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1.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(1): 100-103, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395973

RESUMO

Millennials, defined as the generation of individuals born between 1981 and 1996, have emerged as one of the leading patient demographics seeking minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. Worldwide, millennials are more likely to consider preventative treatments compared to any other age-group. The three most popular minimally invasive facial procedures in this demographic include botulinum toxin, dermal fillers (eg, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, facial fat-fillers), and microdermabrasion. Given their impact on the expanding aesthetic medicine market and their favorable disposition towards cosmetic procedures, it is necessary for dermatologists and cosmetic providers to understand their motivations and perspectives. While some research studies have elicited the opinions of millennials on social issues, education, and technology, there is a paucity of literature on millennials' impressions, opinions, and perceptions of aesthetic procedures. As a generation that has been reshaping the culture of healthcare delivery and encouraging the innovation of products and procedures with their unique values and perspectives, accounting for their beliefs and fostering a better understanding of their experiences will promote an elevation in the quality of their care.

2.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(4): 359-364, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272511

RESUMO

Skin aging is associated with changes that include atrophy, pigmentation, decreased ability for wound healing, and rhytides. Recently, there has been growing research interest and consumer demand for minimally invasive cosmetic procedures involving light and energy-based devices, particularly for facial skin rejuvenation. Light emitting diode (LED) phototherapy is a promising treatment modality for photorejuvenation as it is safe, noninvasive, accessible, and can be easily combined with other treatment options. LED irradiation alters intrinsic cellular activity via absorption by chromophores located in the skin and may result in desirable photorejuvenation effects. In this review, we discuss the physiologic process of cutaneous aging, how visible light phototherapy with LEDs may be used to treat aging skin, and the importance of photoprotection. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(4):359-364. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.4711.

4.
Dermatol Surg ; 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may be used as an activating light source for photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a form of noninvasive phototherapy. Photodynamic therapy for aesthetic dermatologic conditions has demonstrated skin rejuvenating effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of PDT using LEDs to treat aesthetic dermatologic conditions including photoaged skin, scarring, and dyspigmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted through May 31, 2019, to identify studies that used LEDs as a light source for PDT and evaluated cosmetic improvements as the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: A total of 24 original articles were included in the authors' systematic review. The available evidence supports methyl aminolevulinate or 5-aminolevulinic acid incubation followed by LED treatment for global improvement of skin quality, including smoother texture, reduction of rhytides, and improvement of scars. Histologic analysis for global skin improvement demonstrated increased collagen fibers and decreased elastin fibers after LED-mediated PDT. CONCLUSION: Light-emitting diode-based PDT seems to have beneficial effects for photoaging, scars and dyspigmentation. A paucity of high-quality studies using LED-based PDT for aesthetic outcomes was found, highlighting the need for well-designed randomized control trials on this topic.

5.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060617

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well-established, non-invasive treatment modality that has shown desirable effects such as improvement of fine lines, dyspigmentation, and other signs of photodamage. Many patients seek to decrease, or reverse, effects of sun damage on the skin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found in the body, has enormous potential to bind water which allows the skin to retain moisture and maintain elasticity. Topical application of HA has been found to produce anti-wrinkle effects. We conducted a pilot case series evaluating the safety and efficacy of a commercially available 2% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) gel with hyaluronic acid (ALA-HA) and light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) for facial rejuvenation as determined by clinical assessments and digital skin analysis of rhytides, pore size, and erythema. All patients noted improvement of their skin and experienced minimal pain during PDT. Evaluation by dermatologists demonstrated significant improvement in overall skin appearance. Digital analysis of photographs revealed improvement of skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, UV spots, brown spots, red areas, and porphyrins. Our findings demonstrated safety and efficacy of this novel preparation of photodynamic gel with HA and subsequent activation with LED-RL.

