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1.
Am J Cardiovasc Dis ; 11(5): 659-678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcome following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is thought to be worse in women than in age-matched men. We assessed whether such differences occur in the UK Pan-London dataset and if age, and particularly menopause, influences upon outcome. METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 26,799 STEMI patients (20,633 men, 6,166 women) between 2005-2015 at 8 centres across London, UK. Patient details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.1 years (IQR: 2.2-5.8 years). RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a higher mortality rate in women versus men (15.6% men vs. 25.3% women, P<0.0001). Univariate Cox analysis revealed that female sex was a predictor of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.69 95% CI: 1.59-1.82). However, after multivariate adjustment, this effect of female sex diminished (HR: 1.05 95% CI: 0.90-1.25). In a sub-group analysis, we compared the sexes separated by age into the ≤55 and the >55 year olds. Age-stratified Cox analysis revealed that female sex was a univariate predictor of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.60 95% CI: 1.25-2.05) in the ≤55 group and in the >55 group (HR: 1.38 95% CI: 1.28-1.47). However, after regression adjustment incorporating the propensity score into a proportional hazard model as a covariate, whilst female sex was not a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in the ≤55 group it was a predictor in the >55 group. Moreover, whilst age did not influence outcome in <55 group, this effect in the >55 group was correlated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Overall women have a worse all-cause mortality following primary PCI for STEMI compared to men. However, this effect was driven predominantly by women >55 years of age since after adjusting for co-morbidities the risk in younger women did not differ significantly from that in men. These observations support the view that as women advance past the menopausal years their risk of further events following revascularization increases substantially and we suggest that routine assessment of hormonal status may improve clinical decision-making and ultimately outcome for women post-PCI.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(25): 2550-2560, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regional heart attack services have improved clinical outcomes following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by facilitating early reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Early discharge after primary PCI is welcomed by patients and increases efficiency of health care. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of a novel early hospital discharge pathway for low-risk STEMI patients. METHODS: Between March 2020 and June 2021, 600 patients who were deemed at low risk for early major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were selected for inclusion in the pathway and were successfully discharged in <48 hours. Patients were reviewed by a structured telephone follow-up at 48 hours after discharge by a cardiac rehabilitation nurse and underwent a virtual follow-up at 2, 6, and 8 weeks and at 3 months. RESULTS: The median length of hospital stay was 24.6 hours (interquartile range [IQR]: 22.7-30.0 hours) (prepathway median: 65.9 hours [IQR: 48.1-120.2 hours]). After discharge, all patients were contacted, with none lost to follow-up. During median follow-up of 271 days (IQR: 88-318 days), there were 2 deaths (0.33%), both caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (>30 days after discharge), with 0% cardiovascular mortality and MACE rates of 1.2%. This finding compared favorably with a historical group of 700 patients meeting pathway criteria who remained in the hospital for >48 hours (>48-hour control group) (mortality, 0.7%; MACE, 1.9%) both in unadjusted and propensity-matched analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Selected low-risk patients can be discharged safely following successful primary PCI by using a pathway that is supported by a structured, multidisciplinary virtual follow-up schedule.


Assuntos
Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Idoso , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who would usually have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, cardiac surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD) was dramatically reduced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients with "surgical disease" instead underwent PCI. METHODS: Between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2020, 215 patients with recognized "surgical" CAD who underwent PCI were enrolled in the prospective UK-ReVasc Registry (ReVR). 30-day major cardiovascular event outcomes were collected. Findings in ReVR patients were directly compared to reference PCI and isolated CABG pre-COVID-19 data from British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) and National Cardiac Audit Programme (NCAP) databases. RESULTS: ReVR patients had higher incidence of diabetes (34.4% vs 26.4%, P = .008), multi-vessel disease with left main stem disease (51.4% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and left anterior descending artery involvement (94.8% vs 67.2%, P < .001) compared to BCIS data. SYNTAX Score in ReVR was high (mean 28.0). Increased use of transradial access (93.3% vs 88.6%, P = .03), intracoronary imaging (43.6% vs 14.4%, P < .001) and calcium modification (23.6% vs 3.5%, P < .001) was observed. No difference in in-hospital mortality was demonstrated compared to PCI and CABG data (ReVR 1.4% vs BCIS 0.7%, P = .19; vs NCAP 1.0%, P = .48). Inpatient stay was half compared to CABG (3.0 vs 6.0 days). Low-event rates in ReVR were maintained to 30-day follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: PCI undertaken using contemporary techniques produces excellent short-term results in patients who would be otherwise CABG candidates. Longer-term follow-up is essential to determine whether these outcomes are maintained over time.

