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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036527


Adsorption capacity and percentage removal efficiency of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions were studied and compared between raw kaolinite and acid-activated kaolinite. Acid-activated kaolin was prepared by refluxing raw kaolinite with concentrated sulphuric acid followed by calcination to enhance its surface properties and adsorption ability. Both raw and acid-activated kaolinite samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, scanning electron micrograph and zeta potential analysis. Upon acid treatment, acid-activated kaolinite was discovered to have altered chemical composition and larger BET surface area as compared with raw kaolinite. The batch adsorption studies on aqueous solution were performed under different factors such as contact time, pH condition, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. The optimum condition was selected for each factor including a contact time of 60 min, pH of 7.0, adsorbent dosage of 0.1 g, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and temperature of 25 °C. Then, the adsorption studies on wastewater samples were carried out at the selected optimum conditions. Acid-activated kaolinite always had better adsorption capacity and percentage removal efficiency than raw kaolinite due to the increasing amount of negative charges on the adsorbent surface and the number of metal ion binding sites upon acid treatment. The adsorption kinetic obtained was well described by the pseudo-second-order model, whereas the adsorption isotherms obtained were well described by either the Freundlich or the Langmuir adsorption model. The results showed that acid-activated kaolinite adsorbent is a better option as a favourable and feasible commercial low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment.

Environ Res ; 183: 109158, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044575


Jicama peroxidase (JP) immobilized functionalized Buckypaper/Polyvinyl alcohol (BP/PVA) membrane was synthesized and evaluated as a promising nanobiocomposite membrane for methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution. The effects of independent process variables, including pH, agitation speed, initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and contact time on dye removal efficiency were investigated systematically. Both Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network coupled with Particle Swarm Optimization (ANN-PSO) approaches were used for predicting the optimum process parameters to achieve maximum MB dye removal efficiency. The best optimal topology for PSO embedded ANN architecture was found to be 4-6-1. This optimized network provided higher R2 values for randomized training, testing and validation data sets, which are 0.944, 0.931 and 0.946 respectively, thus confirming the efficacy of the ANN-PSO model. Compared to RSM, results confirmed that the hybrid ANN-PSO shows superior modeling capability for prediction of MB dye removal. The maximum MB dye removal efficiency of 99.5% was achieved at pH-5.77, 179 rpm, ratio of H2O2/MB dye of 73.2:1, within 229 min. Thus, this work demonstrated that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane is a promising and feasible alternative for treating industrial effluent.

Environ Pollut ; 259: 113940, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931415


Jicama peroxidase (JP) was covalently immobilized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) Buckypaper/Polyvinyl alcohol (BP/PVA) membrane and employed for degradation of methylene blue dye. The parameters of the isotherm and kinetic models are estimating using ant colony optimization (ACO), which do not meddle the non-linearity form of the respective models. The proposed inverse modelling through ACO optimization was implemented, and the parameters were evaluated to minimize the non-linear error functions. The adsorption of MB dye onto JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane follows Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.99) and the pseudo 1st order or 2nd kinetic model (R2 = 0.980 & 0.968 respectively). The model predictions from the parameters estimated by ACO resulted values close the experimental values, thus inferring that this approach captured the inherent characteristics of MB adsorption. Moreover, the thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption was favourable, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The comprehensive structural analyses have confirmed the successful binding of peroxidase onto BP/PVA membrane, as well as the effective MB dye removal using immobilized JP membrane. Compared to BP/PVA membrane, the reusability test revealed that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane has better dye removal performances as it can retain 64% of its dye removal efficiency even after eight consecutive cycles. Therefore, the experimental results along with modelling results demonstrated that JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane is expected to bring notable impacts for the development of effective green and sustainable wastewater treatment technologies.

