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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782916

RESUMO

In the "cART era" of more widely available and accessible treatment, aging and HIV-related comorbidities, including symptoms of brain dysfunction, remain common among HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. A better understanding of the neurobiological consequences of HIV infection is essential for developing thorough treatment guidelines and for optimizing long-term neuropsychological outcomes and overall brain health. In this chapter, we first summarize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods used in over two decades of neuroHIV research. These methods evaluate brain volumetric differences and circuitry disruptions in adults living with HIV, and help map clinical correlations with brain function and tissue microstructure. We then introduce and discuss aging and associated neurological complications in people living with HIV, and processes by which infection may contribute to the risk for late-onset dementias. We describe how new technologies and large-scale international collaborations are helping to disentangle the effect of genetic and environmental risk factors on brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We provide insights into how these advances, which are now at the forefront of Alzheimer's disease research, may advance the field of neuroHIV. We conclude with a summary of how we see the field of neuroHIV research advancing in the decades to come and highlight potential clinical implications.

2.
Neuroimage Clin ; 29: 102574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530016

RESUMO

Neurological and psychiatric illnesses are associated with regional brain deficit patterns that bear unique signatures and capture illness-specific characteristics. The Regional Vulnerability Index (RVI) was developed toquantify brain similarity by comparing individual white matter microstructure, cortical gray matter thickness and subcortical gray matter structural volume measures with neuroanatomical deficit patterns derived from large-scale meta-analytic studies. We tested the specificity of the RVI approach for major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a large epidemiological sample of UK Biobank (UKBB) participants (N = 19,393; 9138 M/10,255F; age = 64.8 ± 7.4 years). Compared to controls free of neuropsychiatric disorders, participants with MDD (N = 2,248; 805 M/1443F; age = 63.4 ± 7.4) had significantly higher RVI-MDD values (t = 5.6, p = 1·10-8), but showed no detectable difference in RVI-AD (t = 2.0, p = 0.10). Subjects with dementia (N = 7; 4 M/3F; age = 68.6 ± 8.6 years) showed significant elevation in RVI-AD (t = 4.2, p = 3·10-5) but not RVI-MDD (t = 2.1, p = 0.10) compared to controls. Even within affective illnesses, participants with bipolar disorder (N = 54) and anxiety disorder (N = 773) showed no significant elevation in whole-brain RVI-MDD. Participants with Parkinson's disease (N = 37) showed elevation in RVI-AD (t = 2.4, p = 0.01) while subjects with stroke (N = 247) showed no such elevation (t = 1.1, p = 0.3). In summary, we demonstrated elevation in RVI-MDD and RVI-AD measures in the respective illnesses with strong replicability that is relatively specific to the respective diagnoses. These neuroanatomic deviation patterns offer a useful biomarker for population-wide assessments of similarity to neuropsychiatric illnesses.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 740-756, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders as well as the underlying neurocircuitry. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for cross-disorder vulnerability, and those that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the genetic overlap between cross-disorder vulnerability to psychiatric disorders (p-factor) and subcortical brain structures. METHODS: Summary statistics were obtained from the PGC cross-disorder genome-wide association study (GWAS) (Ncase= 232,964, Ncontrol= 494,162) and the CHARGE-ENIGMA subcortical brain volumes GWAS (N=38,851). SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to assess pleiotropy and concordance. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression and ρ-HESS were used to assess genetic correlation and conditional false discovery (cFDR) was used to identify variants associated with p-factor, conditional on the variants association with subcortical brain volumes. RESULTS: Evidence of global pleiotropy between p-factor and all subcortical brain regions was observed. Risk variants for p-factor correlated negatively with brainstem. A total of 787 LD-independent variants were significantly associated with p-factor when conditioned on the subcortical GWAS results. Gene set enrichment analysis of these variants implicated actin binding and neuronal regulation. LIMITATIONS: SECA could be biased due to the potential presence of overlapping study participants in the p-factor and subcortical GWASs. CONCLUSION: Findings of genome-wide pleiotropy and possible concordance between genetic variants that contribute to p-factor and smaller brainstem volumes, are consistent with previous work. cFDR results highlight actin binding and neuron regulation as key underlying mechanisms. Further fine-grained delineation of these mechanisms is needed to advance the field.

