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2.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 223-224, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887272

RESUMO

Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) possess good qualitative and quantitative profiles of nutritional components for its use as human food. However, no studies have been conducted on the probable presence or absence of any adverse effects. The extracts from seven duckweed species (Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Lemna gibba, Lemna minor, Wolffiella hyalina, Wolffia globosa, and Wolffia microscopica) covering all five genera of the plant family were herewith tested for cytotoxic effects on the human cell lines HUVEC, K-562, and HeLa and for anti-proliferative activity on HUVEC and K-562 cell lines. From these assays, it is evident that duckweeds do not possess any detectable anti-proliferative or cytotoxic effects, thus, the high nutritional value is not diminished by such detrimental factors. The present result is a first step to exclude any harmful effects of highly nutritious duckweed for human.


Assuntos
Araceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
3.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(3)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biodynamic dairy production is based on a land-related animal production without the additional input of N-fertilizers. The concentrate level per cow is low. This affects the yield level of animals and product quality outcomes. METHODS: We examined the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of European biodynamic farms in relation to the ecological region of production and the farm's climate conditions. Climate data were derived from existing maps describing ecological vegetation zones within Europe. Additionally, biodynamic shop milk was compared to conventional shop milk, based on a regional comparison. RESULTS: The largest differences in the FA composition were between biodynamic summer and winter milk. We found increased proportions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA-n3), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the summer milk. A principal component analysis expressed the structure that was present in the biodynamic farm milk samples, based on clusters of a single FA within four components. The components could be correlated with the season of production, the amount of precipitation, the elevation of the farm above sea level, and the length of the grazing season. Biodynamic shop milk in the summer had a lower n6/n3 PUFA ratio compared to the conventional shop milk in all regions of production. Mean values were 1.37 and 1.89, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The differentiation of biodynamic milk FA composition is consistent with the existing knowledge about the effects of fresh grass, fodder, and ratio composition on the milk's FA composition. Based on the n6/n3 PUFA ratio, the average biodynamic dairy cow had a high intake (>82%) of fresh grass and conserved roughage (hay and grass silage), especially in the summer.

4.
Front Chem ; 6: 483, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420949

RESUMO

Species of the genus Wolffia are traditionally used as human food in some of the Asian countries. Therefore, all 11 species of this genus, identified by molecular barcoding, were investigated for ingredients relevant to human nutrition. The total protein content varied between 20 and 30% of the freeze-dry weight, the starch content between 10 and 20%, the fat content between 1 and 5%, and the fiber content was ~25%. The essential amino acid content was higher or close to the requirements of preschool-aged children according to standards of the World Health Organization. The fat content was low, but the fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids was above 60% of total fat and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher than that of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in most species. The content of macro- and microelements (minerals) not only depended on the cultivation conditions but also on the genetic background of the species. This holds true also for the content of tocopherols, several carotenoids and phytosterols in different species and even intraspecific, clonal differences were detected in Wolffia globosa and Wolffia arrhiza. Thus, the selection of suitable clones for further applications is important. Due to the very fast growth and the highest yield in most of the nutrients, Wolffia microscopica has a high potential for practical applications in human nutrition.

5.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037054

RESUMO

Phosphates are associated with negative physiological effects. The objectives of this publication were to compare differential effects of supplementation with calcium phosphate or phosphate alone in healthy humans. Four adult human studies were conducted with pentacalcium hydroxy-trisphosphate supplementation (CaP; 90 subjects) and their data were pooled for assessment. For literature search; PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge were used and 21 items were assigned to three main topics. The pooled study results show that following CaP supplementation, faecal calcium and phosphorus and urinary calcium were increased, blood lipids were positively modulated, and faecal bile acids were increased, as compared with placebo. The literature search reveals that following calcium phosphate supplementation, urinary calcium was increased. Following solely phosphate supplementation, urinary phosphorus was increased and urinary calcium was decreased. Postprandial calcium concentrations were increased following calcium phosphate supplementation. Postprandial phosphate concentrations were increased following solely phosphate supplementation. Calcium phosphate supplementation resulted in rather positively modulated blood lipids and gut-related parameters. The presented results show the relevance to distinguish between calcium phosphate and solely phosphate supplementations, and the importance of a balanced calcium and phosphorus intake.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/sangue , Fósforo/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo , Adulto , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 10(2)2018 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393923