Pathogens ; 8(4)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766722


T4 genotype Acanthamoeba are opportunistic pathogens that cause two types of infections, including vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and a fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Due to the existence of ineffective treatments against Acanthamoeba, it has become a potential threat to all contact lens users and immunocompromised patients. Metal nanoparticles have been proven to have various antimicrobial properties against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Previously, different types of cobalt nanoparticles showed some promise as anti-acanthamoebic agents. In this study, the objectives were to synthesize and characterize the size, morphology, and crystalline structure of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles, as well as to determine the effects of different sizes of cobalt metal-based nanoparticles against A. castellanii. Cobalt phosphate octahydrate (CHP), Co3(PO4)2•8H2O, was synthesized by ultrasonication using a horn sonicator, then three different sizes of cobalt phosphates Co3(PO4)2 were produced through calcination of Co3(PO4)2•8H2O at 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C (CP2, CP4, CP6). These three types of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Next, the synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to biological assays to investigate their amoebicidal, amoebistatic, anti-encystation, and anti-excystation effects against A. castellanii, as well as cell cytotoxicity. The overall results showed that 1.30 ± 0.70 µm of CHP microflakes demonstrated the best anti-acanthemoebic effects at 100 µg/mL, followed by 612.50 ± 165.94 nm large CP6 nanograins. However, amongst the three tested cobalt phosphates, Co3(PO4)2, the smaller nanoparticles had stronger antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii. During cell cytotoxicity analysis, CHP exhibited only 15% cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, whereas CP6 caused 46% (the highest) cell cytotoxicity at the highest concentration, respectively. Moreover, the composition and morphology of nanoparticles is suggested to be important in determining their anti-acathamoebic effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of cobalt phosphate nanoparticles are still unidentified. Nevertheless, the results suggested that cobalt phosphate nanoparticles hold potential for development of nanodrugs against Acanthamoeba.

Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2215, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778111


Surface modified Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) Buckypaper/Polyvinyl Alcohol (BP/PVA) composite membrane was synthesized and utilized as support material for immobilization of Jicama peroxidase (JP). JP was successfully immobilized on the BP/PVA membrane via covalent bonding by using glutaraldehyde. The immobilization efficiency was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with the face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) model. The optimum enzyme immobilization efficiency was achieved at pH 6, with initial enzyme loading of 0.13 U/mL and immobilization time of 130 min. The results of BP/PVA membrane showed excellent performance in immobilization of JP with high enzyme loading of 217 mg/g and immobilization efficiency of 81.74%. The immobilized system exhibited significantly improved operational stability under various parameters, such as pH, temperature, thermal and storage stabilities when compared with free enzyme. The effective binding of peroxidase on the surface of the BP/PVA membrane was evaluated and confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). This work reports the characterization results and performances of the surface modified BP/PVA membrane for peroxidase immobilization. The superior properties of JP-immobilized BP/PVA membrane make it promising new-generation nanomaterials for industrial applications.

Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17295, 2018 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470825


Buckypaper (BP)/polymer composites are viewed as a viable option to improve the strain transfer across the buckypaper strain sensor by means of providing better interfacial bonding between the polymer and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) BP/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites were fabricated by a sequence of vacuum filtration and polymer intercalation technique. The optimized conditions for achieving a uniform and stable dispersion of MWCNTs were found to be using ethanol as a dispersion medium, 54 µm ultrasonic amplitude and 40 min sonication time. FTIR analysis and SEM spectra further confirmed the introduction of oxygenated groups (-COOH) on the surface of MWCNTs BP and the complete infiltration of PVA into the porous MWCNTs network. At MWCNTs content of 65 wt. %, the tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation-at-break of PVA-infiltrated MWCNTs BP achieved a maximum value of 156.28 MPa, 4.02 GPa and 5.85%, improved by 189%, 443% and 166% respectively, as compared to the MWCNTs BP. Electrical characterization performed using both two-point probe method and Hall effect measurement showed that BP/PVA composites exhibited reduced electrical conductivity. From the electromechanical characterization, the BP/PVA composites showed improved sensitivity with a gauge factor of about 1.89-2.92. The cyclic uniaxial tensile test validated the high reproducibility and hysteresis-free operation of 65-BP/PVA composite under 3 loading-unloading cycles. Characterization results confirmed that the flexible BP/PVA composite (65 wt. %) with improved mechanical and electromechanical properties is suitable for strain sensing applications in structural health monitoring and wearable technology, as an alternative choice to the fragile nature of conventional metallic strain sensors.