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1.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(4)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether session rating of perceived exertion-derived training load (sRPE-TL) correlates with GPS-derived measures of external load in National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) Division I female soccer athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one NCAA Division 1 collegiate women's soccer athletes (11 starters, 10 non-starters; 65.1 ± 7.2 kg, 168.4 ± 7.9 cm, 20.3 ± 1.5 yrs) volunteered to take part in this study. Data for this study were collected over the course of 16 weeks during the 2018 NCAA women's soccer season. External load and heart rate (HR) data were collected during each training session and match during the season. At least 30 min after the end of an activity (e.g., match or practice), athletes were prompted to complete a questionnaire reporting their perceived exertion for the session. sRPE-TL was calculated at the end of the season by multiplying perceived exertion by the respective session duration. RESULTS: sRPE-TL was very strongly correlated with total distance, distance covered in velocity zones 1-3, the number of accelerations in zones 4 and 5, total PlayerLoad™, and PlayerLoad™. For internal load, sRPE-TL correlated very strongly (0.70 ≤ |r| < 0.90) with Edward's and Bannister's TRIMP and strongly (0.50 ≤ |r| < 0.70) with duration spent in in heart rate zones 5 and 6 (80-90% and 90-100% max HR, respectively) while correlations with maximum HR (bpm), mean HR (bpm), and mean HR (%) and sRPE-TL were moderate (0.30 ≤ |r| < 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: In NCAA Division I women soccer, sRPE-TL is strongly associated with external measures of workload. These relationships were stronger during match play, with acceleration load and total distance exhibiting the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL.

2.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 65, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: American-style football (ASF) athletes are at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and exhibit elevated levels of serum neurofilament light (Nf-L), a biomarker of axonal injury that is associated with repetitive head impact exposure over the course of a season of competition. Supplementation with the w-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) attenuates serum Nf-L elevations and improves aspects of CVD, such as the omega-3 index (O3I). However, the effect of combining the w-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) with DHA on, specifically, serum Nf-L in ASF athletes is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of supplemental w-3 FA (EPA+DPA+DHA) on serum Nf-L, plasma w-3 FAs, the O3I, and surrogate markers of inflammation over the course of a season. METHODS: A multi-site, non-randomized design, utilizing two American football teams was employed. One team (n = 3 1) received supplementation with a highly bioavailablew-3 FA formulation (2000mg DHA, 560mg EPA, 320mg DPA, Mindset®, Struct Nutrition, Missoula, MT) during pre-season and throughout the regular season, while the second team served as the control (n = 35) and did not undergo supplementation. Blood was sampled at specific times throughout pre- and regular season coincident w ith changes in intensity, physical contact, and changes in the incidence and severity of head impacts. Group differences were determined via a mixed-model between-within subjects ANOVA. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's dfor all between-group differences. Significance was set a priori at p< .05. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, ASF athletes in the treatment group experienced large increases in plasma EPA (p < .001, d = 1.71) and DHA (p < .001, d = 2.10) which contributed to increases in the O3I (p < .001, d = 2.16) and the EPA:AA ratio (p = .001, d = 0.83) and a reduction in the w-6: w-3 ratio (p < .001, d = 1.80). w-3 FA supplementation attenuated elevations in Nf-L (p = .024). The control group experienced a significant increase in Nf-L compared to baseline at several measurement time points (T2, T3, and T4 [p range < .001 - .005, drange = 0.59-0.85]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a cardio- and neuroprotective effect of combined EPA+DPA+DHA w-3 FA supplementation in American-style football athletes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with the ISRCTN registry ( ISRCTN90306741 ).


