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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683618

RESUMO

For orthopaedic applications, additive manufactured (AM) porous scaffolds made of absorbable metals such as magnesium, zinc or iron are of particular interest. They do not only offer the potential to design and fabricate bio-mimetic or rather bone-equivalent mechanical properties, they also do not need to be removed in further surgery. Located in a physiological environment, scaffolds made of absorbable metals show a decreasing Young's modulus over time, due to product dissolution. For magnesium-based scaffolds during the first days an increase of the smeared Young's modulus can be observed, which is mainly attributed to a forming substrate layer of degradation products on the strut surfaces. In this study, the influence of degradation products on the stiffness properties of metallic scaffolds is investigated. For this, analytical calculations and finite-element simulations are performed to study the influence of the substrate layer thickness and Young's modulus for single struts and for a new scaffold geometry with adapted polar cubic face-centered unit cells with vertical struts (f2cc,z). The finite-element model is further validated by compression tests on AM scaffolds made from Zn1Mg (1 wt% Mg). The results show that even low thicknesses and Young's moduli of the substrate layer significantly increases the smeared Young's modulus under axial compression.

2.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573026

RESUMO

Bone-forming cells build mineralized microstructure and couple with bone-resorbing cells, harmonizing bone mineral acquisition, and remodeling to maintain bone mass homeostasis. Mitochondrial glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways together with ROS generation meet the energy requirement for bone-forming cell growth and differentiation, respectively. Moderate mechanical stimulations, such as weight loading, physical activity, ultrasound, vibration, and electromagnetic field stimulation, etc., are advantageous to bone-forming cell activity, promoting bone anabolism to compromise osteoporosis development. A plethora of molecules, including ion channels, integrins, focal adhesion kinases, and myokines, are mechanosensitive and transduce mechanical stimuli into intercellular signaling, regulating growth, mineralized extracellular matrix biosynthesis, and resorption. Mechanical stimulation changes mitochondrial respiration, biogenesis, dynamics, calcium influx, and redox, whereas mechanical disuse induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which aggravates bone-forming cell apoptosis, senescence, and dysfunction. The control of the mitochondrial biogenesis activator PGC-1α by NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuins or myokine FNDC/irisin or repression of oxidative stress by mitochondrial antioxidant Nrf2 modulates the biophysical stimulation for the promotion of bone integrity. This review sheds light onto the roles of mechanosensitive signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, and antioxidants in mediating the anabolic effects of biophysical stimulation to bone tissue and highlights the remedial potential of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators for osteoporosis.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502056

RESUMO

Skeletal tissue involves systemic adipose tissue metabolism and energy expenditure. MicroRNA signaling controls high-fat diet (HFD)-induced bone and fat homeostasis dysregulation remains uncertain. This study revealed that transgenic overexpression of miR-29a under control of osteocalcin promoter in osteoblasts (miR-29aTg) attenuated HFD-mediated body overweight, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. HFD-fed miR-29aTg mice showed less bone mass loss, fatty marrow, and visceral fat mass together with increased subscapular brown fat mass than HFD-fed wild-type mice. HFD-induced O2 underconsumption, respiratory quotient repression, and heat underproduction were attenuated in miR-29aTg mice. In vitro, miR-29a overexpression repressed transcriptomic landscapes of the adipocytokine signaling pathway, fatty acid metabolism, and lipid transport, etc., of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells. Forced miR-29a expression promoted osteogenic differentiation but inhibited adipocyte formation. miR-29a signaling promoted brown/beige adipocyte markers Ucp-1, Pgc-1α, P2rx5, and Pat2 expression and inhibited white adipocyte markers Tcf21 and Hoxc9 expression. The microRNA also reduced peroxisome formation and leptin expression during adipocyte formation and downregulated HFD-induced leptin expression in bone tissue. Taken together, miR-29a controlled leptin signaling and brown/beige adipocyte formation of osteogenic progenitor cells to preserve bone anabolism, which reversed HFD-induced energy underutilization and visceral fat overproduction. This study sheds light on a new molecular mechanism by which bone integrity counteracts HFD-induced whole-body fat overproduction.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoporose/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X5/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X5/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502380