4.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117751, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460799

RESUMO

An accurate measure of the complexity of patterns of cortical folding or gyrification is necessary for understanding normal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders. Conventional gyrification indices (GIs) are calculated based on surface curvature (curvature-based GI) or an outer hull surface of the cortex (outer surface-based GI). The latter is dependent on the definition of the outer hull surface and a corresponding function between surfaces. In the present study, we propose the Laplace Beltrami-based gyrification index (LB-GI). This is a new curvature-based local GI computed using the first three Laplace Beltrami eigenfunction level sets. As with outer surface-based GI methods, this method is based on the hypothesis that gyrification stems from a flat surface during development. However, instead of quantifying gyrification with reference to corresponding points on an outer hull surface, LB-GI quantifies the gyrification at each point on the cortical surface with reference to their surrounding gyral points, overcoming several shortcomings of existing methods. The LB-GI was applied to investigate the cortical maturation profile of the human brain from preschool to early adulthood using the PING database. The results revealed more detail in patterns of cortical folding than conventional curvature-based methods, especially on frontal and posterior tips of the brain, such as the frontal pole, lateral occipital, lateral cuneus, and lingual. Negative associations of cortical folding with age were observed at cortical regions, including bilateral lingual, lateral occipital, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus. The results also indicated positive significant associations between age and the LB-GI of bilateral insula, the medial orbitofrontal, frontal pole and rostral anterior cingulate regions. It is anticipated that the LB-GI will be advantageous in providing further insights in the understanding of brain development and degeneration in large clinical neuroimaging studies.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031190, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449093

RESUMO

Importance: Despite more widely accessible combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-1 infection remains a global public health challenge. Even in treated patients with chronic HIV infection, neurocognitive impairment often persists, affecting quality of life. Identifying the neuroanatomical pathways associated with infection in vivo may delineate the neuropathologic processes underlying these deficits. However, published neuroimaging findings from relatively small, heterogeneous cohorts are inconsistent, limiting the generalizability of the conclusions drawn to date. Objective: To examine structural brain associations with the most commonly collected clinical assessments of HIV burden (CD4+ T-cell count and viral load), which are generalizable across demographically and clinically diverse HIV-infected individuals worldwide. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study established the HIV Working Group within the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium to pool and harmonize data from existing HIV neuroimaging studies. In total, data from 1295 HIV-positive adults were contributed from 13 studies across Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Regional and whole brain segmentations were extracted from data sets as contributing studies joined the consortium on a rolling basis from November 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volume estimates for 8 subcortical brain regions were extracted from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to identify associations with blood plasma markers of current immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell counts) or detectable plasma viral load (dVL) in HIV-positive participants. Post hoc sensitivity analyses stratified data by cART status. Results: After quality assurance, data from 1203 HIV-positive individuals (mean [SD] age, 45.7 [11.5] years; 880 [73.2%] male; 897 [74.6%] taking cART) remained. Lower current CD4+ cell counts were associated with smaller hippocampal (mean [SE] ß = 16.66 [4.72] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P < .001) and thalamic (mean [SE] ß = 32.24 [8.96] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P < .001) volumes and larger ventricles (mean [SE] ß = -391.50 [122.58] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P = .001); in participants not taking cART, however, lower current CD4+ cell counts were associated with smaller putamen volumes (mean [SE] ß = 57.34 [18.78] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P = .003). A dVL was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (d = -0.17; P = .005); in participants taking cART, dVL was also associated with smaller amygdala volumes (d = -0.23; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: In a large-scale international population of HIV-positive individuals, volumes of structures in the limbic system were consistently associated with current plasma markers. Our findings extend beyond the classically implicated regions of the basal ganglia and may represent a generalizable brain signature of HIV infection in the cART era.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV , Carga Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Addict Biol ; : e13010, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508888

