months, with a plateau in survival noted after 2 years. Three-year cancer-specific survival was 47%. EBV-positive tumor status was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.27; P = .038), and elevated IL-6 level was associated with inferior survival (hazard ratio, 6.1; P = .024). Our analysis shows that IL-6 and IL-10 levels contribute to the natural history of PEL. Inflammatory cytokines and tumor EBV status are the strongest prognostic factors. Pathogenesis-directed first-line regimens are needed to improve overall survival in PEL.

10.
Blood ; 133(12): 1313-1324, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617194

RESUMO

Although generally curable with intensive chemotherapy in resource-rich settings, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains a deadly disease in older patients and in sub-Saharan Africa. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity is a feature in more than 90% of cases in malaria-endemic regions, and up to 30% elsewhere. However, the molecular features of BL have not been comprehensively evaluated when taking into account tumor EBV status or geographic origin. Through an integrative analysis of whole-genome and transcriptome data, we show a striking genome-wide increase in aberrant somatic hypermutation in EBV-positive tumors, supporting a link between EBV and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) activity. In addition to identifying novel candidate BL genes such as SIN3A, USP7, and CHD8, we demonstrate that EBV-positive tumors had significantly fewer driver mutations, especially among genes with roles in apoptosis. We also found immunoglobulin variable region genes that were disproportionally used to encode clonal B-cell receptors (BCRs) in the tumors. These include IGHV4-34, known to produce autoreactive antibodies, and IGKV3-20, a feature described in other B-cell malignancies but not yet in BL. Our results suggest that tumor EBV status defines a specific BL phenotype irrespective of geographic origin, with particular molecular properties and distinct pathogenic mechanisms. The novel mutation patterns identified here imply rational use of DNA-damaging chemotherapy in some patients with BL and targeted agents such as the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib in others, whereas the importance of BCR signaling in BL strengthens the potential benefit of inhibitors for PI3K, Syk, and Src family kinases among these patients.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(8): 2062-2066, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626252

RESUMO

To evaluate the feasibility and clinical efficacy of the combination of alemtuzumab with dose-adjusted etoposide/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone (DA-EPOCH) as upfront therapy for untreated aggressive T and NK cell lymphomas, a phase 1/2 trial was conducted. Thirty patients were treated with the study regimen, consisting of alemtuzumab on day 1 of a 21 day cycle with standard dosing of DA-EPOCH for 6-8 cycles. Alemtuzumab 30 mg IV was used for the phase 2 component. Of 30 treated patients, 17 had a complete response (CR) and eight had a partial response (83.3% overall response rate). The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 20.2 and 6.6 months, respectively. There were five treatment-related deaths on study mainly due to infectious complications, including one case each of disseminated toxoplasmosis and pneumonia and two cases of sepsis. Alemtuzumab with DA-EPOCH is of limited clinical utility due to unacceptable toxicity, despite the high rate of CR.

12.
Blood ; 133(16): 1703-1714, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635287

RESUMO

Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of T- and B-cell lymphomas that present in the skin with no evidence of extracutaneous disease at the time of diagnosis. The 2005 World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) consensus classification has served as a golden standard for the diagnosis and classification of these conditions. In September 2018, an updated version of the WHO-EORTC was published in the fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Skin Tumours Blue Book. In this classification, primary cutaneous acral CD8+ T-cell lymphoma and Epstein-Barr virus positive (EBV+) mucocutaneous ulcer are included as new provisional entities, and a new section on cutaneous forms of chronic active EBV disease has been added. The term "primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoma" was modified to "primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder" because of its indolent clinical behavior and uncertain malignant potential. Modifications have also been made in the sections on lymphomatoid papulosis, increasing the spectrum of histologic and genetic types, and primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas recognizing 2 different subtypes. Herein, the characteristic features of these new and modified entities as well as the results of recent molecular studies with diagnostic, prognostic, and/or therapeutic significance for the different types of primary cutaneous lymphomas are reviewed. An update of the frequency and survival of the different types of primary cutaneous lymphomas is provided.

13.
Blood ; 133(9): 940-951, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538135

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1. However, a small subset of cyclin D1- MCL has been recognized, and approximately one-half of them harbor CCND2 translocations while the primary event in cyclin D1-/D2- MCL remains elusive. To identify other potential mechanisms driving MCL pathogenesis, we investigated 56 cyclin D1-/SOX11+ MCL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), whole-genome/exome sequencing, and gene-expression and copy-number arrays. FISH with break-apart probes identified CCND2 rearrangements in 39 cases (70%) but not CCND3 rearrangements. We analyzed 3 of these negative cases by whole-genome/exome sequencing and identified IGK (n = 2) and IGL (n = 1) enhancer hijackings near CCND3 that were associated with cyclin D3 overexpression. By specific FISH probes, including the IGK enhancer region, we detected 10 additional cryptic IGK juxtapositions to CCND3 (6 cases) and CCND2 (4 cases) in MCL that overexpressed, respectively, these cyclins. A minor subset of 4 cyclin D1- MCL cases lacked cyclin D rearrangements and showed upregulation of CCNE1 and CCNE2. These cases had blastoid morphology, high genomic complexity, and CDKN2A and RB1 deletions. Both genomic and gene-expression profiles of cyclin D1- MCL cases were indistinguishable from cyclin D1+ MCL. In conclusion, virtually all cyclin D1- MCLs carry CCND2/CCND3 rearrangements with immunoglobulin genes, including a novel IGK/L enhancer hijacking mechanism. A subset of cyclin D1-/D2-/D3- MCL with aggressive features has cyclin E dysregulation. Specific FISH probes may allow the molecular identification and diagnosis of cyclin D1- MCL.