RESUMO

Phosphorus intake in Europe is far above recommendations. We present baseline data from three human intervention studies between 2006 and 2014 regarding intake and excretion of phosphorus and calcium. All subjects documented their nutritional habits in weighed dietary records. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and feces and urine were quantitatively collected. Dietary phosphorus intake was estimated based on weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretions. Food sources were identified by allocation to defined food product groups. Average phosphorus consumption was 1338 mg/day and did not change from 2006 to 2014, while calcium intake decreased during this period (1150 to 895 mg/day). The main sources for phosphorus intake were bread/cereal products, milk/milk products and meat/meat products/sausage products and the main sources of calcium intake included milk/milk products/cheese, bread/cereal products and beverages. There was no difference between estimated phosphorus intake from the weighed dietary records and urine phosphorus excretion. In conclusion, we demonstrated constant phosphorus intakes far above the recommendations and decreasing calcium intakes below the recommendations in three German collectives from 2006 to 2014. Furthermore, we could show in case of usual intakes that an estimated phosphorus intake from urine phosphorus excretion is similar to the calculated intake from weighed dietary records.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cálcio/urina , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Análise de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/urina , Registros de Dieta , Alemanha , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais
7.
Nutr J ; 17(1): 23, 2018 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, high phosphate intakes were discussed critically. In the small intestine, a part of the ingested phosphate and calcium precipitates to amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which in turn can precipitate other intestinal substances, thus leading to a beneficial modulation of the intestinal environment. Therefore, we analysed faecal samples obtained from a human intervention study regarding gut-related parameters. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy subjects (men, n = 30; women, n = 32) completed the double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel designed study (mean age: 29 ± 7 years; mean BMI: 24 ± 3 kg/m2). Supplements were monosodium phosphate and calcium carbonate. During the first 2 weeks, all groups consumed a placebo sherbet powder, and afterwards a sherbet powder for 8 weeks according to the intervention group: P1000/Ca0 (1000 mg/d phosphorus), P1000/Ca500 (1000 mg/d phosphorus and 500 mg/d calcium) and P1000/Ca1000 (1000 mg/d phosphorus and 1000 mg/d calcium). After the placebo period and after 8 weeks of intervention faecal collections took place. We determined in faeces: short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and fat as well as the composition of the microbiome (subgroup) and cyto- and genotoxicity of faecal water (FW). By questionnaire evaluation we examined tolerability of the used phosphorus supplement. RESULTS: Faecal fat concentrations did not change significantly due to the interventions. Concentrations of faecal total SCFA and acetate were significantly higher after 8 weeks of P1000/Ca500 supplementation compared to the P1000/Ca0 supplementation. In men, faecal total SCFA and acetate concentrations were significantly higher after 8 weeks in the P1000/Ca1000 group compared to the P1000/Ca0 one. None of the interventions markedly affected cyto- and genotoxic activity of FW. Men of the P1000/Ca1000 intervention had a significantly different gut microbial community compared to the men of the P1000/Ca0 and P1000/Ca500 ones. The genus Clostridium XVIII was significantly more abundant in men of the P1000/Ca1000 intervention group compared to the other groups. Supplementations did not cause increased intestinal distress. CONCLUSIONS: The used high phosphorus diet did not influence cyto- and genotoxicity of FW and the concentrations of faecal fat independent of calcium intake. Our study provides first hints for a potential phosphorus-induced modulation of the gut community and the faecal total SCFA content. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02095392 .


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/metabolismo , Adulto , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo
8.
Horm Metab Res ; 49(5): 343-349, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351093