RESUMO

Biophysical stimulation alters bone-forming cell activity, bone formation and remodeling. The effect of piezoelectric microvibration stimulation (PMVS) intervention on osteoporosis development remains uncertain. We investigated whether 60 Hz, 120 Hz, and 180 Hz PMVS (0.05 g, 20 min/stimulation, 3 stimulations/week for 4 consecutive weeks) intervention affected bone integrity in ovariectomized (OVX) mice or osteoblastic activity. PMVS (120 Hz)-treated OVX mice developed fewer osteoporosis conditions, including bone mineral density loss and trabecular microstructure deterioration together with decreased serum resorption marker CTX-1 levels, as compared to control OVX animals. The biomechanical strength of skeletal tissue was improved upon 120 Hz PMVS intervention. This intervention compromised OVX-induced sparse trabecular bone morphology, osteoblast loss, osteoclast overburden, and osteoclast-promoting cytokine RANKL immunostaining and reversed osteoclast inhibitor OPG immunoreactivity. Osteoblasts in OVX mice upon PMVS intervention showed strong Wnt3a immunoreaction and weak Wnt inhibitor Dkk1 immunostaining. In vitro, PMVS reversed OVX-induced loss in von Kossa-stained mineralized nodule formation, Runx2, and osteocalcin expression in primary bone-marrow stromal cells. PMVS also promoted mechanoreceptor Piezo1 expression together with increased microRNA-29a and Wnt3a expression, whereas Dkk1 rather than SOST expression was repressed in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Taken together, PMVS intervention promoted Piezo1, miR-29a, and Wnt signaling to upregulate osteogenic activity and repressed osteoclastic bone resorption, delaying estrogen deficiency-induced loss in bone mass and microstructure. This study highlights a new biophysical remedy for osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/terapia , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Transdução de Sinais , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Proteína Wnt3A/metabolismo
5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439496

RESUMO

Senescent osteoblast overburden accelerates bone mass loss. Little is understood about microRNA control of oxidative stress and osteoblast senescence in osteoporosis. We revealed an association between microRNA-29a (miR-29a) loss, oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), DNA hypermethylation marker 5-methylcystosine (5mC), and osteoblast senescence in human osteoporosis. miR-29a knockout mice showed low bone mass, sparse trabecular microstructure, and osteoblast senescence. miR-29a deletion exacerbated bone loss in old mice. Old miR-29a transgenic mice showed fewer osteoporosis signs, less 5mC, and less 8-OHdG formation than age-matched wild-type mice. miR-29a overexpression reversed age-induced senescence and osteogenesis loss in bone-marrow stromal cells. miR-29a promoted transcriptomic landscapes of redox reaction and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, preserving oxidation resistance protein-1 (Oxr1) and FoxO3 in old mice. In vitro, miR-29a interrupted DNA methyltransferase 3b (Dnmt3b)-mediated FoxO3 promoter methylation and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity in aged osteoblasts. Dnmt3b inhibitor 5'-azacytosine, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, or Oxr1 recombinant protein attenuated loss in miR-29a and FoxO3 to mitigate oxidative stress, senescence, and mineralization matrix underproduction. Taken together, miR-29a promotes Oxr1, compromising oxidative stress and FoxO3 loss to delay osteoblast aging and bone loss. This study sheds light on a new antioxidation mechanism by which miR-29a protects against osteoblast aging and highlights the remedial effects of miR-29a on osteoporosis.