6.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(7): 1555-1569, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cosmeceuticals are commonly used in skincare regimens to maintain healthy skin and improve visible signs of aging. In recent years, South Korean skincare has gained prominence in the global beauty industry by introducing innovative cosmeceutical products and aesthetic trends. OBJECTIVES: To describe the global impact of Korean skincare and to review the current research evidence for bioactive ingredients commonly found in Korean cosmeceuticals. METHODS: A review of the biomedical literature was conducted using PubMed to identify laboratory, animal, and clinical studies that evaluated the biological properties and potential dermatologic uses of ingredients found in Korean cosmeceuticals. RESULTS: Bioactive ingredients in Korean cosmeceutical products are increasingly undergoing scientific validation and are derived from various sources including animals (eg, bee venom and snail mucin), plants (eg, dragon's blood and tiger grass extract), and biotechnology (eg, synthetic snake venom). Their bioactive components and pharmacologic activities have been shown to provide dermatologic benefits with potential applications for skin rejuvenation, photoprotection, wound healing, and more. CONCLUSION: Further research studies are warranted to elucidate any biological or therapeutic mechanisms of action of these ingredients, which may translate into clinical practice. With the rising public awareness and interest in Korean cosmeceuticals, patients may seek advice from dermatologists about how to incorporate these bioactive ingredients into their skincare regimens to improve skin health and aesthetics.

7.
Dermatol Surg ; 46(2): 186-191, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatologists routinely perform office-based surgical procedures that result in cutaneous wounds. Wound care instructions are an important resource for postoperative patients. As there is no consensus on the ideal wound care regimen after dermatologic procedures, recommendations may vary. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current recommendations for wound care following dermatologic procedures. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional assessment of dermatology wound care handouts available online. The handouts were evaluated based on predefined parameters: topical agent recommendations for wound healing, caution against topical antibiotic use, and discussion of scarring, infection, bleeding, analgesia, and lifestyle considerations. RESULTS: A total of 169 handouts were evaluated. The majority (84%) recommended the application of petrolatum-based products, specifically Vaseline (75%) and Aquaphor (43%). Nearly half (43%) recommended the use of topical antibiotics, whereas 24% advised patients to avoid antibiotic ointments. Handouts variably addressed scarring (36%), infection (72%), bleeding (69%), pain (66%), and lifestyle modifications (64%). CONCLUSION: The instructions provided in dermatology patient handouts are highly variable, with various topical agents being recommended for wound healing. Topical antibiotics are not indicated for prophylaxis in clean dermatologic procedures but are still widely used. Greater efforts should be made to ensure that patients receive consistent and evidence-based wound care guidance.

8.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 312(2): 81-92, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493000

RESUMO

Skin fibrosis, characterized by excessive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in the dermis, is the histopathologic hallmark of dermatologic diseases such as systemic sclerosis, hypertrophic scars, and keloids. Effective anti-scarring therapeutics remain an unmet need, underscoring the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms of skin fibrosis. The Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 have been implicated as key mediators in the pathogenesis of fibroproliferative disorders. The goal of this article is to summarize the current understanding of the role of the IL-4/IL-13 axis in wound healing and skin fibrosis. We conducted a literature search to identify research studies investigating the roles of IL-4 and IL-13 in fibrotic skin diseases. While transforming growth factor-beta has long been regarded as the main driver of fibrotic processes, research into the cellular and molecular biology of wound healing has revealed other pathways that promote scar tissue formation. IL-4 and IL-13 are important mediators of skin fibrosis, supported by evidence from in vitro data, animal models of fibrosis, and clinical studies. Overactive signaling of the IL-4/IL-13 axis contributes to the initiation and perpetuation of fibrotic skin diseases. Further insights into the IL-4/IL-13 axis may reveal potential targets for the development of novel therapies that prevent or treat fibrotic skin diseases.

