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1.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999296

RESUMO

Importance: Trials of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) have failed to show a survival benefit in unselected patients with breast cancer, but long-term follow-up is lacking. Objective: To determine 20-year efficacy and safety outcomes of a large trial of adjuvant HDCT vs conventional-dose chemotherapy (CDCT) for patients with stage III breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used data from a randomized phase 3 multicenter clinical trial of 885 women younger than 56 years with breast cancer and 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes conducted from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 1999. Additional follow-up data were collected between June 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017, from medical records, general practitioners, the Dutch national statistical office, and nationwide cancer registries. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Statistical analysis was performed from February 1, 2018, to October 14, 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 cycles of CDCT consisting of fluorouracil, 500 mg/m2, epirubicin, 90 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide, 500 mg/m2, or HDCT in which the first 4 cycles were identical to CDCT and the fifth cycle was replaced by cyclophosphamide, 6000 mg/m2, thiotepa, 480 mg/m2, and carboplatin, 1600 mg/m2, followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main end points were overall survival and safety and cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm or cardiovascular events. Results: Of the 885 women in the study (mean [SD] age, 44.5 [6.6] years), 442 were randomized to receive HDCT, and 443 were randomized to receive CDCT. With 20.4 years median follow-up (interquartile range, 19.2-22.0 years), the 20-year overall survival was 45.3% with HDCT and 41.5% with CDCT (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75-1.06). The absolute improvement in 20-year overall survival was 14.6% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54-0.95) for patients with 10 or more invoved axillary lymph nodes and 15.4% (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.05) for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. The cumulative incidence risk of a second malignant neoplasm at 20 years or major cardiovascular events was similar in both treatment groups (20-year cumulative incidence risk for second malignant neoplasm was 12.1% in the HDCT group vs 16.2% in the CDCT group, P = .10), although patients in the HDCT group more often had hypertension (21.7% vs 14.3%, P = .02), hypercholesterolemia (15.7% vs 10.6%, P = .04), and dysrhythmias (8.6% vs 4.6%, P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: High-dose chemotherapy provided no long-term survival benefit in unselected patients with stage III breast cancer but did provide improved overall survival in very high-risk patients (ie, with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes). High-dose chemotherapy did not affect long-term risk of a second malignant neoplasm or major cardiovascular events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087409.

2.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 83: 101951, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874446

RESUMO

Molecular profiling of tumor derived cell free DNA (cfDNA) is gaining ground as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. However to what extent cfDNA reflects the full metastatic landscape as currently determined by tumor tissue analysis remains controversial. Though technically challenging, whole exome sequencing (WES) of cfDNA enables thorough evaluation of somatic alterations. Here, we review the feasibility of WES of cfDNA and determine the sensitivity of WES-detected single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in cfDNA on individual patient data level using paired tumor tissue as reference (sharedSNVsAlltissueSNVs×100%). The pooled sensitivity was 50% (95% credible interval (CI): 29-72%). The tissue mutant allele frequency (MAF) of variants exclusively identified in tissue was significantly lower (12.5%, range: 0.5-18%) than the tissue MAF of variants identified in both tissue and cfDNA (23.9%, range: 17-38%), p = 0.004. The overall agreement (sharedSNVsAllSNVs×100%)between SNVs in cfDNA and tumor tissue was 31% (95% CI: 15-49%). The number of detected SNVs was positively correlated with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fraction (p = 0.016). A sub analysis of samples with ctDNA fractions ≥ 25% improved the sensitivity to 69% (95% CI: 46-89%) and agreement to 46% (95% CI: 36-59%), suggesting that WES is mainly feasible for patients with high ctDNA fractions. Pre- and post-analytical procedures were highly variable between studies rendering comparisons problematic. In conclusion, various aspects of WES of cfDNA are largely in its investigative phase, standardization of methodologies is highly needed to bring this promising technique to its clinical potential.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , DNA Tumoral Circulante/análise , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Neoplasias/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
3.
Mol Oncol ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841262