6.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(5): 357-376, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678001

RESUMO

Significance: Osteonecrosis (ON) is characterized by bone tissue death due to disturbance of the nutrient artery. The detailed process leading to the necrotic changes has not been fully elucidated. Clinically, high-dose corticosteroid therapy is one of the main culprits behind osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Recent Advances: Numerous studies have proposed that such ischemia concerns various intravascular mechanisms. Of all reported risk factors, the involvement of oxidative stress in the irreversible damage suffered by bone-related and vascular endothelial cells during ischemia simply cannot be overlooked. Several articles also have sought to elucidate oxidative stress in relation to ON using animal models or in vitro cell cultures. Critical Issues: However, as far as we know, antioxidant monotherapy has still not succeeded in preventing ONFH in humans. To provide this desideratum, we herein summarize the current knowledge about the influence of oxidative stress on ON, together with data about the preventive effects of administering antioxidants in corticosteroid-induced ON animal models. Moreover, oxidative stress is counteracted by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent cytoprotective network through regulating antioxidant expressions. Therefore, we also describe Nrf2 regulation and highlight its role in the pathology of ON. Future Directions: This is a review of all available literature to date aimed at developing a deeper understanding of the pathological mechanism behind ON from the perspective of oxidative stress. It may be hoped that this synthesis will spark the development of a prophylactic strategy to benefit corticosteroid-associated ONFH patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 357-376.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882839

RESUMO

Compromised autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction downregulate chondrocytic activity, accelerating the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Irisin, a cleaved form of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), regulates bone turnover and muscle homeostasis. Little is known about the effect of Irisin on chondrocytes and the development of osteoarthritis. This study revealed that human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes express decreased level of FNDC5 and autophagosome marker LC3-II but upregulated levels of oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and apoptosis. Intra-articular administration of Irisin further alleviated symptoms of medial meniscus destabilization, like cartilage erosion and synovitis, while improved the gait profiles of the injured legs. Irisin treatment upregulated autophagy, 8-OHdG and apoptosis in chondrocytes of the injured cartilage. In vitro, Irisin improved IL-1ß-mediated growth inhibition, loss of specific cartilage markers and glycosaminoglycan production by chondrocytes. Irisin also reversed Sirt3 and UCP-1 pathways, thereby improving mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production, and catalase to attenuated IL-1ß-mediated reactive oxygen radical production, mitochondrial fusion, mitophagy, and autophagosome formation. Taken together, FNDC5 loss in chondrocytes is correlated with human knee OA. Irisin repressed inflammation-mediated oxidative stress and extracellular matrix underproduction through retaining mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagic program. Our analyses shed new light on the chondroprotective actions of this myokine, and highlight the remedial effects of Irisin on OA development.

8.
Acta Biomater ; 115: 29-50, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853809

RESUMO

Partially due to the unavailability of ideal bone substitutes, the treatment of large bony defects remains one of the most important challenges of orthopedic surgery. Additively manufactured (AM) biodegradable porous metals that have emerged since 2018 provide unprecedented opportunities for fulfilling the requirements of an ideal bone implant. First, the multi-scale geometry of these implants can be customized to mimic the human bone in terms of both micro-architecture and mechanical properties. Second, a porous structure with interconnected pores possesses a large surface area, which is favorable for the adhesion and proliferation of cells and, thus, bony ingrowth. Finally, the freeform geometrical design of such biomaterials could be exploited to adjust their biodegradation behavior so as to maintain the structural integrity of the implant during the healing process while ensuring that the implant disappears afterwards, paving the way for full bone regeneration. While the AM biodegradable porous metals that have been studied so far have shown many unique properties as compared to their solid counterparts, the unprecedented degree of flexibility in their geometrical design has not yet been fully exploited to optimize their properties and performance. In order to develop the ideal bone implants, it is important to take advantage of the full potential of AM biodegradable porous metals through detailed and systematic study on their biodegradation behavior, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and bone regeneration performance. This review paper presents the state of the art in AM biodegradable porous metals and is focused on the effects of material type, processing, geometrical design, and post-AM treatments on the mechanical properties, biodegradation behavior, in vitro biocompatibility, and in vivo bone regeneration performance of AM porous Mg, Fe, and Zn as well as their alloys. We also identify a number of knowledge gaps and the challenges encountered in adopting AM biodegradable porous metals for orthopedic applications and suggest some promising areas for future research.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Substitutos Ósseos , Ligas , Humanos , Metais , Porosidade
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664681