RESUMO

Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8)/betatrophin expression in visceral adipose tissue and associations with circulating fatty acid profile have not yet been investigated.Forty subjects were included in a cross-sectional study, 57 in a dietary weight reduction intervention. Circulating Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin was measured in all subjects. Liver and adipose tissue were sampled and plasma fatty acids and tissue Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin expression were evaluated in the cross-sectional study. In the intervention study oral glucose testing and liver magnetic resonance scanning at baseline and after 6 months were performed. Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin mRNA was increased in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.001). Circulating ANGPTL8/betatrophin correlated with liver steatosis (r=0.42, p=0.047), triacylglycerols (r=0.34, p=0.046), saturated (r=0.43, p=0.022), monounsaturated (r=0.51, p=0.007), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (r=-0.53, p=0.004). In the intervention study, baseline Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin correlated with age (r=0.32, p=0.010) and triacylglycerols (r=0.30, p=0.02) and was increased with hepatic steatosis (p=0.033). Weight loss reduced liver fat by 45% and circulating Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin by 11% (288±17 vs. 258±17 pg/ml; p=0.015). Angiopoietin-like protein 8/betatrophin is related to liver steatosis, while visceral adipose tissue represents an additional site of expression in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 30(4): 395-404, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28186955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal vitamin D supplementation is controversial. Preventative examinations and public health initiatives in former East Germany that included vitamin D prophylaxis for children were regulated by official recommendations and guidelines. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of a standardised nationwide guideline for universal supplementation with 400 International Units (IU) vitamin D3/day during the first year of life on clinical and biochemical parameters and the influence of surrounding factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis looking at data from a field study of 3481 term-born children during their first year of life that was conducted in 1989. RESULTS: There were no significant clinical signs of rickets. 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (mean and SEM, total analyses n=572) after birth (n=28) was 36(7) nmol/L, at 1 month 64(4) nmol/L (n=70, p<0.0001), 91(5) nmol/L at 3 months (n=95, p<0.0001), 65(8) nmol/L at 8 months (n=21, p=0.005) and ranged between 33 and 109 nmol/L until 12 months. Less than 0.2% of analyses revealed pathological levels for calcium or phosphate. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels (n=690) were >1500 U/L (95th percentile) in 3.6%. Participants were on breastmilk or vitamin D-free formula, with solids added from 6 months of age. There were seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels with a rise during spring and autumn. Thus this analysis is unique as sun exposure and supplementation can be considered as the only vitamin D sources. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that universal supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D3 during the first year of life is safe and provides sufficient 25(OH)D levels in Germany.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
10.
Food Chem ; 217: 266-273, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27664634

RESUMO

Duckweeds have been consumed as human food since long. Species of the duckweed genera, Spirodela, Landoltia, Lemna, Wolffiella and Wolffia were analysed for protein, fat, and starch contents as well as their amino acid and fatty acid distribution. Protein content spanned from 20% to 35%, fat from 4% to 7%, and starch from 4% to 10% per dry weight. Interestingly, the amino acid distributions are close to the WHO recommendations, having e.g. 4.8% Lys, 2.7% Met+Cys, and 7.7% Phe+Tyr. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was between 48 and 71% and the high content of n3 fatty acids resulted in a favourable n6/n3 ratio of 0.5 or less. The phytosterol content in the fastest growing angiosperm, W. microscopica, was 50mgg(-1) lipid. However, the content of trace elements can be adjusted by cultivation conditions. Accordingly, W. hyalina and W. microscopica are recommended for human nutrition.


Assuntos
Araceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Proteínas/análise , Amido/análise
11.
Hepatol Res ; 47(9): 890-901, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689765

RESUMO

AIMS: Molecular adaptations in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are incompletely understood. This study investigated the main gene categories related to hepatic de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation capacity. METHODS: Liver specimens of 48 subjects were histologically classified according to steatosis severity. In-depth analyses were undertaken using real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. Lipid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection, and effects of key fatty acids were studied in primary human hepatocytes. RESULTS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry indicated 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to be increased with steatosis score ≥ 2 (all P < 0.05), including various markers of de novo lipogenesis and lipid degradation (all P < 0.05). Regarding endoplasmic reticulum stress, X-Box binding protein-1 (XBP1) was upregulated in steatosis score ≥ 2 (P = 0.029) and correlated with plasma palmitate (r = 0.34; P = 0.035). Palmitate incubation of primary human hepatocytes increased XBP1 and downstream stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 mRNA expression (both P < 0.05). Moreover, plasma and liver tissue exposed a NAFLD-related lipid profile with reduced polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio, increased palmitate and palmitoleate, and elevated lipogenesis and desaturation indices with steatosis score ≥ 2 (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In humans with advanced fatty liver disease, hepatic AMPK protein is upregulated, potentially in a compensatory manner. Moreover, pathways of lipid synthesis and degradation are co-activated in subjects with advanced steatosis. Palmitate may drive lipogenesis by activating XBP1-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and represent a target for future dietary or pharmacological intervention.