RESUMO

Brain asymmetry reflects left-right hemispheric differentiation, which is a quantitative brain phenotype that develops with age and can vary with psychiatric diagnoses. Previous studies have shown that substance dependence is associated with altered brain structure and function. However, it is unknown whether structural brain asymmetries are different in individuals with substance dependence compared with nondependent participants. Here, a mega-analysis was performed using a collection of 22 structural brain MRI datasets from the ENIGMA Addiction Working Group. Structural asymmetries of cortical and subcortical regions were compared between individuals who were dependent on alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, methamphetamine, or cannabis (n = 1,796) and nondependent participants (n = 996). Substance-general and substance-specific effects on structural asymmetry were examined using separate models. We found that substance dependence was significantly associated with differences in volume asymmetry of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc; less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.15). This effect was driven by differences from controls in individuals with alcohol dependence (less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.10) and nicotine dependence (less rightward; Cohen's d = 0.11). These findings suggest that disrupted structural asymmetry in the NAcc may be a characteristic of substance dependence.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456050

RESUMO

Genomewide association studies have found significant genetic correlations among many neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, we know much less about the degree to which structural brain alterations are similar among disorders and, if so, the degree to which such similarities have a genetic etiology. From the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, we acquired standardized mean differences (SMDs) in regional brain volume and cortical thickness between cases and controls. We had data on 41 brain regions for: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), epilepsy, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). These data had been derived from 24,360 patients and 37,425 controls. The SMDs were significantly correlated between SCZ and BD, OCD, MDD, and ASD. MDD was positively correlated with BD and OCD. BD was positively correlated with OCD and negatively correlated with ADHD. These pairwise correlations among disorders were correlated with the corresponding pairwise correlations among disorders derived from genomewide association studies (r = 0.494). Our results show substantial similarities in sMRI phenotypes among neuropsychiatric disorders and suggest that these similarities are accounted for, in part, by corresponding similarities in common genetic variant architectures.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288872

RESUMO

Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report volume abnormalities in multiple regions of the cerebral cortex. However, findings for many regions, particularly regions outside commonly studied emotion-related prefrontal, insular, and limbic regions, are inconsistent and tentative. Also, few studies address the possibility that PTSD abnormalities may be confounded by comorbid depression. A mega-analysis investigating all cortical regions in a large sample of PTSD and control subjects can potentially provide new insight into these issues. Given this perspective, our group aggregated regional volumes data of 68 cortical regions across both hemispheres from 1379 PTSD patients to 2192 controls without PTSD after data were processed by 32 international laboratories using ENIGMA standardized procedures. We examined whether regional cortical volumes were different in PTSD vs. controls, were associated with posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity, or were affected by comorbid depression. Volumes of left and right lateral orbitofrontal gyri (LOFG), left superior temporal gyrus, and right insular, lingual and superior parietal gyri were significantly smaller, on average, in PTSD patients than controls (standardized coefficients = -0.111 to -0.068, FDR corrected P values < 0.039) and were significantly negatively correlated with PTSS severity. After adjusting for depression symptoms, the PTSD findings in left and right LOFG remained significant. These findings indicate that cortical volumes in PTSD patients are smaller in prefrontal regulatory regions, as well as in broader emotion and sensory processing cortical regions.

9.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290510

RESUMO

Structural brain changes along the lineage leading to modern Homo sapiens contributed to our distinctive cognitive and social abilities. However, the evolutionarily relevant molecular variants impacting key aspects of neuroanatomy are largely unknown. Here, we integrate evolutionary annotations of the genome at diverse timescales with common variant associations from large-scale neuroimaging genetic screens. We find that alleles with evidence of recent positive polygenic selection over the past 2000-3000 years are associated with increased surface area (SA) of the entire cortex, as well as specific regions, including those involved in spoken language and visual processing. Therefore, polygenic selective pressures impact the structure of specific cortical areas even over relatively recent timescales. Moreover, common sequence variation within human gained enhancers active in the prenatal cortex is associated with postnatal global SA. We show that such variation modulates the function of a regulatory element of the developmentally relevant transcription factor HEY2 in human neural progenitor cells and is associated with structural changes in the inferior frontal cortex. These results indicate that non-coding genomic regions active during prenatal cortical development are involved in the evolution of human brain structure and identify novel regulatory elements and genes impacting modern human brain structure.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300665

RESUMO

Here we review the motivation for creating the enhancing neuroimaging genetics through meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium and the genetic analyses undertaken by the consortium so far. We discuss the methodological challenges, findings, and future directions of the genetics working group. A major goal of the working group is tackling the reproducibility crisis affecting "candidate gene" and genome-wide association analyses in neuroimaging. To address this, we developed harmonized analytic methods, and support their use in coordinated analyses across sites worldwide, which also makes it possible to understand heterogeneity in results across sites. These efforts have resulted in the identification of hundreds of common genomic loci robustly associated with brain structure. We have found both pleiotropic and specific genetic effects associated with brain structures, as well as genetic correlations with psychiatric and neurological diseases.