RESUMO

Bone turnover is sophisticatedly balanced by a dynamic coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates. The orchestration of this continuous remodeling of the skeleton further affects other skeletal tissues through organ crosstalk. Chronic excessive bone resorption compromises bone mass and its porous microstructure as well as proper biomechanics. This accelerates the development of osteoporotic disorders, a leading cause of skeletal degeneration-associated disability and premature death. Bone-forming cells play important roles in maintaining bone deposit and osteoclastic resorption. A poor organelle machinery, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and defective autophagy, etc., dysregulates growth factor secretion, mineralization matrix production, or osteoclast-regulatory capacity in osteoblastic cells. A plethora of epigenetic pathways regulate bone formation, skeletal integrity, and the development of osteoporosis. MicroRNAs inhibit protein translation by binding the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs or promote translation through post-transcriptional pathways. DNA methylation and post-translational modification of histones alter the chromatin structure, hindering histone enrichment in promoter regions. MicroRNA-processing enzymes and DNA as well as histone modification enzymes catalyze these modifying reactions. Gain and loss of these epigenetic modifiers in bone-forming cells affect their epigenetic landscapes, influencing bone homeostasis, microarchitectural integrity, and osteoporotic changes. This article conveys productive insights into biological roles of DNA methylation, microRNA, and histone modification and highlights their interactions during skeletal development and bone loss under physiological and pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/genética , Epigênese Genética , Osteoporose/genética , Adipogenia , Animais , Autofagia , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endorribonucleases/fisiologia , Código das Histonas , Histona Desacetilases/fisiologia , Histona Metiltransferases/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Mitofagia , Organelas/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteoblastos/ultraestrutura , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575577

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid provokes bone mass loss and fatty marrow, accelerating osteoporosis development. Bromodomain protein BRD4, an acetyl-histone-binding chromatin reader, regulates stem cell and tissue homeostasis. We uncovered that glucocorticoid inhibited acetyl Lys-9 at the histone 3 (H3K9ac)-binding Runx2 promoter and decreased osteogenic differentiation, whereas bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) and adipocyte formation were upregulated in bone-marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells. BRD4 knockdown improved H3K9ac occupation at the Runx2 promoter and osteogenesis, but attenuated glucocorticoid-mediated adipocyte formation together with the unaffected H3K9ac-binding PPARγ2 promoter. BRD4 regulated epigenome related to fatty acid metabolism and the forkhead box P1 (Foxp1) pathway, which occupied the PPARγ2 promoter to modulate glucocorticoid-induced adipocytic activity. In vivo, BRD4 inhibitor JQ-1 treatment mitigated methylprednisolone-induced suppression of bone mass, trabecular microstructure, mineral acquisition, and osteogenic differentiation. Foxp1 signaling, marrow fat, and adipocyte formation in glucocorticoid-treated skeleton were reversed upon JQ-1 treatment. Taken together, glucocorticoid-induced H3K9 hypoacetylation augmented BRD4 action to Foxp1, which steered mesenchymal progenitor cells toward adipocytes at the cost of osteogenic differentiation in osteoporotic skeletons. BRD4 inhibition slowed bone mass loss and marrow adiposity. Collective investigations convey a new epigenetic insight into acetyl histone reader BRD4 control of osteogenesis and adipogenesis in skeleton, and highlight the remedial effects of the BRD4 inhibitor on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/fisiologia
11.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 17: 1014-1025, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462050