12.
Biofactors ; 42(3): 307-15, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095633

RESUMO

Considering the biological function of α-tocopherol (α-Toc) as a potent protective factor against oxidative stress, this antioxidant is in the focus of aging research. To understand the role of α-Toc during aging we investigated α-Toc concentrations in young and aged primary human fibroblasts after supplementation with RRR-α-Toc. Additionally, α-Toc contents were determined in brain, kidney, and liver tissue of 10 week-, 18 month-, and 24 month-old mice, which were fed a standard diet containing 100 mg/kg dl-α-tocopheryl acetate. α-Toc concentrations in isolated lysosomes and the expression of the α-Toc transport proteins Niemann Pick C1 (NPC1), Niemann Pick C2 (NPC2), and lipoprotein lipase were also analyzed. Obtained data show a significant age-related increase of α-Toc in murine liver, kidney, and brain tissue as well as in human dermal fibroblasts. Also liver and kidney lysosomes are marked by elevated α-Toc contents with aging. NPC1 and NPC2 protein amounts are significantly decreased in adult and aged murine kidney tissue. Also aged human dermal fibroblasts show decreased NPC1 amounts. Supplementation of young and aged fibroblasts led also to decreased NPC1 amounts, suggesting a direct role of this protein in α-Toc distribution. Our results indicate an age-dependent increase of α-Toc in different murine tissues as well as in human fibroblasts. Furthermore saturation and intracellular distribution of α-Toc seem to be strongly dependent on the availability of this vitamin as well as on the presence of the lysosomal protein NPC1. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):307-315, 2016.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/biossíntese , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Lipase Lipoproteica/biossíntese , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Lisossomos/patologia , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 15: 21, 2016 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26843092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circumstantial evidence suggests that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) beneficially modulates immune function in allergic subjects. C9,t11-CLA, naturally occurring in ruminant fats, is suggested to be the effective isomer. In contrast, for the t10,c12-CLA isomer, which is naturally found only in traces but usually constitutes a relevant part in commercial CLA mixtures, adverse effects have been reported. Aim of this study was to assess putative immunomodulatory effects of highly enriched c9,t11-CLA in allergic subjects. To our best knowledge, our study is the first in that a CLA preparation was used for such purpose which was free of t10,c12-CLA. DESIGN: Twenty-nine asthmatic children and adolescents (age 6-18 y) with diagnosed allergic sensitization against grass pollen, house dust mite, or cat hair/epithelia consumed daily a portion of yoghurt containing either 3 g CLA (75 % c9,t11-CLA, 87 % purity) or placebo (safflower oil) over a period of 12 weeks. At study start and end, lung function parameters, specific IgE, in vitro allergen-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma ECP, urinary 8-oxodG as marker of oxidation, fatty acid profiles of erythrocytes, and routine haematological parameters were determined. Prior to blood samplings, 3-days dietary records were requested. Throughout the study, the participants documented daily their peak expiratory flow and kept protocol about their allergy symptoms and usage of demand medication. RESULTS: In contrast to the CLA group, PBMC-produced IFN-γ and IL-4 increased significantly and by trend, respectively, in the placebo group. Moreover, plasma ECP tended to increase in the placebo group. In the pollen subgroup, FEV1 improved upon both CLA and placebo oil supplementation. In both intervention groups, the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in red blood cells decreased, mainly due to an increase in n-3 PUFA. Moreover, 8-oxodG excretion increased in both groups. No changes occurred regarding specific IgE concentrations, allergy symptoms, and volume parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CLA modestly dampens the inflammatory response on the cellular level. A clinically relevant amelioration of the symptoms could not be proved in atopic manifest patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01026506.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Asma/sangue , Asma/urina , Criança , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino
14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 15: 32, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) omega (n)-3 PUFA supply in humans involves dietary supplementation with oils containing α-linolenic acid (ALA) alone or in combination with stearidonic acid (SDA). The study aimed to compare the effects of echium oil (EO) and linseed oil (LO) on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and on clinical markers. METHODS: In two double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled studies, all volunteers started with 17 g/d run-in oil (2 weeks). Thereafter, subjects received diets enriched in study 1 with EO (5 g ALA + 2 g SDA; n = 59) or in study 2 with LO (5 g ALA; n = 9) daily for 8 weeks. The smaller control groups received fish oil (FO; n = 19) or olive oil (OO; n = 18). Participants were instructed to restrict their dietary n-3 PUFA intake throughout the studies (e.g., no fish). To investigate the influence of age and BMI on the conversion of ALA and SDA as well as clinical markers, the subjects recruited for EO and LO treatment were divided into three subgroups (two age groups 20-35 y; 49-69 y with BMI 18-25 kg/m(2) and one group with older, overweight subjects (age 49-69 y; BMI >25 kg/m(2)). RESULTS: In plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were ~25 % higher following EO compared to LO. Comparing all treatments, the effectiveness of increasing EPA and DPA in plasma, RBC, and PBMC was on average 100:25:10:0 and 100:50:25:0 for FO:EO:LO:OO, respectively. EO led to a lower arachidonic acid/EPA-ratio compared to LO in plasma, RBC, and PBMC. Following EO, final DHA was not greater compared to LO. Higher BMI correlated negatively with increases in plasma EPA and DPA after EO supplementation, but not after LO supplementation. Decreasing effect on plasma LDL-C and serum insulin was greater with EO than with LO. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intake of SDA-containing EO is a better supplement than LO for increasing EPA and DPA in blood. However, neither EO nor LO maintained blood DHA status in the absence of fish/seafood consumption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Reg No. NCT01856179; ClinicalTrials.gov Reg No. NCT01317290.