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/sangue , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Futebol Americano/lesões , Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199588

RESUMO

Creatine is one of the most studied and popular ergogenic aids for athletes and recreational weightlifters seeking to improve sport and exercise performance, augment exercise training adaptations, and mitigate recovery time. Studies consistently reveal that creatine supplementation exerts positive ergogenic effects on single and multiple bouts of short-duration, high-intensity exercise activities, in addition to potentiating exercise training adaptations. In this respect, supplementation consistently demonstrates the ability to enlarge the pool of intracellular creatine, leading to an amplification of the cell's ability to resynthesize adenosine triphosphate. This intracellular expansion is associated with several performance outcomes, including increases in maximal strength (low-speed strength), maximal work output, power production (high-speed strength), sprint performance, and fat-free mass. Additionally, creatine supplementation may speed up recovery time between bouts of intense exercise by mitigating muscle damage and promoting the faster recovery of lost force-production potential. Conversely, contradictory findings exist in the literature regarding the potential ergogenic benefits of creatine during intermittent and continuous endurance-type exercise, as well as in those athletic tasks where an increase in body mass may hinder enhanced performance. The purpose of this review was to summarize the existing literature surrounding the efficacy of creatine supplementation on exercise and sports performance, along with recovery factors in healthy populations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Creatina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Atletas , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670822

RESUMO

Creatine is a popular ergogenic aid among athletic populations with consistent evidence indicating that creatine supplementation also continues to be commonly used among adolescent populations. In addition, the evidence base supporting the therapeutic benefits of creatine supplementation for a plethora of clinical applications in both adults and children continues to grow. Among pediatric populations, a strong rationale exists for creatine to afford therapeutic benefits pertaining to multiple neuromuscular and metabolic disorders, with preliminary evidence for other subsets of clinical populations as well. Despite the strong evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of creatine supplementation among adult populations, less is known as to whether similar physiological benefits extend to children and adolescent populations, and in particular those adolescent populations who are regularly participating in high-intensity exercise training. While limited in scope, studies involving creatine supplementation and exercise performance in adolescent athletes generally report improvements in several ergogenic outcomes with limited evidence of ergolytic properties and consistent reports indicating no adverse events associated with supplementation. The purpose of this article is to summarize the rationale, prevalence of use, performance benefits, clinical applications, and safety of creatine use in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Futebol/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia
6.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(2): 368-376, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585801

RESUMO

Objective: To quantify the occurrence rate of abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and symptoms following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective analysis, we studied adult patients (>18 years old) who were participating in collegiate athletics and previously tested positive for COVID-19 between August 1, 2020, and December 30, 2020. The athletes underwent general examinations and ECG screening prior to being medically cleared for a return to sports following their COVID-19 diagnosis. Predetermined predictors were grouped into categorical variables including (1) sex, (2) symptom severity, and (3) body mass index (normal vs overweight [≥24 kg/m2]). These variables were used to examine differences of abnormal rates that occurred between different predictor categories. Results: Of the 170 athletes screened, 6 (3.5%) presented with abnormal ECG findings and were referred to cardiologists. We found no evidence that sex, symptom severity, and body mass index category were associated with a higher rate of abnormal ECG findings (all P>.05). Greater severity of COVID-19 symptoms was associated with a higher percentage of ST depression, T-wave inversion, ST-T changes, and the presence of fragmented QRS complex. Loss of smell, loss of taste, headache, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms, with 38.8% (66), 36.5% (62), 32.9% (56), and 25.3% (43), respectively, of the 170 athletes reporting each symptom. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate a low risk of myocardial injury secondary to COVID-19 infection, with less than 4% of the 170 patients in our study presenting with abnormal ECG findings and a total of 16 patients (9.4%) requiring referral to a cardiologist. Although viral myocarditis was not detected in any athlete referred for cardiological assessment, 2 patients experienced effusive viral pericarditis.