RESUMO

Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness. The disease is caused by mutations in the acid α-glucosidase (GAA) gene. Despite the currently available enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), roughly half of the infants with Pompe disease die before the age of 3 years. Limitations of ERT are immune responses to the recombinant enzyme, incomplete correction of the disease phenotype, lifelong administration, and inability of the enzyme to cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously reported normalization of glycogen in heart tissue and partial correction of the skeletal muscle phenotype by ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. In the present study, using a codon-optimized GAA (GAAco), the enzyme levels resulted in close to normalization of glycogen in heart, muscles, and brain, and in complete normalization of motor function. A large proportion of microglia in the brain was shown to be GAA positive. All astrocytes contained the enzyme, which is in line with mannose-6-phosphate receptor expression and the key role in glycogen storage and glucose metabolism. The lentiviral vector insertion site analysis confirmed no preference for integration near proto-oncogenes. This correction of murine Pompe disease warrants further development toward a cure of the human condition.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370039

RESUMO

It was hypothesized that strontium (Sr)-doped ß-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)-based scaffolds have a positive effect on the regeneration of large bone defects (LBD). Readouts in our mice models were nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) activity and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) promoter activity during the healing process. A 2-mm critical-size femoral fracture was performed in transgenic NF-κB- and VEGFR-2-luciferase reporter mice. The fracture was filled with a 3D-printed ß-TCP scaffold with or without Sr. A bioluminescence in-vivo imaging system was used to sequentially investigate NF-κB and VEGFR-2 expression for two months. After sacrifice, soft and osseous tissue formation in the fracture sites was histologically examined. NF-κB activity increased in the ß-TCP + Sr group in the latter stage (day 40-60). VEGFR-2 activity increased in the + Sr group from days 0-15 but decreased and showed significantly less activity than the ß-TCP and non-scaffold groups from days 40-60. The new bone formation and soft tissue formation in the + Sr group were significantly higher than in the ß-TCP group, whereas the percentage of osseous tissue formation in the ß-TCP group was significantly higher than in the ß-TCP + Sr group. We analyzed longitudinal VEGFR-2 promoter activity and NF-κB activity profiles, as respective agents of angiogenesis and inflammation, during LBD healing. The extended inflammation phase and eventually more rapid resorption of scaffold caused by the addition of strontium accelerates temporary bridging of the fracture gaps. This finding has the potential to inform an improved treatment strategy for patients who suffer from osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , NF-kappa B/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estrôncio/química , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041254

RESUMO

Tenocytes are mechanosensitive cells intimately adapting their expression profile and hence, their phenotype to their respective mechanomilieu. The immunolocalization and expression intensity of tenogenic, anabolic and catabolic markers in tenocytes in response to in vitro mechanical loading have not been monitored by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Thus, we investigated the association between IHC intensities, different stimulation frequencies, and tenogenic metabolism using a versatile mechanical stretcher. Primary tenocytes obtained from murine Achilles tendons were transferred to poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomeric chamber. Chambers were cyclically stretched by 5% in uniaxial direction at a variation of tensile frequency (1 or 2 Hz) for 3 h. After stretching, cell physiology, IHC intensities of tendon-related markers, and protein level of the angiogenesis marker vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were evaluated. Cell proliferation in tenocytes stimulated with 1 Hz stretch was significantly higher than with 2 Hz or without stretch, while 2 Hz stretch induced significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation with microscopically detectable apoptotic cell changes. The amount of scleraxis translocated into the nuclei and tenomodulin immunoreactivity of tenocytes treated with stretch were significantly higher than of non-stretched cells. The collagen type-1 expression level in tenocytes stretched at 1 Hz was significantly higher than in those cultivated with 2 Hz or without stretching, whereas the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-13 immunoreactivities of cells stretched at 2 Hz were significantly higher than in those stimulated with 1 Hz or without stretching. The secreted VEGF-protein level of tenocytes stretched at 2 Hz was significantly higher than without stretching. Our IHC findings consistent with cell physiology suggest that appropriate stretching can reproduce in vitro short-term tenogenic anabolic/catabolic conditions and allow us to identify an anabolic stretching profile.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/citologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos , Tenócitos/citologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/metabolismo , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Mecânico , Tenócitos/metabolismo , Resistência à Tração , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 134: 51-61, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271758