RESUMO

We determined whether progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving everolimus plus exemestane (EVE/EXE) varies depending on circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) characteristics. Baseline plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from 164 postmenopausal women with ER-positive, HER2-negative MBC refractory to a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor and treated with standard EVE/EXE (Everolimus Biomarker Study, Eudract 2013-004120-11) was characterised for 10 relevant breast cancer genes by next-generation sequencing with molecular barcoding. ctDNA molecule numbers, number of mutations and specific variants were related with PFS and overall survival (OS). Missense hotspot mutations in cfDNA were detected in 125 patients. The median of 54 ctDNA molecules per mL plasma distinguished patients with high and low/no ctDNA load. Patients with low/no ctDNA load (N = 102) showed longer median PFS of 5.7 months (P = 0.006) and OS of 124.8 months (P = 0.008) than patients with high ctDNA load (N = 62; 4.4 months and 107.7 months, respectively) in multivariate analyses. Patients with < 3 specific mutations (N = 135) had longer median PFS of 5.4 months compared to those with ≥ 3 mutations (3.4 months; P < 0.001). In conclusion, MBC patients with low/no ctDNA load or < 3 hotspot mutations experience longer PFS while treated with EVE/EXE.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.

5.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667659

RESUMO

Background The PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown acceptable toxicity at doses of up to 400 mg twice daily (bid; capsule formulation) with encouraging signs of antitumor activity. Based on its mode of action, olaparib may sensitize tumor cells to DNA-damaging agents. This Phase I trial (NCT00516724) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary efficacy of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors received olaparib (capsule bid) plus carboplatin (Part A), carboplatin and paclitaxel (Part B), or paclitaxel (Part C). In each part of the study, different drug doses were given to define the most appropriate dose/drug combination to use in further studies. Safety assessments included evaluation of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; cycle 1 only), adverse events (AEs) and physical examinations. PK assessments of olaparib, carboplatin and paclitaxel were performed. Tumor responses (RECIST) were assessed every two cycles. Results Fifty-seven patients received treatment. DLTs were reported in two patients (both receiving olaparib 100 mg bid and carboplatin AUC 4; Part A, cohort 2): grade 1 thrombocytopenia with grade 2 neutropenia lasting for 16 days, and grade 2 neutropenia lasting for 7 days. Non-hematologic AEs were predominantly grade 1-2 and included fatigue (70%) and nausea (40%). Bone marrow suppression, mainly neutropenia (51%) and thrombocytopenia (25%), frequently led to dose modifications. Conclusions Olaparib in combination with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel resulted in increased hematologic toxicities, making it challenging to establish a dosing regimen that could be tolerated for multiple cycles without dose modifications.

6.
Invest New Drugs ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637669

RESUMO

Background In the first part of this extensive phase I study (NCT00516724), continuous olaparib twice daily (bid) with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel resulted in myelosuppression and dose modifications. Here, we report the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intermittent olaparib dosing combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors (part D) and enriched for ovarian and breast cancer (part E) received olaparib (capsule and tablet formulations) using intermittent schedules (2 to 10 days of a 21-day cycle) combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel. Safety assessments included evaluation of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; cycle 1 only), adverse events (AEs), and physical examinations. Pharmacokinetic assessments of olaparib capsule and tablet combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel were performed. Tumor responses (RECIST) were assessed every 2 cycles. Results In total, 132 heavily pre-treated patients were included. One DLT of grade 3 elevated alanine aminotransferase lasting for 8 days was reported (olaparib tablet 100 mg bid days 3-12, carboplatin area under the curve 4 and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2). The most common hematological AEs were neutropenia (47%) and thrombocytopenia (39%), which frequently led to dose modifications. Non-hematological AEs were predominantly grade 1-2, including alopecia (89%) and fatigue (84%). Overall objective response rate was 46%. Conclusions Discontinuous dosing of olaparib resulted in significant myelosuppression leading to dose interruptions and/or delays. Anti-tumor activity was encouraging in patients enriched with BRCA-mutated breast and ovarian cancer. The most appropriate olaparib tablet dose for use in further studies evaluating olaparib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is 50 mg bid (days 1-5).