Assuntos
Echium/química , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Óleo de Semente do Linho/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutr J ; 15: 7, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26786148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies reported an association between plasma phosphate concentrations and a higher risk for death and cardiovascular events in subjects free of chronic kidney diseases. The main aims of the present study were to determine the influence of a high phosphorus intake in combination with different calcium supplies on phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron metabolism as well as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) concentrations within eight weeks of supplementation. METHODS: Sixty-two healthy subjects completed the double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel designed study. Supplements were monosodium phosphate and calcium carbonate. During the first two weeks, all groups consumed a placebo sherbet powder, and afterwards, for eight weeks, a sherbet powder according to the intervention group: P1000/Ca0 (1 g/d phosphorus), P1000/Ca500 (1 g/d phosphorus and 0.5 g/d calcium) and P1000/Ca1000 (1 g/d phosphorus and 1 g/d calcium). Dietary records, fasting blood samplings, urine and fecal collections took place. RESULTS: Fasting plasma phosphate concentrations did not change after any intervention. After all interventions, renal excretions and fecal concentrations of phosphorus increased significantly after eight weeks. Renal calcium and magnesium excretion decreased significantly after eight weeks of P1000/Ca0 intervention compared to placebo. Plasma FGF23 concentrations were significantly higher after four weeks compared to eight weeks of all interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term study showed in healthy adults no influence of high phosphorus intakes on fasting plasma phosphate concentrations. A high phosphorus intake without adequate calcium intake seems to have negative impact on calcium metabolism. Plasma FGF23 concentrations increased four weeks after high phosphorus intake and normalized after eight weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02095392 .


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cálcio na Dieta/sangue , Cálcio na Dieta/urina , Registros de Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatos/sangue , Fósforo na Dieta/urina , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto Jovem
16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 56(12): 1964-80, 2016 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25746671

RESUMO

The definition and evaluation of trans fatty acids (TFA) with regard to foodstuffs and health hazard are not consistent. Based on the current situation, the term should be restricted only to TFA with isolated double bonds in trans-configuration. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) should be separately assessed. Ideally, the origin of the consumed fat should be declared, i.e., ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and industrial TFA (non-ruminant; I-TFA). In ruminant fat, more than 50% of R-TFA consists of vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11). In addition, natural CLA, i.e., c9,t11 CLA is also present. Both are elevated in products from organic farming. In contrast to elaidic acid (t9) and t10, which occur mainly in partially hydrogenated industrial fat, t11 is partially metabolized into c9,t11 CLA via Δ9-desaturation. This is the major metabolic criterion used to differentiate between t11 and other trans C18:1. t11 indicates health beneficial effects in several studies. Moreover, CLA in milk fat is associated with the prevention of allergy and asthma. An analysis of the few studies relating to R-TFA alone makes clear that no convincing adverse physiological effect can be attributed to R-TFA. Only extremely high R-TFA intakes cause negative change in blood lipids. In conclusion, in most European countries, the intake of R-TFA is assessed as being low to moderate. Restriction of R-TFA would unjustifiably represent a disadvantage for organic farming of milk.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados , Leite , Política Nutricional , Ácido Oleico , Ácidos Oleicos , Agricultura Orgânica , Ruminantes , Ácidos Graxos Trans/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Trans/química , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 29348, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26617388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: An adequate supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) promotes foetal health and development, whereas generally, trans fatty acids (tFA) are considered to negatively interfere with LC PUFA metabolism. Nevertheless, to date, limited data concerning separate trans C18:1, such as t9 and t11, are available for maternal and foetal blood. Therefore, in this study the portions of individual trans C18:1, LC n-6, and n-3 PUFA in lipids of maternal and foetal plasma and erythrocyte membranes of German mother and child pairs (n=40) were analysed. RESULTS: Portions of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as LC precursors were lower (~0.4-fold); whereas the metabolites arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3) were significantly higher (~2-fold) in foetal than in maternal plasma and erythrocytes. The main tFA in maternal and foetal blood were elaidic acid (C18:1t9; t9) and vaccenic acid (C18:1t11; t11). Portions of t9, t10, t11, and t12 in foetal blood lipids were lower (~0.5-fold) compared with maternal blood. In foetal lipids, t9 was higher than t11. The t9 correlated negatively with eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3) and AA in maternal and foetal lipids; whereas t11 correlated negatively only with foetal total LC n-6 (plasma and erythrocytes) and n-3 PUFA (erythrocytes). No correlation between maternal tFA and foetal PUFA was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 'Biomagnification' of LC n-6 and n-3 PUFA AA and DHA in foetal blood was confirmed, whereas single trans isomers were lower compared with maternal blood. Nevertheless, tFA intake, especially from industrial sources, should be as low as possible.