9.
J Biophotonics ; 13(3): e201960014, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483941

RESUMO

Therapeutic applications of light emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) are expanding, yet data on its clinical effects are lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the safety of high fluence LED-RL (≥160 J/cm2 ). In two phase I, single-blind, dose escalation, randomized controlled trials, healthy subjects received LED-RL or mock irradiation to the forearm thrice weekly for 3 weeks at fluences of 160-640 J/cm2 for all skin types (STARS 1, n = 60) and at 480-640 J/cm2 for non-Hispanic Caucasians (STARS 2, n = 55). The primary outcome was the incidence of adverse events (AEs). The maximum tolerated dose was the highest fluence that did not elicit predefined AEs. Dose-limiting AEs, including blistering and prolonged erythema, occurred at 480 J/cm2 in STARS 1 (n = 1) and 640 J/cm2 in STARS 2 (n = 2). AEs of transient erythema and hyperpigmentation were mild. No serious AEs occurred. We determined that LED-RL is safe up to 320 J/cm2 for skin of color and 480 J/cm2 for non-Hispanic Caucasian individuals. LED-RL may exert differential cutaneous effects depending on race and ethnicity, with darker skin being more photosensitive. These findings may guide future studies to evaluate the efficacy of LED-RL for the treatment of various diseases.

10.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741361

RESUMO

Background: Melasma is an acquired skin disease characterized by symmetric hyperpigmentation on sun-exposed areas, particularly on the face. Recently, there has been tremendous scientific interest in novel, safe, and effective topical agents to manage melasma. Objective: To evaluate topical treatments for melasma and provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical use and further research. Methods: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on topical agents for the treatment of melasma on March 4th, 2019 using PRISMA guidelines. Clinical recommendations were based on the American College of Physicians guidelines. Results: After screening, we identified 35 original RCTs using azelaic acid, cysteamine, epidermal growth factor, hydroquinone (liposomal-delivered), lignin peroxidase, mulberry extract, niacinamide, Rumex occidentalis, triple combination therapy, tranexamic acid, 4-n-butylresorcinol, glycolic acid, kojic acid, aloe vera, ascorbic acid, dioic acid, ellagic acid and arbutin, flutamide, parsley, or zinc sulfate for melasma. Conclusions: Cysteamine, triple combination therapy, and tranexamic acid received strong clinical recommendations for the treatment of melasma. Cysteamine has excellent efficacy and is reported to have anti-cancer properties, but has not been directly compared with hydroquinone. Triple combination agents and tranexamic acid are effective, but carry theoretical risks for ochronosis and thrombosis, respectively. Natural compounds are associated with low risk for adverse events, but more research is needed to determine the efficacy, optimal formulation, and appropriate concentration of novel treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(11):1156-1171.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Melanose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(11): 174-1176, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741362

RESUMO

Porokeratosis is a rare disorder of epidermal keratinization that encompasses several clinical forms, characterized by erythematous, annular plaques with an atrophic center and hyperkeratotic ridge-like border. The histopathological hallmark of porokeratosis is the cornoid lamella, a thin column of parakeratotic corneocytes embedded within the stratum corneum. There is no standard treatment regimen for porokeratosis. Current therapeutic modalities include topical agents, systemic medications, and surgical interventions that have variable efficacy. Here, we report a case of a patient with localized porokeratosis lesions on the face and extremities that resolved after one treatment session with carbon dioxide laser resurfacing combined with topical antioxidant serum containing L-ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, and ferulic acid. The diagnosis of porokeratosis was supported by the clinical presentation, dermoscopy, and in vivo skin imaging with optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy. This case highlights the utility of using carbon dioxide laser to ablate porokeratosis lesions, as well as the clinical advantages offered by new noninvasive skin imaging modalities to examine, diagnose, and follow up skin pathologies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(11):1174-1176.