11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368865

RESUMO

Structural hippocampal abnormalities are common in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, and variation in hippocampal measures is related to cognitive performance and other complex phenotypes such as stress sensitivity. Hippocampal subregions are increasingly studied, as automated algorithms have become available for mapping and volume quantification. In the context of the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium, several Disease Working Groups are using the FreeSurfer software to analyze hippocampal subregion (subfield) volumes in patients with neurological and psychiatric conditions along with data from matched controls. In this overview, we explain the algorithm's principles, summarize measurement reliability studies, and demonstrate two additional aspects (subfield autocorrelation and volume/reliability correlation) with illustrative data. We then explain the rationale for a standardized hippocampal subfield segmentation quality control (QC) procedure for improved pipeline harmonization. To guide researchers to make optimal use of the algorithm, we discuss how global size and age effects can be modeled, how QC steps can be incorporated and how subfields may be aggregated into composite volumes. This discussion is based on a synopsis of 162 published neuroimaging studies (01/2013-12/2019) that applied the FreeSurfer hippocampal subfield segmentation in a broad range of domains including cognition and healthy aging, brain development and neurodegeneration, affective disorders, psychosis, stress regulation, neurotoxicity, epilepsy, inflammatory disease, childhood adversity and posttraumatic stress disorder, and candidate and whole genome (epi-)genetics. Finally, we highlight points where FreeSurfer-based hippocampal subfield studies may be optimized.

13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067842

RESUMO

As stroke mortality rates decrease, there has been a surge of effort to study poststroke dementia (PSD) to improve long-term quality of life for stroke survivors. Hippocampal volume may be an important neuroimaging biomarker in poststroke dementia, as it has been associated with many other forms of dementia. However, studying hippocampal volume using MRI requires hippocampal segmentation. Advances in automated segmentation methods have allowed for studying the hippocampus on a large scale, which is important for robust results in the heterogeneous stroke population. However, most of these automated methods use a single atlas-based approach and may fail in the presence of severe structural abnormalities common in stroke. Hippodeep, a new convolutional neural network-based hippocampal segmentation method, does not rely solely on a single atlas-based approach and thus may be better suited for stroke populations. Here, we compared quality control and the accuracy of segmentations generated by Hippodeep and two well-accepted hippocampal segmentation methods on stroke MRIs (FreeSurfer 6.0 whole hippocampus and FreeSurfer 6.0 sum of hippocampal subfields). Quality control was performed using a stringent protocol for visual inspection of the segmentations, and accuracy was measured as volumetric correlation with manual segmentations. Hippodeep performed significantly better than both FreeSurfer methods in terms of quality control. All three automated segmentation methods had good correlation with manual segmentations and no one method was significantly more correlated than the others. Overall, this study suggests that both Hippodeep and FreeSurfer may be useful for hippocampal segmentation in stroke rehabilitation research, but Hippodeep may be more robust to stroke lesion anatomy.