7.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 13, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557850

RESUMO

Supplementing with creatine is very popular amongst athletes and exercising individuals for improving muscle mass, performance and recovery. Accumulating evidence also suggests that creatine supplementation produces a variety of beneficial effects in older and patient populations. Furthermore, evidence-based research shows that creatine supplementation is relatively well tolerated, especially at recommended dosages (i.e. 3-5 g/day or 0.1 g/kg of body mass/day). Although there are over 500 peer-refereed publications involving creatine supplementation, it is somewhat surprising that questions regarding the efficacy and safety of creatine still remain. These include, but are not limited to: 1. Does creatine lead to water retention? 2. Is creatine an anabolic steroid? 3. Does creatine cause kidney damage/renal dysfunction? 4. Does creatine cause hair loss / baldness? 5. Does creatine lead to dehydration and muscle cramping? 6. Is creatine harmful for children and adolescents? 7. Does creatine increase fat mass? 8. Is a creatine 'loading-phase' required? 9. Is creatine beneficial for older adults? 10. Is creatine only useful for resistance / power type activities? 11. Is creatine only effective for males? 12. Are other forms of creatine similar or superior to monohydrate and is creatine stable in solutions/beverages? To answer these questions, an internationally renowned team of research experts was formed to perform an evidence-based scientific evaluation of the literature regarding creatine supplementation.


Assuntos
Creatina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Água Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Creatina/química , Creatina/metabolismo , Desidratação/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Cãibra Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Sexuais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Testosterona/metabolismo , Congêneres da Testosterona/farmacologia
8.
Temperature (Austin) ; 8(1): 64-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553506

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess autonomic and hemodynamic recovery in women who performed moderate-intensity exercise in heat. Seven women (31.7 ± 7.6 years, 67.5 ± 4.4 kg, 25.7 ± 5.6% Fat, 43.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min) completed two identical bouts of graded treadmill walking (~60% VO2peak). One bout was hot (37.5 ± 1.4°C, 46.5 ± 4.6% relative humidity (RH)), and the other was moderate (20.7 ± 1.1°C, 29.9 ± 4.1% RH). For 24 h before and one h after each bout, participants had heart rate variability monitored. After each exercise bout HR and BP were measured during 30 min of supine recovery and 10 min of orthostatic challenge. HF power and RMSSD were lower and LF power and LF:HF ratio greater following exercise in the heat and remained different from the moderate condition for 30 min (p < 0.05). During supine recovery, heat exposure led to higher HR (p = 0.002) and lower DBP (p = 0.016). SBP (p = 0.037) and DBP (p = 0.008) were both lower after 10 min of supine recovery following hot exercise than after moderate temperature. Average response did not reveal orthostatic hypotension despite heat causing a higher HR (p = 0.011) and lower SBP (p = 0.026) after 10 min of orthostatic exposure. Trained women exhibit an autonomic shift toward sympathetic dominance for at least 30 min after exercise in heat. Women who exercise in heat should be wary of an exacerbated HR response after exercise and low recovery blood pressures.

9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 61(2): 205-211, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As new technology emerges and updated fitness watches are released to the market, it is important to examine their accuracy. The aim of the current study was to examine the accuracy of three commercially available activity trackers in assessing heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) during moderate intensity exercise. METHODS: Twenty healthy participants (Age: 20.5±0.7 yrs., Ht: 173.4±10.8 cm, BM: 72.8±13.9 kg, BMI: 24.0±2.5 kg/m2) wore two fitness watches (FB: Fitbit VersaTM, San Francisco, CA, USA; and PI: Polar IgniteTM, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a chest-worn HR monitor (PTP: Polar TeamPro SensorTM, Polar Electro) during a 12-minute exercise protocol at incremental speeds. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and indirect calorimetry were used as criterion measures for HR and EE. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was calculated to determine measurement error. RESULTS: The MAPE values for HR were 11.6±8.7% for the FB, 11.0±10.0% for the PI, and 6.3±5.2% for the PTP. For EE, MAPE values were 9.6±7.2% for the FB, 16.7±19.6% for the PI and 13.8±13.0% for the PTP. CONCLUSIONS: Fitness watches relying on optical measures of HR underestimate HR compared to criterion measures during moderate intensity exercise. Despite providing a more accurate measure of HR, a chest-worn monitor does not provide a more accurate estimate of EE compared to fitness watches. The Fitbit provided the most accurate measure of EE when compared to the Polar Ignite watch and chest-worn device.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Equipamentos de Proteção , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(3): 804-810, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234694