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1450-1458, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570896

RESUMO

The whole-genome sequencing of prospectively collected tissue biopsies from 442 patients with metastatic breast cancer reveals that, compared to primary breast cancer, tumor mutational burden doubles, the relative contributions of mutational signatures shift and the mutation frequency of six known driver genes increases in metastatic breast cancer. Significant associations with pretreatment are also observed. The contribution of mutational signature 17 is significantly enriched in patients pretreated with fluorouracil, taxanes, platinum and/or eribulin, whereas the de novo mutational signature I identified in this study is significantly associated with pretreatment containing platinum-based chemotherapy. Clinically relevant subgroups of tumors are identified, exhibiting either homologous recombination deficiency (13%), high tumor mutational burden (11%) or specific alterations (24%) linked to sensitivity to FDA-approved drugs. This study provides insights into the biology of metastatic breast cancer and identifies clinically useful genomic features for the future improvement of patient management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Prognóstico
8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 723-733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (BRRM) strongly reduces the risk of developing breast cancer (BC); however, no clear survival benefit of BRRM over BC surveillance has been reported yet. METHODS: In this Dutch multicenter cohort study, we used multivariable Cox models with BRRM as a time-dependent covariable to estimate the associations between BRRM and the overall and BC-specific mortality rates, separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.3 years, 722 out of 1712 BRCA1 (42%) and 406 out of 1145 BRCA2 (35%) mutation carriers underwent BRRM. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, we observed 52 deaths (20 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 10 deaths (one from BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratios were 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.90) for overall mortality and 0.06 (95% CI 0.01-0.46) for BC-specific mortality. BC-specific survival at age 65 was 93% for surveillance and 99.7% for BRRM. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, we observed 29 deaths (7 from BC) in the surveillance group, and 4 deaths (no BC) after BRRM. The hazard ratio for overall mortality was 0.45 (95% CI 0.15-1.36). BC-specific survival at age 65 was 98% for surveillance and 100% for BRRM. CONCLUSION: BRRM was associated with lower mortality than surveillance for BRCA1 mutation carriers, but for BRCA2 mutation carriers, BRRM may lead to similar BC-specific survival as surveillance. Our findings support a more individualized counseling based on BRCA mutation type.

9.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(10): 1355-1360, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283631

RESUMO

In metastatic breast cancer (MBC), expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) guides treatment selection. In case of bone-only metastatic disease, ER, PR, and HER2 status assessment may be hampered by decalcification. We aimed to determine the optimal decalcification method, and to study discordance of receptor expression between paired primary breast tumors and optimally decalcified bone metastases. First, decalcification was simulated using acetic acid, hydrochloric/formic acid, and EDTA on 12 primary breast carcinomas. ER, PR, and HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HER2 in situ hybridization (ISH) were assessed, before and after the 3 decalcification methods. EDTA was considered the optimal method, as it did not affect IHC and as ISH failed in only 1/16 cases. Hydrochloric/formic acid altered ER and PR results, and, with acetic acid and hydrochloric/formic acid, ISH failed in, respectively, 94% and 100%. Second, ER, PR, and HER2 IHC was performed in paired primary tumors and EDTA-decalcified bone metastases obtained from patients with first presentation of MBC. Clinically relevant discordance was defined as changed receptor status with treatment implications. Paired samples of 77 patients, participating in the IMPACT-MBC trial, were evaluable. Hormonal receptor expression change was clinically relevant in 6 patients (7.9%) and HER2 expression change in 1 patient (1.3%). This study shows that EDTA decalcification minimally affects receptor expression results. The incidence of clinically relevant discordance between the primary tumor and bone metastases is low. These findings support that bone biopsies can reliably be used to assess receptor status.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 383-393, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a phenotypic breast cancer subgroup with a very poor prognosis, despite standard treatments. Combined twice-weekly iniparib and gemcitabine/carboplatin (GC+tw-iniparib) showed benefit over gemcitabine/carboplatin in a randomized phase II trial, and a phase III was initiated comparing these regimens. The present phase II study was initiated to compare GC+tw-iniparib with a more practical once-weekly schedule (GC+w-iniparib) in TNBC. METHODS: Metastatic TNBC patients were randomized to receive iniparib weekly (11.2 mg/kg on days 1 and 8) or twice-weekly (5.6 mg/kg on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve 2 on days 1 and 8), every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). Pharmacokinetics of iniparib and its two metabolites were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were randomized, 82 GC+w-iniparib and 81 GC+tw-iniparib. Demographic and baseline characteristics were well balanced. ORR was 34.1% (95% CI 23.9-44.4%) vs. 29.6% (95% CI 19.7-39.6%) and median progression-free survival was 5.5 months (95% CI 4.2-5.7) vs. 4.3 months (95% CI 3.0-5.8) for GC+w-iniparib and GC+tw-iniparib, respectively. Safety was similar across treatment arms in terms of event severity and type. Iniparib plasma concentrations and exposure were two-fold higher with w-iniparib compared to tw-iniparib. Iniparib and its metabolites were cleared rapidly with a terminal half-life of < 1 h, without accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a doubled maximum concentration with weekly iniparib, no detectable differences in safety or efficacy were observed between the weekly and twice-weekly administration schedules in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT01045304.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/farmacocinética , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacocinética , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216400, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063487