RESUMO

Reduced shear stress resulting from disturbed blood flow can impair endothelial integrity and drive the development of vascular inflammatory lesions. Metalloproteinases of the ADAM family have been implicated in the regulation of cell survival and inflammatory responses. Here we investigate the mechanism and function of ADAM15 upregulation in primary flow cultured endothelial cells. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that within the ADAM family ADAM15 mRNA is most prominently upregulated (4-fold) when endothelial cells are exposed to physiologic shear stress. This induction was confirmed in venous, arterial and microvascular endothelial cells and is associated with increased presence of ADAM15 protein in the cell lysates (5.6-fold) and on the surface (3.1-fold). The ADAM15 promoter contains several consensus sites for the transcription factor KLF2 which is also upregulated by shear stress. Induction of endothelial KLF2 by simvastatin treatment is associated with ADAM15 upregulation (1.8-fold) which is suppressed by counteracting simvastatin with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. KLF2 overexpression promotes ADAM15 expression (2.1-fold) under static conditions whereas KLF2 siRNA knockdown prevents ADAM15 induction by shear stress. Functionally, ADAM15 promotes survival of endothelial cells challenged by growth factor depletion or TNF stimulation as shown by ADAM15 shRNA knockdown (1.6-fold). Exposure to shear stress increases endothelial survival while additional knockdown of ADAM15 reduces survival (6.7-fold) under flow conditions. Thus, physiologic shear stress resulting from laminar flow promotes KLF2 induced ADAM15 expression which contributes to endothelial survival. The absence of ADAM15 at low shear stress or static conditions may therefore lead to increased endothelial damage and promote vascular inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/genética , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estresse Mecânico
15.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 105(4): 341-352, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236620

RESUMO

Fracture healing is a natural process that recapitulates embryonic skeletal development. In the early phase after fracture, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced under inflammatory and ischemic conditions due to vessel injury and soft tissue damage, leading to cell death. Usually, such damage during the course of fracture healing can be largely prevented by protective mechanisms and functions of antioxidant enzymes. However, intrinsic oxidative stress can cause excessive toxic radicals, resulting in irreversible damage to cells associated with bone repair during the fracture healing process. Clinically, patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, habitual drinkers, or heavy smokers are at risk of impaired fracture healing due to elevated oxidative stress. Although increased levels of oxidative stress markers upon fracture and effects of antioxidants on fracture healing have been reported, a detailed understanding of what causes impaired fracture healing under intrinsic conditions of oxidative stress is lacking. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as a key transcriptional regulator of the expression of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes. It further not only plays a crucial role in preventing degenerative diseases in multiple organs, but also during fracture healing. This narrative review evaluates the influence of intrinsic oxidative stress on fracture healing and sheds new light on the intriguing role of Nrf2 during bone regeneration in pathological fractures.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959909