Assuntos
Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Poroceratose/cirurgia , Administração Cutânea , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Extremidades , Face , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
12.
Curr Dermatol Rep ; 8(3): 122-132, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475077

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Field cancerization describes the phenomenon that multiple heterogenous mutations may arise in an area exposed to chronic carcinogenic stimuli. Advances in the understanding of cutaneous field cancerization have led to novel therapeutic approaches to the management of actinic keratoses (AKs). Herein, we review the literature on the pathophysiology and emerging research of field cancerization in dermatology. Recent Findings: The classification systems for grading AK lesions are being refined with investigations focusing on their clinical utility. There is a growing shift towards field-directed treatment for AKs as the importance of field cancerization becomes clearer. Current field-directed therapies are being optimized and novel therapeutic modalities are being studied. Summary: Field cancerization underlies the transformation of photodamaged skin into AKs and potentially cutaneous SCC (cSCC). Clinically meaningful classification systems for AKs are needed to better inform decisions regarding treatment. As we learn more about the role of field characterization in photodamage, AKs and cSCCs, therapeutic strategies are becoming more field-directed rather than lesion-directed.

13.
Trials ; 20(1): 432, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin fibrosis is a significant global health problem that affects over 100 million people annually and has a profoundly negative impact on quality of life. Characterized by excessive fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, skin fibrosis underlies a wide spectrum of dermatologic conditions ranging from pathologic scars secondary to injury (e.g., burns, surgery, trauma) to immune-mediated diseases. Effective anti-scarring therapeutics remain an unmet need, underscoring the importance of developing novel approaches to treat and prevent skin fibrosis. Our in vitro data show that light emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) can modulate key cellular and molecular processes involved in skin fibrosis. In two phase I clinical trials (STARS 1 and STARS 2), we demonstrated the safety and tolerability of LED-RL at fluences of 160 J/cm2 up to 480 J/cm2 on normal human skin. METHODS/DESIGN: CURES (Cutaneous Understanding of Red-light Efficacy on Scarring) is a dose-ranging, randomized, parallel group, split-face, single-blind, mock-controlled phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of LED-RL to limit post-surgical skin fibrosis in subjects undergoing elective mini-facelift surgery. Thirty subjects will be randomly allocated to three treatment groups to receive LED-RL phototherapy or temperature-matched mock irradiation (control) to either periauricular incision site at fluences of 160 J/cm2, 320 J/cm2, or 480 J/cm2. Starting one week post-surgery (postoperative days 4-8), treatments will be administered three times weekly for three consecutive weeks, followed by efficacy assessments at 30 days, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary endpoint is the difference in scar pliability between LED-RL-treated and control sites as determined by skin elasticity and induration measurements. Secondary outcomes include clinical and photographic evaluations of scars, 3D skin imaging analysis, histological and molecular analyses, and adverse events. DISCUSSION: LED-RL is a therapeutic modality of increasing importance in dermatology, and has the potential to limit skin fibrosis clinically by decreasing dermal fibroblast activity and collagen production. The administration of LED-RL phototherapy in the early postoperative period may optimize wound healing and prevent excessive scarring. The results from this study may change the current treatment paradigm for fibrotic skin diseases and help to pioneer LED-RL as a safe, non-invasive, cost-effective, portable, at-home therapy for scars. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03795116 . Registered on 20 December 2018.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Fototerapia/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Fibrose , Humanos , New York , Fototerapia/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Pele/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Trials ; 20(1): 177, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visible light (400 to 700 nm) is common in our environment, comprising 44% of total solar radiation and a large component of environmental light exposure. The effects of visible light on skin remain undefined. The red light portion of the visible spectrum (600 to 700 nm) may be used to treat skin diseases as a monotherapeutic modality or in combination with other agents. Light-emitting diode-red light (LED-RL) phototherapy may represent an important advance in light-based treatment modalities because it is non-invasive, inexpensive, portable, and easily combinable with other therapies. We previously determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of high-fluence LED-RL (HF-LED-RL) in skin of color individuals to be 320 J/cm2. To the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials have been performed to determine the safety of higher doses of HF-LED-RL in Caucasian non-Hispanic individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate the safety of HF-LED-RL at doses of 480 and 640 J/cm2 in healthy Caucasian non-Hispanic individuals. METHODS: This is a single-blind, dose-escalation, randomized, controlled, phase I trial titled Safety Trial Assessing Red-light on Skin (STARS) 2. Healthy subjects will be randomly assigned to groups of five (three subjects randomly assigned to HF-LED-RL phototherapy and two subjects randomly assigned to mock therapy). Subjects in group 1 will receive HF-LED-RL or mock irradiation at the starting dose of 480 J/cm2, and the dose will be escalated in the subsequent group (group 2) to 640 J/cm2. The MTD is defined as the dose level below the dose at which two or more subjects (>20% of the cohort) experience a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). After either the MTD is established or the study endpoint of 640 J/cm2 is achieved, additional HF-LED-RL phototherapy subjects and mock therapy subjects will be enrolled at that fluence (group 3) for a total number of up to 60 subjects. Each subject will receive a total of nine irradiation sessions, three times per week for three consecutive weeks. DISCUSSION: This follow-up study aims to provide important knowledge about safety and cutaneous effects of HF-LED-RL phototherapy of 480 and 640 J/cm2 in Caucasian non-Hispanic subjects. The importance of this clinical trial is that it may establish new treatment paradigms and a safety profile for LED-RL based on race and ethnicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03433222 . Registered on February 1, 2018 - Retrospectively registered. Protocol date and version: January 12, 2018; version 1.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fototerapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Simples-Cego
15.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(6): 1712-1721, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678999