14.
Blood ; 133(9): 962-966, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30567752

RESUMO

The new recently described provisional lymphoma category Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration comprises cases similar to Burkitt lymphoma (BL) on morphological, immunophenotypic and gene-expression levels but lacking the IG-MYC translocation. They are characterized by a peculiar imbalance pattern on chromosome 11, but the landscape of mutations is not yet described. Thus, we investigated 15 MYC-negative Burkitt-like lymphoma with 11q aberration (mnBLL,11q,) cases by copy-number analysis and whole-exome sequencing. We refined the regions of 11q imbalance and identified the INO80 complex-associated gene NFRKB as a positional candidate in 11q24.3. Next to recurrent gains in 12q13.11-q24.32 and 7q34-qter as well as losses in 13q32.3-q34, we identified 47 genes recurrently affected by protein-changing mutations (each ≥3 of 15 cases). Strikingly, we did not detect recurrent mutations in genes of the ID3-TCF3 axis or the SWI/SNF complex that are frequently altered in BL, or in genes frequently mutated in germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas like KMT2D or CREBBP An exception is GNA13, which was mutated in 7 of 15 cases. We conclude that the genomic landscape of mnBLL,11q, differs from that of BL both at the chromosomal and mutational levels. Our findings implicate that mnBLL,11q, is a lymphoma category distinct from BL at the molecular level.

15.
Semin Hematol ; 56(1): 30-36, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573042

RESUMO

Our current understanding of the normal lymphoid system informs the modern classification of lymphomas. B-cell, T-cell, and natural killer-cell neoplasms often recapitulate normal stages of lymphoid cell differentiation and function. Moreover, the clinical manifestations of lymphomas often reflect the normal function of lymphoid cells in vivo. The multiparameter approach to classification adopted by the Revised European and American Lymphoma and subsequent WHO classifications facilitates the interpretation of clinical and translational studies, and provides a framework for the discovery of molecular alterations that drive these tumors. An accurate and precise classification of disease entities facilitates the discovery of the molecular basis of lymphoid neoplasms in the basic science laboratory, and leads to new diagnostic tools that play a role in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Linfoma/classificação , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/patologia
17.
Lancet Haematol ; 5(12): e609-e617, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MYC gene rearrangement is present in approximately 10% of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with half also harbouring a BCL2 gene rearrangement. Multiple retrospective studies of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone or prednisolone) have shown a worse outcome in patients with MYC rearrangement (alone or with rearrangement of BCL2 or BCL6, or both) than in patients without MYC rearrangement, and suggest improved outcomes after more intensive treatment. We aimed to determine the outcome of dose-adjusted EPOCH-R (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and rituximab; DA-EPOCH-R), an intensive infusional treatment regimen, in untreated aggressive B-cell lymphoma with MYC rearrangement. METHODS: We present the final analysis of a prospective, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study of DA-EPOCH-R in patients with untreated aggressive B-cell lymphoma with MYC rearrangement. DA-EPOCH-R was scheduled to be administered with CNS prophylaxis for six cycles. Primary endpoints included event-free and overall survival. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01092182). FINDINGS: 53 patients were enrolled, with median age of 61 years (range 29-80; IQR 50-70); 43 (81%) patients had stage III-IV disease and 26 (49%) had high-intermediate or high international prognostic index (IPI) scores. 19 patients had confirmed MYC rearrangement alone (single-hit) and 24 also had rearrangement of BCL2, BCL6, or both (double-hit), with similar characteristics between these two groups. After a median follow-up of 55·6 months (IQR 50·5-61·1), 48-month event-free survival was 71·0% (95% CI 56·5-81·4) and 48-month overall survival was 76·7% (95% CI 62·6-86·1) for all patients. Toxicity included grade 4 neutropenia in 160 (53%) of 301 cycles, grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 40 (13%) cycles, and any grade of fever with neutropenia in 56 (19%) cycles. There were three treatment-related deaths (all infections). INTERPRETATION: In this study, DA-EPOCH-R produced durable remission in patients with MYC-rearranged aggressive B-cell lymphomas and should be considered for the treatment of these diseases. FUNDING: Cancer Trials Support Unit and Center for Cancer Research of the National Cancer Institute and Genentech.

18.
Br J Haematol ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407610

RESUMO

The Hodgkin lymphomas are a family of unique lymphoma subtypes, in which the nature of the neoplastic cell was enigmatic for many years. Much of the mystery has been solved, with all forms now considered to be of B-cell origin, in most cases of germinal centre derivation. Today we recognize Hodgkin lymphoma as an eponym that encompasses multiple entities. One of the unifying themes is the major contribution from the tumour microenvironment. Both the character of the neoplastic cells and the nature of the immune environment are critical to accurate diagnosis. Moreover, an understanding of the molecular alterations that characterize both the neoplastic cells and their microenvironment have led to therapeutic advances, targeting both neoplastic and reactive components. Other conditions may foster a similar inflammatory milieu and lead to lymphoproliferations that mimic the Hodgkin lymphomas. In this review we provide an update on the diagnostic features of the various subtypes and include additional information relevant for prognostic evaluation and investigation of potential therapeutic targets. Additionally, we also discuss those conditions that often cause confusion in diagnosis and need to be distinguished from the Hodgkin lymphomas.

20.
Blood ; 132(16): 1631-1632, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337319
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