RESUMO

Culturing articular chondrocytes under physiological oxygen tension exerts positive effects on their extracellular matrix synthesis. The underlying molecular mechanisms which enhance the chondrocytic phenotype are, however, still insufficiently elucidated. The TGF-ß superfamily of growth factors, and the prototypic TGF-ß isoforms in particular, are crucial in maintaining matrix homeostasis of these cells. We employed a feedback-controlled table-top bioreactor to investigate the role of TGF-ß in microtissues of human chondrocytes over a wider range of physiological oxygen tensions (i.e., physoxia). We compared 1%, 2.5%, and 5% of partial oxygen pressure (pO2) to the 'normoxic' 20%. We confirmed physoxic conditions through the induction of marker genes (PHD3, VEGF) and oxygen tension-dependent chondrocytic markers (SOX9, COL2A1). We identified 2.5% pO2 as an oxygen tension optimally improving chondrocytic marker expression (ACAN, COL2A1), while suppressing de-differentiation markers (COL1A1, COL3A1). Expression of TGF-ß isoform 2 (TGFB2) was, relatively, most responsive to 2.5% pO2, while all three isoforms were induced by physoxia. We found TGF-ß receptors ALK1 and ALK5 to be regulated by oxygen tension on the mRNA and protein level. In addition, expression of type III co-receptors betaglycan and endoglin appeared to be regulated by oxygen tension as well. R-Smad signaling confirmed that physoxia divergently regulated phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3. Pharmacological inhibition of canonical ALK5-mediated signaling abrogated physoxia-induced COL2A1 and PAI-1 expression. Physoxia altered expression of hypertrophy markers and that of matrix metalloproteases and their activity, as well as expression ratios of specific proteins (Sp)/Krüppel-like transcription factor family members SP1 and SP3, proving a molecular concept of ECM marker regulation. Keeping oxygen levels tightly balanced within a physiological range is important for optimal chondrocytic marker expression. Our study provides novel insights into transcriptional regulations in chondrocytes under physoxic in vitro conditions and may contribute to improving future cell-based articular cartilage repair strategies.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Agrecanas/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Humanos , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo , Proteína Smad8/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
17.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(2): 485-498, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825315

RESUMO

The Nrf2 pathway protects against oxidative stress and induces regeneration of various tissues. Here, we investigated whether Nrf2 protects from sclerosing cholangitis and biliary fibrosis and simultaneously induces liver regeneration. Diet containing 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was fed to Nrf2-KO mice (Nrf2-/-), mice with liver-specific hyperactivated Nrf2 (HKeap1-/-) and wild-type (WT) littermates to induce cholangitis, liver fibrosis, and oval cell expansion. HKeap1-/--mice were protected from almost all DDC-induced injury compared with WT and Nrf2-/-. Liver injury in Nrf2-/- and WT mice was mostly similar, albeit Nrf2-/- suffered more from DDC diet as seen for several parameters. Nrf2 activity was especially important for the expression of the hepatic efflux transporters Abcg2 and Abcc2-4, which are involved in hepatic toxin elimination. Surprisingly, cell proliferation was more enhanced in Nrf2-/-- and HKeap1-/--mice compared with WT. Interestingly, Nrf2-/--mice failed to sufficiently activate oval cell expansion after DDC treatment and showed almost no resident oval cell population under control conditions. The resident oval cell population of untreated HKeap1-/--mice was increased and DDC treatment resulted in a stronger oval cell expansion compared with WT. We provide evidence that Nrf2 activation protects from DDC-induced sclerosing cholangitis and biliary fibrosis. Moreover, our data establish a possible role of Nrf2 in oval cell expansion.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/prevenção & controle , Regeneração Hepática , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Piridinas/toxicidade , Animais , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Colangite Esclerosante/induzido quimicamente , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Regeneração Hepática/fisiologia , Camundongos , Porfirinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781744

RESUMO

During standard expansion culture (i.e., plasma osmolarity, 280 mOsm) human articular chondrocytes dedifferentiate, making them inappropriate for autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects. Increasing the osmolarity of culture media to physiological osmolarity levels of cartilage (i.e., 380 mOsm), increases collagen type II (COL2A1) expression of human articular chondrocytes in vitro, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not fully understood. We hypothesized that TGF-ß superfamily signaling may drive expression of COL2A1 under physiological osmolarity culture conditions. Human articular chondrocytes were cultured in cytokine-free medium of 280 or 380 mOsm with or without siRNA mediated TGF-ß2 knockdown (RNAi). Expression of TGF-ß isoforms, and collagen type II was evaluated by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. TGF-ß2 protein secretion was evaluated using ELISA and TGF-ß bioactivity was determined using an established reporter assay. Involvement of BMP signaling was investigated by culturing human articular chondrocytes in the presence or absence of BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin and BMP bioactivity was determined using an established reporter assay. Physiological cartilage osmolarity (i.e., physosmolarity) most prominently increased TGF-ß2 mRNA expression and protein secretion as well as TGF-ß bioactivity. Upon TGF-ß2 isoform-specific knockdown, gene expression of chondrocyte marker COL2A1 was induced. TGF-ß2 RNAi under physosmolarity enhanced TGF-ß bioactivity. BMP bioactivity increased upon physosmotic treatment, but was not related to TGF-ß2 RNAi. In contrast, dorsomorphin inhibited COL2A1 mRNA expression in human articular chondrocytes independent of the osmotic condition. Our data suggest a role for TGF-ß superfamily member signaling in physosmolarity-induced mRNA expression of collagen type II. As physosmotic conditions favor the expression of COL2A1 independent of our manipulations, contribution of other metabolic, post-transcriptional or epigenetic factors cannot be excluded in the underlying complex and interdependent regulation of marker gene expression. Dissecting these molecular mechanisms holds potential to further improve future cell-based chondral repair strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Concentração Osmolar , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
19.
Ann Anat ; 221: 125-134, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312767