14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017498

RESUMO

Early-onset psychosis disorders are serious mental disorders arising before the age of 18 years. Here, we investigate the largest neuroimaging dataset, to date, of patients with early-onset psychosis and healthy controls for differences in intracranial and subcortical brain volumes. The sample included 263 patients with early-onset psychosis (mean age: 16.4 ± 1.4 years, mean illness duration: 1.5 ± 1.4 years, 39.2% female) and 359 healthy controls (mean age: 15.9 ± 1.7 years, 45.4% female) with magnetic resonance imaging data, pooled from 11 clinical cohorts. Patients were diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia (n = 183), affective psychosis (n = 39), or other psychotic disorders (n = 41). We used linear mixed-effects models to investigate differences in intracranial and subcortical volumes across the patient sample, diagnostic subgroup and antipsychotic medication, relative to controls. We observed significantly lower intracranial (Cohen's d = -0.39) and hippocampal (d = -0.25) volumes, and higher caudate (d = 0.25) and pallidum (d = 0.24) volumes in patients relative to controls. Intracranial volume was lower in both early-onset schizophrenia (d = -0.34) and affective psychosis (d = -0.42), and early-onset schizophrenia showed lower hippocampal (d = -0.24) and higher pallidum (d = 0.29) volumes. Patients who were currently treated with antipsychotic medication (n = 193) had significantly lower intracranial volume (d = -0.42). The findings demonstrate a similar pattern of brain alterations in early-onset psychosis as previously reported in adult psychosis, but with notably low intracranial volume. The low intracranial volume suggests disrupted neurodevelopment in adolescent early-onset psychosis.

15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073925

RESUMO

The hippocampus consists of anatomically and functionally distinct subfields that may be differentially involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we, the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Bipolar Disorder workinggroup, study hippocampal subfield volumetry in BD. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 4,698 individuals (BD = 1,472, healthy controls [HC] = 3,226) from 23 sites worldwide were processed with FreeSurfer. We used linear mixed-effects models and mega-analysis to investigate differences in hippocampal subfield volumes between BD and HC, followed by analyses of clinical characteristics and medication use. BD showed significantly smaller volumes of the whole hippocampus (Cohen's d = -0.20), cornu ammonis (CA)1 (d = -0.18), CA2/3 (d = -0.11), CA4 (d = -0.19), molecular layer (d = -0.21), granule cell layer of dentate gyrus (d = -0.21), hippocampal tail (d = -0.10), subiculum (d = -0.15), presubiculum (d = -0.18), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (d = -0.17) compared to HC. Lithium users did not show volume differences compared to HC, while non-users did. Antipsychotics or antiepileptic use was associated with smaller volumes. In this largest study of hippocampal subfields in BD to date, we show widespread reductions in nine of 12 subfields studied. The associations were modulated by medication use and specifically the lack of differences between lithium users and HC supports a possible protective role of lithium in BD.

16.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 510, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934300

RESUMO

Cortical folds help drive the parcellation of the human cortex into functionally specific regions. Variations in the length, depth, width, and surface area of these sulcal landmarks have been associated with disease, and may be genetically mediated. Before estimating the heritability of sulcal variation, the extent to which these metrics can be reliably extracted from in-vivo MRI must be established. Using four independent test-retest datasets, we found high reliability across the brain (intraclass correlation interquartile range: 0.65-0.85). Heritability estimates were derived for three family-based cohorts using variance components analysis and pooled (total N > 3000); the overall sulcal heritability pattern was correlated to that derived for a large population cohort (N > 9000) calculated using genomic complex trait analysis. Overall, sulcal width was the most heritable metric, and earlier forming sulci showed higher heritability. The inter-hemispheric genetic correlations were high, yet select sulci showed incomplete pleiotropy, suggesting hemisphere-specific genetic influences.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643841

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD) are associated with brain alterations particularly involving fronto-cerebellar and meso-cortico-limbic circuitry. However, such abnormalities have additionally been reported in other psychiatric conditions, and until recently there has been few large-scale investigations to compare such findings. The current study uses the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium method of standardising structural brain measures to quantify case-control differences and to compare brain-correlates of substance use disorders with those published in relation to other psychiatric disorders. Using the ENIGMA protocols, we report effect sizes derived from a meta-analysis of alcohol (seven studies, N = 798, 54% are cases) and cannabis (seven studies, N = 447, 45% are cases) dependent cases and age- and sex-matched controls. We conduct linear analyses using harmonised methods to process and parcellate brain data identical to those reported in the literature for ENIGMA case-control studies of major depression disorder (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder so that effect sizes are optimally comparable across disorders. R elationships between substance use disorder diagnosis and subcortical grey matter volumes and cortical thickness were assessed with intracranial volume, age and sex as co-variates . After correcting for multiple comparisons, AUD case-control meta-analysis of subcortical regions indicated significant differences in the thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and accumbens, with effect sizes (0.23) generally equivalent to, or larger than |0.23| those previously reported for other psychiatric disorders (except for the pallidum and putamen). On measures of cortical thickness, AUD was associated with significant differences bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, superior frontal gyrus, and rostral and caudal anterior cingulate gyri. Meta-analysis of CUD case-control studies indicated reliable reductions in amygdala, accumbens and hippocampus volumes, with the former effect size comparable to, and the latter effect size around half of that reported for alcohol and SCZ. CUD was associated with lower cortical thickness in the frontal regions, particularly the medial orbitofrontal region, but this effect was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. This study allowed for an unbiased cross-disorder comparison of brain correlates of substance use disorders and showed alcohol-related brain anomalies equivalent in effect size to that found in SCZ in several subcortical and cortical regions and significantly greater alterations than those found in MDD in several subcortical and cortical regions. Although modest, CUD results overlapped with findings reported for AUD and other psychiatric conditions, but appear to be most robustly related to reduce thickness of the medial orbitofrontal cortex.