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. In this way they might influence whether a cell is sensitive or resistant to a certain drug. So far, only a limited number of relatively small scale studies comprising few cell lines and/or drugs have been performed. To obtain a broader view on miRNAs and their association with drug response, we investigated the expression levels of 411 miRNAs in relation to drug sensitivity in 36 breast cancer cell lines. For this purpose IC50 values of a drug screen involving 34 drugs were associated with miRNA expression data of the same breast cancer cell lines. Since molecular subtype of the breast cancer cell lines is considered a confounding factor in drug association studies, multivariate analysis taking subtype into account was performed on significant miRNA-drug associations which retained 13 associations. These associations consisted of 11 different miRNAs and eight different drugs (among which Paclitaxel, Docetaxel and Veliparib). The taxanes, Paclitaxel and Docetaxel, were the only drugs having miRNAs in common: hsa-miR-187-5p and hsa-miR-106a-3p indicative of drug resistance while Paclitaxel sensitivity alone associated with hsa-miR-556-5p. Tivantinib was associated with hsa-let-7d-5p and hsa-miR-18a-5p for sensitivity and hsa-miR-637 for resistance. Drug sensitivity was associated with hsa-let-7a-5p for Bortezomib, hsa-miR-135a-3p for JNJ-707 and hsa-miR-185-3p for Panobinostat. Drug resistance was associated with hsa-miR-182-5p for Veliparib and hsa-miR-629-5p for Tipifarnib. Pathway analysis for significant miRNAs was performed to reveal biological roles, aiding to find a potential mechanistic link for the observed associations with drug response. By doing so hsa-miR-187-5p was linked to the cell cycle G2-M checkpoint in line with this checkpoint being the target of taxanes. In conclusion, our study shows that miRNAs could potentially serve as biomarkers for intrinsic drug resistance and that pathway analyses can provide additional information in this context.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-14, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The essence of guideline recommendations often is intertwined in large texts. This impedes clinical implementation and evaluation and delays timely modular revisions needed to deal with an ever-growing amount of knowledge and application of personalized medicine. The aim of this project was to model guideline recommendations as data-driven clinical decision trees (CDTs) that are clinically interpretable and suitable for implementation in decision support systems. METHODS: All recommendations of the Dutch national breast cancer guideline for nonmetastatic breast cancer were translated into CDTs. CDTs were constructed by nodes, branches, and leaves that represent data items (patient and tumor characteristics [eg, T stage]), data item values (eg, T2 or less), and recommendations (eg, chemotherapy), respectively. For all data items, source of origin was identified (eg, pathology), and where applicable, data item values were defined on the basis of existing classification and coding systems (eg, TNM, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine). All unique routes through all CDTs were counted to measure the degree of data-based personalization of recommendations. RESULTS: In total, 60 CDTs were necessary to cover the whole guideline and were driven by 114 data items. Data items originated from pathology (49%), radiology (27%), clinical (12%), and multidisciplinary team (12%) reports. Of all data items, 101 (89%) could be classified by existing classification and coding systems. All 60 CDTs could be integrated in an interactive decision support app that contained 376 unique patient subpopulations. CONCLUSION: By defining data items unambiguously and unequivocally and coding them to an international coding system, it was possible to present a complex guideline as systematically constructed modular data-driven CDTs that are clinically interpretable and accessible in a decision support app.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(3)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909366