RESUMO

Assessment of structural cartilage damage is of high scientific and clinical interest. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a light-based cross-sectional imaging modality that allows the real-time assessment of articular cartilage at near-histological resolution. Algorithm routines for the detection, parameterization and quantification of sub-surface defects as assessed by OCT were implemented and validated in this study. Standard defects of 0.9mm, 1.1mm and 1.3mm diameter were created in the sub-surface regions of macroscopically intact human articular cartilage samples (n=60 defects of variable sizes in n=20 samples). Subsequently, samples were scanned by 3D OCT and defect size, height, width and distance to the surface were determined based on the algorithm and related to manual measurements. Histology served as the standard-of-reference. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA's and Tukey's post-hoc test. All defects were correctly identified by the algorithm, while five structural tissue inhomogeneities were erroneously marked as defects (sensitivity 100%, specificity: 92.3%). Inter-modality analysis revealed no significant differences in terms of defect area, height or width within the different defect sizes, while the distance to the surface was significantly different. The comprehensive algorithm-based characterization of cartilage defects is consistent and reliable and allows their more objective evaluation. Given further research in this field, OCT and OCT-based quantitative measures may become clinically useful in the arthroscopic detection and evaluation of sub-surface cartilage defects.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cartilagens/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Algoritmos , Doenças das Cartilagens/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(9): 919, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206206

RESUMO

Chondrocyte loss is a prominent feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Autophagy is indispensable in maintaining the metabolic activities of cells exposed to deleterious stress. The contribution of microRNA signaling to chondrocyte autophagy in OA development remains elusive. We uncovered an association between poor autophagy and increased miR-128a expressions in articular chondrocytes of patients with end-stage knee OA and in a rat anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model for OA development. Cartilage matrix degradation and severe OA histopathology was evident upon forced miR-128a expression within the articular compartment. Intra-articular injections with miR-128a antisense oligonucleotide stabilized chondrocyte autophagy and slowed ACLT-mediated articular tissue destruction, including cartilage erosion, synovitis, osteophyte formation, and subchondral plate damage. In vitro, miR-128 signaling hindered Atg12 expression, LC3-II conversion, and autophagic puncta formation through targeting the 3'-untranslated region of Atg12. It increased apoptotic programs, diminishing cartilage formation capacity of articular chondrocytes. Inactivating histone methyltransferase EZH2 reduced methyl histone H3K27 enrichment in the miR-128a promoter and upregulated miR-128a transcription in inflamed chondrocytes. Taken together, miR-128a-induced Atg12 loss repressed chondrocyte autophagy to aggravate OA progression. EZH2 inactivation caused H3K27 hypomethylation to accelerate miR-128a actions. Interruption of miR-128a signaling attenuated chondrocyte dysfunction and delayed OA development. Our data provide new insights into how miR-128a signaling affects chondrocyte survival and articular cartilage anabolism and highlight the potential of miR-128a targeting therapy to alleviate knee OA.


Assuntos
Proteína 12 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Autofagia/genética , Condrócitos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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