18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 407(12): 3303-11, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25757824

RESUMO

Fungi of the genus Mortierella can accumulate large amounts of unusual lipids depending on species, strain, and growth conditions. Fast and easy determination of key parameters of lipid quality for these samples is required. In this contribution, we apply Raman microspectroscopy to determine the degree of unsaturation for fungal lipids directly inside intact hyphae without elaborate sample handling. Six Mortierella species were grown under varying conditions, and Raman spectra of single lipid vesicles were acquired. From the spectra, we calculate a peak intensity ratio I(1270 cm(-1))/I(1445 cm(-1)) from the signals of =CH and -CH2/-CH3 groups, respectively. This ratio is linked to the iodine value (IV) using spectra of reference compounds with known IV. IVs of fungal samples are compared to gas chromatography results. Values from both methods are in good accordance. Lipid composition is found to vary between the investigated species, with Mortierella alpina having the most unsaturated lipid (IV up to 280) and Mortierella exigua the least unsaturated (IV as low as 70). We find Raman microspectroscopy a suitable tool to determine the IV reliably, fast, and easily inside intact hyphae without extensive sample handling or treatment. The method can also be transferred to other microscopic samples.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Mortierella/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Hifas/química , Iodo/química , Lipídeos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 2015 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25720762

RESUMO

Nutritional and environmental conditions around conception and during early embryonic development may have significant effects on health and well-being in adult life. Here, a bovine heifer model was used to investigate the effects of rumen-protected fat supplementation on oocyte quality and embryo development. Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=84) received a dietary supplement consisting of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or stearic acid (SA), each on top of an isocaloric basic diet. Oocytes were collected via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration and subjected to in vitro maturation followed by either desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for lipid profiling of individual oocytes or in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture. The type of supplement significantly affected lipid profiles of in vitro-matured oocytes. Palmitic acid and plasmalogen species were more abundant in the mass spectra of in vitro-matured oocytes after rumen-protected SA supplementation when compared with those collected from animals supplemented with CLA. Lipid concentrations in blood and follicular fluid were significantly affected by both supplements. Results show that rumen-protected fatty-acid supplementation affects oocyte lipid content and may pave the way for the establishment of a large-animal model for studies towards a better understanding of reproductive disorders associated with nutritional impairments.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 54(6): 881-93, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25216712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of foods enriched with vegetable oils varying in their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids profile on cardiovascular risk factors for hypertriglyceridemic subjects. METHODS: Fifty-nine hypertriglyceridemic subjects (triglycerides ≥ 1.5 mmol/L) were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The placebo group received sunflower oil [linoleic acid (LA) group; 10 g LA/day]. The intervention groups received linseed oil [α-linolenic acid (ALA) group; 7 g ALA/day], echium oil [stearidonic acid (SDA) group; 2 g SDA/day] or microalgae oil [docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) group; 2 g DHA/day] over 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of each period. RESULTS: Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly in the LA and ALA groups (LA: P ≤ 0.01, ALA: P ≤ 0.05). No changes in blood lipids were observed in the SDA group. Significant increases in TC and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol occurred in the DHA group (P ≤ 0.05). In the ALA and SDA groups, the content of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte lipids increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after 10 weeks (ALA group: 38 ± 37 %, SDA group: 73  ± 59 %). CONCLUSION: Foods enriched with different vegetable oils rich in ALA or SDA are able to increase the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in erythrocyte lipids; echium oil is more potent in comparison with linseed oil. Blood lipids were beneficially modified through the consumption of food products enriched with sunflower, linseed and microalgae oils, whereas echium oil did not affect blood lipids. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01437930.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados , Hipertrigliceridemia/dietoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Registros de Dieta , Método Duplo-Cego , Eritrócitos/química , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Tocoferóis/sangue
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