RESUMO

Transgender individuals may transition to their identified gender through social, hormonal, and procedural methods by using a multidisciplinary team of health care providers, including dermatologists. In this review, we discuss the medical and aesthetic dermatologic needs related to the transitioning of transgender patients and provide therapeutic and procedural recommendations. In addition to routine cutaneous conditions, dermatologists may need to treat hormonal therapy-related complications. Acumen for genital dermatology and familiarity with gender reassignment surgery is important for the dermatologist caring for a transgender patient. From a structural standpoint, transgender beauty poses a unique aesthetic task. We identify key differences in the facial structure and physique of males versus those of females. Dermatologists may have a tremendous impact on the lives of transgender individuals who seek to realize their gender identity.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Estética , Pessoas Transgênero , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Contorno Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Preenchedores Dérmicos/efeitos adversos , Preenchedores Dérmicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/cirurgia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Remoção de Cabelo/métodos , Hirsutismo/induzido quimicamente , Hirsutismo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Neurotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Caracteres Sexuais , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
16.
G Ital Dermatol Venereol ; 154(2): 120-126, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375217

RESUMO

As the prevalence of lasers and light devices to treat dermatologic conditions increases, patient reported outcomes (PROs) will be an essential component of evaluating clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction. PROs may be used to identify patients' values, weigh risks and benefits of various therapies, identify barriers to treatment and help guide the development of new therapies. Utilizing patient and physician assessments may help determine if a new treatment is objectively better than currently available therapies. In creating a patient-centered treatment plan using laser and light modalities, it is critical to evaluate side effects using PROs. Determining and resolving barriers to treatment has benefits at the individual level and the population level. Many PRO measures (PROMs) are available to use for general and specific dermatologic conditions. The Dermatologic Life Quality Index, Skindex, and FACE-Q are PROMs that have been used in laser and light therapy studies. Selecting the proper instrument should be based on study aims to yield high quality data. Herein, we assess PROs use in laser and light treatment protocols to improve patient care, increase patient satisfaction and reduce barriers to care, and review dermatology PRO measures (PROMs) used in published laser and light clinical studies.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/métodos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Fototerapia/métodos , Dermatologia/métodos , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Dermatopatias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Biophotonics ; 12(5): e201800207, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182520