18.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618421

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging methodology. The ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group has brought together researchers from around the world, in a harmonized and coordinated effort to address these challenges and generate more robust and reproducible findings. This paper elaborates on the concepts and methods informing the work of the working group to date, and describes the initial approach of the four subgroups studying generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. At present, the ENIGMA-Anxiety database contains information about more than 100 unique samples, from 16 countries and 59 institutes. Future directions include examining additional imaging modalities, integrating imaging and genetic data, and collaborating with other ENIGMA working groups. The ENIGMA consortium creates synergy at the intersection of global mental health and clinical neuroscience, and the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group extends the promise of this approach to neuroimaging research on anxiety disorders.

19.
Schizophr Bull ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681179

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe psychiatric illness associated with an elevated risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both SZ and AD have white matter abnormalities and cognitive deficits as core disease features. We hypothesized that aging in SZ patients may be associated with the development of cerebral white matter deficit patterns similar to those observed in AD. We identified and replicated aging-related increases in the similarity between white matter deficit patterns in patients with SZ and AD. The white matter "regional vulnerability index" (RVI) for AD was significantly higher in SZ patients compared with healthy controls in both the independent discovery (Cohen's d = 0.44, P = 1·10-5, N = 173 patients/230 control) and replication (Cohen's d = 0.78, P = 9·10-7, N = 122 patients/64 controls) samples. The degree of overlap with the AD deficit pattern was significantly correlated with age in patients (r = .21 and .29, P < .01 in discovery and replication cohorts, respectively) but not in controls. Elevated RVI-AD was significantly associated with cognitive measures in both SZ and AD. Disease and cognitive specificities were also tested in patients with mild cognitive impairment and showed intermediate overlap. SZ and AD have diverse etiologies and clinical courses; our findings suggest that white matter deficits may represent a key intersecting point for these 2 otherwise distinct diseases. Identifying mechanisms underlying this white matter deficit pattern may yield preventative and treatment targets for cognitive deficits in both SZ and AD patients.

20.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(13): 3737-3748, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558014

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are difficult to investigate, partly because diagnosis lags behind the insidious pathological processes. Therefore, identifying AD neuroimaging markers and their genetic modifiers may help study early mechanisms of neurodegeneration. We aimed to identify brain regions of the highest vulnerability to AD using a data-driven search in the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 1,100 subjects), and further explored genetic variants affecting this critical brain trait using both ADNI and the younger UK Biobank cohort (n = 8,428 subjects). Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) identified the limbic system and its interconnecting white-matter as the most AD-vulnerable brain feature. Whole-genome analysis revealed a common variant in SHARPIN that was associated with this imaging feature (rs34173062, p = 2.1 × 10-10 ). This genetic association was validated in the UK Biobank, where it was correlated with entorhinal cortical thickness bilaterally (p = .002 left and p = 8.6 × 10-4 right), and with parental history of AD (p = 2.3 × 10-6 ). Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical variation in the limbic system and AD risk are associated with a novel variant in SHARPIN. The role of this postsynaptic density gene product in ß1-integrin adhesion is in line with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular signaling pathway and the recent genome-wide evidence.

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