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Zanders, BR, Currier, BS, Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Smith, CR, Stecker, RA, Richmond, SR, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Changes in energy expenditure, dietary intake, and energy availability across an entire collegiate women's basketball season. J Strength Cond Res 35(3): 804-810, 2021-The purpose of this study was to identify changes in energy expenditure and dietary intake across an entire women's basketball season. On 5 different occasions across the competitive season, female collegiate basketball players (19.8 ± 1.3 years, 173.9 ± 13.6 cm, 74.6 ± 9.1 kg, 27.1 ± 3.2% fat, 53.9 ± 6.4 ml·kg-1·min-1, n = 13) were outfitted with heart rate and activity monitors over 4 consecutive days and completed 4-day food and fluid records to assess changes in energy expenditure and dietary status. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess baseline body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured before and after the season. Data were analyzed using 1-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE, p = 0.059) and physical activity levels (TDEE/REE, p = 0.060) both tended to decrease throughout the season. Energy balance was negative at all time points throughout the season. Absolute and normalized daily protein intake at the end of the season was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than at the beginning of the season. Carbohydrate (3.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1·d-1) and protein (1.17 ± 0.16 g·kg-1·d-1) intakes were lower than commonly recommended values based on previously published guidelines. These findings suggest that greater education and interventions for collegiate athletes and coaches regarding dietary intake and energy expenditure are warranted.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Estações do Ano
11.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 17(1): 60, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large (48-g), isonitrogenous doses of rice and whey protein have previously been shown to stimulate similar adaptations to resistance training, but the impact of consuming smaller doses has yet to be compared. We evaluated the ability of 24-g doses of rice or whey protein concentrate to augment adaptations following 8 weeks of resistance training. METHODS: Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 24, 32.8 ± 6.7 years, 179.3 ± 8.5 cm, 87.4 ± 8.5 kg, 27.2 ± 1.9 kg/m2, 27.8 ± 6.0% fat) were randomly assigned and matched according to fat-free mass to consume 24-g doses of rice (n = 12, Growing Naturals, LLC) or whey (n = 12, NutraBio Labs, Inc.) protein concentrate for 8 weeks while completing a standardized resistance training program. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) and endurance (repetitions to fatigue [RTF] at 80% 1RM) using bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises along with anaerobic capacity (Wingate) were assessed before and after the intervention. Subjects were asked to maintain regular dietary habits and record dietary intake every 2 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using 2 × 2 mixed (group x time) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on time and independent samples t-tests using the change scores from baseline. A p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals on the changes between groups were used to determine outcomes. RESULTS: No baseline differences (p > 0.05) were found for key body composition and performance outcomes. No changes (p > 0.05) in dietary status occurred within or between groups (34 ± 4 kcal/kg/day, 3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day, 1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, 1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) throughout the study for daily relative energy (34 ± 4 kcals/kg/day), carbohydrate (3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day), fat (1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day), and protein (1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) intake. Significant main effects for time were revealed for body mass (p = 0.02), total body water (p = 0.01), lean mass (p = 0.008), fat-free mass (p = 0.007), BP 1RM (p = 0.02), BP volume (p = 0.04), and LP 1RM (p = 0.01). Changes between groups were similar for body mass (- 0.88, 2.03 kg, p = 0.42), fat-free mass (- 0.68, 1.99 kg, p = 0.32), lean mass (- 0.73, 1.91 kg, p = 0.37), fat mass (- 0.48, 1.02 kg, p = 0.46), and % fat (- 0.63, 0.71%, p = 0.90). No significant between group differences were seen for BP 1RM (- 13.8, 7.1 kg, p = 0.51), LP 1RM (- 38.8, 49.6 kg, p = 0.80), BP RTF (- 2.02, 0.35 reps, p = 0.16), LP RTF (- 1.7, 3.3 reps, p = 0.50), and Wingate peak power (- 72.5, 53.4 watts, p = 0.76) following the eight-week supplementation period. CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of daily isonitrogenous 24-g doses of rice or whey protein in combination with an eight-week resistance training program led to similar changes in body composition and performance outcomes. Retroactively registered on as NCT04411173 .