RESUMO

Tamoxifen is a prodrug that is primarily metabolized into the pharmacologically active metabolite endoxifen and eventually into inactive metabolites. The herb curcumin may increase endoxifen exposure by affecting phase II metabolism. We compared endoxifen and tamoxifen exposure in breast cancer patients with or without curcumin, and with addition of the bio-enhancer piperine. Tamoxifen (20⁻30mg per day (q.d.)) was either given alone, or combined with curcumin (1200 mg three times daily (t.i.d.)) +/- piperine (10 mg t.i.d.). The primary endpoint of this study was the difference in geometric means for the area under the curve (AUC) of endoxifen. Genotyping was performed to determine CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 phenotypes. The endoxifen AUC0⁻24h decreased with 7.7% (95%CI: -15.4 to 0.7%; p = 0.07) with curcumin and 12.4% (95%CI: -21.9 to -1.9%; p = 0.02) with curcumin and piperine, compared to tamoxifen alone. Tamoxifen AUC0⁻24h showed similar results. For patients with an extensive CYP2D6 metabolism phenotype (EM), effects were more pronounced than for intermediate CYP2D6 metabolizers (IMs). In conclusion, the exposure to tamoxifen and endoxifen was significantly decreased by concomitant use of curcumin (+/- piperine). Therefore, co-treatment with curcumin could lower endoxifen concentrations below the threshold for efficacy (potentially 20⁻40% of the patients), especially in EM patients.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 145(4): 1083-1089, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761532

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) has potential clinical relevance in metastatic breast cancer (mBC) since it might be a treatment target and has been associated with endocrine resistance. A minimal-invasive way to determine AR expression on metastatic tumor cells is by characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Here, we assessed AR mRNA expression in CTCs (CTC-AR) and in matched primary tumor samples from mBC patients representing different breast cancer subtypes. In addition, we explored CTC-AR-status in relation to outcome on endocrine therapy. AR, and 92 AR or estrogen receptor (ER) related genes, were measured in CellSearch-enriched CTCs from 124 mBC patients and in 52 matched FFPE primary tissues using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. AR in CTCs was considered positive if the expression was 1 standard deviation higher than the expression measured in 11 healthy blood donors. A total of 31% of the mBC patients had AR-positive (AR+) CTCs. 58% of the matched CTC and primary tumor samples were discordant with respect to AR status, observing both switches from AR+ to AR-negative (AR-) and vice versa. There was no statistically significant difference in progression-free survival for patients treated with ER-targeting drugs and CTC-AR-status (13 AR+/ 37 AR- cases, p = 0.28). Thus, AR can be determined in RNA isolated from CTCs, with in our set 31% AR-positive samples. Given the discordance between AR status in CTC samples and corresponding primary tumors, determination of AR expression in CTCs might be a promising tool to select mBC patients for AR inhibiting agents.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androgênios/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
17.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(1): 127-134, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown substantial activity in homologous recombination- (HR-) deficient ovarian cancer and are undergoing testing in other HR-deficient tumors. For reasons that are incompletely understood, not all patients with HR-deficient cancers respond to these agents. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that changes in alternative DNA repair pathways affect PARP inhibitor (PARPi) sensitivity in ovarian cancer models. This has not previously been assessed in the clinical setting. METHODS: Clonogenic and plasmid-based HR repair assays were performed to compare BRCA1-mutant COV362 ovarian cancer cells with or without 53BP1 gene deletion. Archival biopsies from ovarian cancer patients in the phase I, open-label clinical trial of PARPi ABT-767 were stained for PARP1, RAD51, 53BP1 and multiple components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. Modified histochemistry- (H-) scores were determined for each repair protein in each sample. HRD score was determined from tumor DNA. RESULTS: 53BP1 deletion increased HR in BRCA1-mutant COV362 cells and decreased PARPi sensitivity in vitro. In 36 women with relapsed ovarian cancer, responses to the PARPi ABT-767 were observed exclusively in cancers with HR deficiency. In this subset, 7 of 18 patients (39%) had objective responses. The actual HRD score did not further correlate with change from baseline tumor volume (r = 0.050; p = 0.87). However, in the HR-deficient subset, decreased 53BP1 H-score was associated with decreased antitumor efficacy of ABT-767 (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Differences in complementary repair pathways, particularly 53BP1, correlate with PARPi response of HR-deficient ovarian cancers.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reparo do DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/biossíntese , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Proteína 1 de Ligação à Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/deficiência
18.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(4): 428-439, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418595