RESUMO

Skin fibrosis is a chronic debilitating feature of several skin diseases that lead to characteristic increases in dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition through upregulation in components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)/SMAD pathway. In contrast to ultraviolet phototherapy, high-fluence light-emitting diode-generated red light (HF-LED-RL, 633 ± 15 nm) is a safe, economic and non-invasive therapy with in vitro evidence that supports modulation of the key cellular characteristics involved in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis. Limited data exists pertaining to the effects of HF-LED-RL on human skin fibroblast microRNA (miRNA). Herein, we explored the effects of HF-LED-RL on fibroblast miRNA levels using RNA-seq and miRNA expression analysis. Using RNA-seq analysis we found that HF-LED-RL at 320 and 640 J/cm2 increased transcription of key miRNA that are involved in skin fibrosis including miRNA-29, miRNA-196a and Let-7a, and decreased transcription of miRNA-21, miRNA-23b and miRNA-31. These microRNA findings provide insight into the molecular underpinnings of HF-LED-RL and highlight potential therapeutic targets of interest for the treatment of skin fibrosis. Additional research on the specific molecular mechanisms underlying HF-LED-RL effects on fibroblasts may provide further mechanistic insight into this therapy and may reveal additional future therapeutic targets for skin fibrosis.

19.
J Vis Exp ; (138)2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176015

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure that involves incubation of an exogenously applied photosensitizer (PS) followed by visible light photoactivation to induce cell apoptosis. The Federal Drug Administration has approved PDT for the treatment of actinic keratosis, and clinical guidelines recommend PDT as a treatment for certain non-melanoma skin cancers and acne vulgaris. PDT is an advantageous therapeutic modality as it is low cost, non-invasive, and associated with minimal adverse events and scaring. In the first step of PDT, a PS is applied and allowed to accumulate intracellularly. Subsequent light irradiation induces reactive oxygen species formation, which may ultimately lead to cell apoptosis, membrane disruption, mitochondrial damage, immune modulation, keratinocyte proliferation, and collagen turnover. Herein, we present an in vitro method to study PDT in an adherent cell line. This treatment protocol is designed to simulate PDT and may be adjusted to studying the use of PDT with various cell lines, photosensitizers, incubation temperatures, or photoactivation wavelengths. Squamous cell carcinoma cells were incubated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2 mM 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for 30 min and photoactivated with 417 nm blue light for 1,000 s. The primary outcome measure was apoptosis and necrosis, as measured by annexin-V and 7-aminoactinomycin D flow cytometry. There was a dose-dependent increase in cell apoptosis following thirty-minute incubation of 5-ALA. To achieve high inter-test validity, it is important to maintain consistent incubation and light parameters when performing in vitro PDT experiments. PDT is a useful clinical procedure and in vitro research may allow for the development of novel PSs, optimization of protocols, and new indications for PDT.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12599, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135507

RESUMO

Thermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality to optimize treatment of pre-cancerous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lesions, known as actinic keratoses. Thermal PDT involves heating the tissue, skin, or mucosa above normal skin temperature during 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA) incubation and irradiating with blue light, which leads to cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. To our knowledge, thermal PDT has not been studied for the treatment of cutaneous or mucosal SCC. We incubated two SCC cell lines with 5-ALA for 30 minutes at temperatures between 21 °C and 42 °C and then irradiated cells with 1000 seconds of blue light. We measured changes in apoptosis, necrosis, and ROS. At 36 °C, there was a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis and ROS generation. Thermal incubation of 5-ALA at 39° and 42 °C followed by blue light increased cell apoptosis and ROS generation compared to untreated control samples incubated at the same temperatures. Thermal PDT may represent a new treatment option for cutaneous and mucosal SCC cancer. Thermal PDT is associated with an increase in SCC cellular apoptosis and is associated with an upregulation in ROS. Clinical trials are required to determine optimal thermal PDT treatment parameters and efficacy for cutaneous and mucosal SCC.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta/uso terapêutico , Ceratose Actínica/terapia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
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