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Água Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720985058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries are important medical issues, particularly among youth as the long-term health consequences of these injuries can become increasingly problematic. The purpose of this study was to examine recent trends in diagnosed concussions among pediatric patients in a large health care system. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based epidemiology study design that queried all patient files (pediatrics included) using electronic medical health records and further stratified patients based on type of concussion, age, sex, and year from 2013 to 2018. RESULTS: Electronic health records from a cohort of 8 832 419 (nmales = 4 246 492; nfemales = 4 585 931) patient visits were assessed for concussion diagnosis and filtered for those whose concussive event led to a loss of consciousness (LOC) or not (nLOC). Of these patients, 12 068 were diagnosed with a concussion (LOC = 3 699; nLOC = 8 369) with an overall incidence rate of 1.37 concussions per 1000 patients. Overall, the number of patients diagnosed with a concussion increased by 5063 (LOC = 1351; nLOC = 3712) from 2013 to 2018. Males and females presented with similar rates of concussions 5919 (49.05%) and 6149 concussions (50.95%), respectively. Of total diagnosed concussions, 4972 (LOC = 815; nLOC = 4157) were under the age of 18 and represented 41.2% of all diagnosed concussions with an incidence rate of 6.79 per 1000 patients. CONCLUSION: The number of concussions diagnosed appear to be on the rise with the largest number of concussions being diagnosed in those under the age of 18. Future studies should seek to determine primary causality and the long-term health implications of concussions with or without LOC.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Front Nutr ; 7: 585900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330586

RESUMO

Little is known about the optimal time to consume caffeine prior to exercise to maximize the ergogenic benefits of the substance. Purpose: To determine the optimal pre-exercise time interval to consume caffeine to improve lower-body muscular performance. A secondary aim was to identify the presence of any sex differences in responses to timed caffeine administration. Methods: Healthy, resistance-trained males (n = 18; Mean±SD; Age: 25.1 ± 5.7 years; Height: 178.4 ± 7.1 cm; Body mass: 91.3 ± 13.5 kg; Percent body fat: 20.7 ± 5.2; Average caffeine consumption: 146.6 ± 100.3 mg/day) and females (n = 11; Mean ± SD; Age: 20.1 ± 1.6 years; Height: 165.0 ± 8.8 cm; Body mass: 65.8 ± 10.0 kg; Percent bodyfat: 25.8 ± 4.2; Average caffeine consumption: 111.8 ± 91.7 mg/day) participated in this investigation. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, participants consumed 6 mg·kg-1 caffeine or placebo solution at three time points: 2 h prior (2H), 1 h prior (1H), or 30 min prior (30M) to exercise testing. During three visits, caffeine was randomly administered at one time point, and placebo was administered at the other two time points. During one visit, placebo was administered at all three time points. Next, participants performed isometric mid-thigh pulls (IMTP), countermovement vertical jumps (CMVJ), and isometric/isokinetic knee extensor testing (ISO/ISOK). Results: Caffeine administered at 1H significantly improved absolute CMVJ and ISO performance relative to placebo. Mean CMVJ jump height was significantly higher during 1H compared to 30M. However, only caffeine administered at 30M significantly improved absolute measures of isokinetic performance. Analysis of the pooled caffeine conditions revealed that muscular performance was more consistently augmented by caffeine in males compared to females. Conclusions: Pre-exercise caffeine timing significantly modulated participant responses to the substance, with 1H exerting the most consistent ergogenic benefits relative to other time points, particularly compared to 2H. Male participants were found to respond more consistently to caffeine compared to female participants. These results suggest that active individuals can maximize the ergogenic effects of caffeine by consuming the substance ~1 h prior to the point when peak muscular performance is desired.