RESUMO

Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) in breast cancer patients are rare but often accompanied by devastating neurological symptoms and carry a very poor prognosis, even if treated. To date, two diagnostic methods are clinically used to diagnose LM: gadolinium MRI of the brain and/or spinal cord and cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both techniques are, however, hampered by limited sensitivities, often leading to a long diagnostic process requiring repeated lumbar punctures and MRI examinations. To improve the detection rate of LM, numerous studies have assessed new techniques. In this review, we present the current workup to diagnose LM, set out an overview of novel techniques to diagnose LM, and give recommendations for future research.

19.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(1): 123-137, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296589

RESUMO

The detection of mutated genes in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma has emerged as an important minimally invasive way to obtain detailed information regarding tumor biology. Reliable determination of circulating tumor-derived DNA, often present at a low quantity amidst an excess of normal DNA in plasma, would be of added value for screening and monitoring of cancer patients and for hypothesis-generating studies in valuable retrospective cohorts. Our aim was to establish a workflow to simultaneously assess four hotspot estrogen receptor mutations (mESR1) in cfDNA isolated from only 200 µL of plasma by means of uniplex or multiplex pre-amplification combined with digital PCR. This workflow was then applied in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving systemic therapies for MBC. In accordance with previous studies, estrogen receptor mutations were more frequently detected in endocrine-treated MBC patients at progressive disease [34.1% (15/44)] than before the start of endocrine therapy [3.9% (2/51); P = 0.001]. For a subset of samples, results were compared with analysis of these mutations by Oncomine-targeted next-generation sequencing, which, although requiring a higher cfDNA input, yielded concordant results. The data establish development and validation of a digital PCR workflow for the simultaneous detection of several tumor-derived mutations in minute amounts of cfDNA and show the potential of this workflow for use on archived volume-limited blood samples.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(24): 6277-6287, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139880

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumors of germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers show homologous recombination (HR) deficiency (HRD), resulting in impaired DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and high sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Although this therapy is expected to be effective beyond germline BRCA1/2 mutated carriers, a robust validated test to detect HRD tumors is lacking. In this study, we therefore evaluated a functional HR assay exploiting the formation of RAD51 foci in proliferating cells after ex vivo irradiation of fresh breast cancer tissue: the recombination REpair CAPacity (RECAP) test. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fresh samples of 170 primary breast cancer were analyzed using the RECAP test. The molecular explanation for the HRD phenotype was investigated by exploring BRCA deficiencies, mutational signatures, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and microsatellite instability (MSI). RESULTS: RECAP was completed successfully in 148 of 170 samples (87%). Twenty-four tumors showed HRD (16%), whereas six tumors were HR intermediate (HRi; 4%). HRD was explained by BRCA deficiencies (mutations, promoter hypermethylation, deletions) in 16 cases, whereas seven HRD tumors were non-BRCA related. HRD tumors showed an increased incidence of high TIL counts (P = 0.023) compared with HR proficient (HRP) tumors and MSI was more frequently observed in the HRD group (2/20, 10%) than expected in breast cancer (1%; P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: RECAP is a robust functional HR assay detecting both BRCA1/2-deficient and BRCA1/2-proficient HRD tumors. Functional assessment of HR in a pseudo-diagnostic setting is achievable and produces robust and interpretable results.

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