14.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720964665, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078678

RESUMO

Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain and debility. Minimally invasive treatment options have been employed for management; however, ultrasonic tenotomy has not been previously described for management of calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder. The purpose of the current case series was to provide preliminary evidence in support of a novel treatment modality for calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. This descriptive pilot case series included a total of 8 patients with calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus that underwent ultrasound-guided ultrasonic debridement in the sports medicine clinic. All procedures were performed by the same physician (JLE). All patients had confirmation of the diagnosis with MRI and ultrasound imaging. Pain was measured pre-procedure and followed until 3-months post-procedure. Very large, statistically significant, reductions (P < .01) in pain scores were observed at 1 (ES = 1.93), 2 (ES = 1.84) and 3 (ES = 2.20) months post-procedure, respectively. All patients experienced a significant reduction in pain scores, regardless of hardness of the calcium deposit, at 1 month post-procedure with pain scores remaining lower than at baseline at 2 and 3 months post-procedure. No adverse events were noted in any patients. Ultrasonic tenotomy and debridement appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus.


Assuntos
Calcinose , Tendinopatia , Calcinose/cirurgia , Desbridamento , Humanos , Ombro , Tendinopatia/cirurgia , Tenotomia , Ultrassom
15.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(10)2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992830

RESUMO

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a multi-ingredient (i.e., caffeine, green tea extract, Yohimbe extract, capsicum annum, coleus extract, L-carnitine, beta-alanine, tyrosine) preworkout supplement versus a dose of caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) on energy expenditure during low-intensity exercise. The effects of these treatments on substrate utilization, gas exchange, and psychological factors were also investigated. Twelve males (mean ± SD: age = 22.8 ± 2.4 years) completed three bouts of 60 min of treadmill exercise on separate days after consuming a preworkout supplement, 6 mg·kg-1 of caffeine, or placebo in a randomized fashion. The preworkout and caffeine supplements resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure (p < 0.001, p = 0.006, respectively), V˙O2 (p < 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively), V˙CO2 (p = 0.006, p = 0.049, respectively), and V˙E (p < 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively) compared to placebo (collapsed across condition). There were no differences among conditions, however, for rates of fat or carbohydrate oxidation or respiratory exchange ratio. In addition, the preworkout supplement increased feelings of alertness (p = 0.015) and focus (p = 0.005) 30-min postingestion and decreased feelings of fatigue (p = 0.014) during exercise compared to placebo. Thus, the preworkout supplement increased energy expenditure and measures of gas exchange to the same extent as 6 mg·kg-1 of caffeine with concomitant increased feelings of alertness and focus and decreased feelings of fatigue.

16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720947963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757817

RESUMO

The first documented case of COVID-19 in the United States occurred on January 30th, 2020. Soon after, a global pandemic was declared in March 2020 with each state issuing stay at home orders based on population, risk for community transmission and current number of positive cases. A priority for each region was to develop efficient systems for testing large patient volumes in a safe manner to reduce the risk of community transmission. A community based United States health care system in the upper mid-west implemented a drive through testing site in an attempt to divert suspected cases of COVID-19 away from larger patient areas while protecting staff and patients. This commentary outlines the planning, work flow and challenges of implementing this drive through testing site in a rural community setting.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(8): 1594-1603, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the frequency and severity of federally reported adverse events between caffeine-containing and non-caffeine-containing products while also identifying the category of caffeine-containing products associated with the highest frequency and severity of adverse events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adverse event reports that met specified eligibility criteria and were submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Adverse Event Reporting System between January 1, 2014, and June 29, 2018, were extracted. In this retrospective observational study, the most severe adverse event experienced, an ordinal variable, was categorized into death, life-threatening, hospitalization/disability, and emergency department visit. A nonproportional odds model was used to compare the odds of caffeine-containing products being associated with more severe adverse events relative to a noncaffeine group. The analysis is of data only from those reporting adverse events and may or may not be representative of the entire population exposed to these products, which is not known from the examined data. RESULTS: Energy and preworkout products saw a significant increase in the odds of the adverse event experienced being death rather than the other less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. Those products, along with weight loss products, had greater odds of the adverse event being death or life-threatening vs the less severe outcomes relative to the noncaffeinated group. CONCLUSION: Caffeine-containing products have a greater association with severe adverse events compared with non-caffeine-containing products. Exposure to preworkout and weight loss products had greater odds of being associated with a more serious adverse event relative to noncaffeinated products. Health care practitioners should use these outcomes to better inform and educate patients about the many factors related to caffeine intake and adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Cafeína/toxicidade , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Café/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Chá/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545603

RESUMO

Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women's collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 ± 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 ± 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 ± 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 ± 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 ± 2588 m and 1019 ± 552 m at high speeds (>249.6 m·m-1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 ± 14.7 m·m-1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 ± 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 ± 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.

19.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325856

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise and thermal stress instigate robust challenges to the immune system. Various attempts to modify or supplement the diet have been proposed to bolster the immune system responses. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of yeast beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Healthy, active men (29.6 ± 6.7 years, 178.1 ± 7.2 cm, 83.2 ± 11.2 kg, 49.6 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min, n = 16) and women (30.1 ± 8.9 years, 165.6 ± 4.1 cm, 66.7 ± 10.0 kg, 38.7 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, n = 15) were randomly assigned in a double-blind and cross-over fashion to supplement for 13 days with either 250 mg/day of yeast beta-glucan (YBG) or a maltodextrin placebo (PLA). Participants arrived fasted and completed a bout of treadmill exercise at 55% peak aerobic capacity (VO2Peak) in a hot (37.2 ± 1.8 °C) and humid (45.2 ± 8.8%) environment. Prior to and 0, 2, and 72 h after completing exercise, changes in white blood cell counts, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, markers of muscle damage, markers of muscle function, soreness, and profile of mood states (POMS) were assessed. In response to exercise and heat, both groups experienced significant increases in white blood cell counts, plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin, and soreness along with reductions in peak torque and total work with no between-group differences. Concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines in YBG were lower than PLA for macrophage inflammatory protein 1ß (MIP-1ß) (p = 0.044) and tended to be lower for interleukin 8 (IL-8) (p = 0.079), monocyte chemoattractment protein 1 (MCP-1) (p = 0.095), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (p = 0.085). Paired samples t-tests using delta values between baseline and 72 h post-exercise revealed significant differences between groups for IL-8 (p = 0.044, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (0.013, 0.938, d = -0.34), MCP-1 (p = 0.038, 95% CI: 0.087, 2.942, d = -0.33), and MIP-1ß (p = 0.010, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.85, d = -0.33). POMS outcomes changed across time with anger scores in PLA exhibiting a sharper decline than YBG (p = 0.04). Vigor scores (p = 0.04) in YBG remained stable while scores in PLA were significantly reduced 72 h after exercise. In conclusion, a 13-day prophylactic period of supplementation with 250 mg of yeast-derived beta-glucans invoked favorable changes in cytokine markers of inflammation after completing a prolonged bout of heated treadmill exercise.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adulto , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fadiga Muscular/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
20.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331393

RESUMO

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors (i.e., substrate utilization, measures of gas exchange), perceived exertion, and resting cardiovascular variables with one and two doses of the pre-workout supplement. Twelve females (mean ± SD: age = 25.3 ± 9.4 years; body mass = 61.2 ± 6.8 kg) completed three bouts of 30 min of treadmill running at 90% of their ventilatory threshold on separate days after consuming one dose of the pre-workout supplement (1-dose), two doses (2-dose), and a placebo. There were no differences among conditions for energy expenditure, fat or carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen consumption, or heart rate across exercise time. The two-dose group, however, had lower (p = 0.036) ratings of perceived exertion (11.8 ± 1.7) than the one-dose (12.6 ± 1.7) and the placebo (12.3 ± 1.2) at the 20-min time point of exercise as well as greater resting systolic blood pressure (110 ± 10 mmHg) compared to the one-dose (106 ± 10 mmHg) and the placebo (104 ± 10 mmHg) conditions. Both the one-dose and two-dose conditions had greater increases in diastolic blood pressure compared to the placebo. Thus, our findings indicated that the present pre-workout supplement had no performance-enhancing benefits related to energy metabolism but did attenuate feelings of exertion.

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