4.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 6(4): 311-327, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997519

RESUMO

There are no data evaluating the microbiome in congenital heart disease following cardiopulmonary bypass. The authors evaluated patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and noncardiac patients undergoing surgery without bypass. Patients with congenital heart disease had differences in baseline microbiome compared with control subjects, and this was exacerbated following surgery with bypass. Markers of barrier dysfunction were similar for both groups at baseline, and surgery with bypass induced significant intestinal barrier dysfunction compared with control subjects. This study offers novel evidence of alterations of the microbiome in congenital heart disease and exacerbation along with intestinal barrier dysfunction following cardiopulmonary bypass.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 21(3): 1113-1127, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767649

RESUMO

Liver transplantation (LT) in young patients is being performed with greater frequency. We hypothesized that objective analysis of pre-, intra-, and postoperative events would help understand contributors to successful outcomes and guide transplant decision processes. We queried SPLIT registry for pediatric transplants between 2011 and 2018. Outcomes were compared for age groups: 0-<3, 3-<6, 6-<12 months, and 1-<3 years (Groups A, B, C, D respectively) and by weight categories: <5, 5-10, >10 kg; 1033 patients were available for analysis. Cholestatic disease and fulminant failure were highest in group A and those <5 kg; and biliary atresia in group C (72.8%). Group A had significantly higher life support dependence (34.6%; P < .001), listing as United Network for Organ Sharing status 1a/1b (70.4%; P < .001), and shortest wait times (P < .001). The median (interquartile range) for international normalized ratio and bilirubin were highest in group A (3.0 [2.1-3.9] and 16.7 [6.8-29.7] mg/dL) and those <5 kg (2.6 [1.8-3.4] and 13.5 [3.0-28.4] mg/dL). A pediatric end -stage liver disease score ≥40, postoperative hospital stays, rejection, and nonanastomotic biliary strictures were highest in group A with lowest survival at 93.1%. Infants 0 to <3 months and those <5 kg need more intensive care with lower survival and higher complications. Importantly, potential LT before reaching status 1a/1b and aggressive postoperative management may positively influence their outcomes.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar , Transplante de Fígado , Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Criança , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Sistema de Registros
6.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 22: 3-7, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the optimal timing of invasive coronary angiography and subsequent intervention in non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. METHODS: We examined the impact of early (≤24 h) versus delayed (>24 h) intervention in a large observational cohort of 20,882 consecutive NSTEMI patients treated with PCI between 2005 and 2015 at 8 tertiary cardiac centers in London (UK) using Cox-regression analysis and propensity matching. RESULTS: Mean age was 64.5 ± 12.7 years and 26.1% were females. A quarter (27.6%), were treated within 24 h. Patients treated within 24 h were slightly younger (62.8 ± 12.8 vs. 65.2 ± 12.6, p < 0.001), most commonly male (76% vs. 72.9%, p < 0.001) and were more frequently ventilated (2.3% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.001) and in cardiogenic shock (3.6% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.001) with dynamic changes on their ECG (84.5% vs. 76.1% p < 0.001). At a median follow up of 4.2 years (interquartile range 1.8 to 7) 17.7% of patients had died. Estimated 5-year survival in patients treated within 24 h was 84.6% vs. 81% for those treated >24 h following their presentation (p < 0.001). This survival benefit remained following adjustment for confounders; HR(delayed vs. early management) 1.11 (95%CI 1.003 to 1.23, p = 0.046). In the propensity matched cohort of 4356 patients in each group, there remained a trend for higher survival in the early intervention group (p = 0.061). CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding the limitations of the retrospective design, this real-world cohort of NSTEMI patients suggests that an early intervention (≤24 h) may improve mid-term survival.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Hepatology ; 73(3): 937-951, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Predictive, noninvasive tools are needed to monitor key features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children that relate to improvement in liver histology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between liver chemistries and liver histology using data from the CyNCh (Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release for the Treatment of NAFLD in Children) clinical trial. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This study included 146 children. Improvement in liver histology, defined as decrease in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Activity Score ≥2 points without worsening of fibrosis, occurred in 43 participants (30%). There were 46 participants with borderline zone 1 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) at baseline, with resolution in 28% (12 of 46). Multivariate models were constructed using baseline and change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) at 52 weeks, for improvement in (1) liver histology primary outcome, (2) borderline zone 1 NASH, and (3) fibrosis. For improvement in histology, the model (P < 0.0001) retained baseline and change in GGT (area under the receiver operating characteristic [AUROC], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.87). For borderline zone 1 NASH, the model (P = 0.0004) retained baseline and change in ALT (AUROC, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93). For fibrosis, the model (P < 0.001) retained baseline and change in ALT (AUROC, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.93). Additional clinical parameters were added to the models using Akaike's information criterion selection, and significantly boosted performance: improvement in histology with AUROC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), borderline zone 1 NASH with AUROC of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83-0.99), and fibrosis with AUROC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94). Models were validated using data from the TONIC (Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children) trial. CONCLUSIONS: In children with NAFLD, dynamic changes in serum ALT and GGT are associated with change in liver histology and appear to be powerful indicators of histological response.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/enzimologia , gama-Glutamiltransferase/metabolismo , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Criança , Cisteamina/administração & dosagem , Cisteamina/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(10): 1168-1176, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is thought to predispose patients to thrombotic disease. To date there are few reports of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) caused by type 1 myocardial infarction in patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, angiographic, and procedural characteristics alongside clinical outcomes of consecutive cases of COVID-19-positive patients with STEMI compared with COVID-19-negative patients. METHODS: This was a single-center, observational study of 115 consecutive patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention at Barts Heart Centre between March 1, 2020, and May 20, 2020. RESULTS: Patients with STEMI presenting with concurrent COVID-19 infection had higher levels of troponin T and lower lymphocyte count, but elevated D-dimer and C-reactive protein. There were significantly higher rates of multivessel thrombosis, stent thrombosis, higher modified thrombus grade post first device with consequently higher use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and thrombus aspiration. Myocardial blush grade and left ventricular function were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 with STEMI. Higher doses of heparin to achieve therapeutic activated clotting times were also noted. Importantly, patients with STEMI presenting with COVID-19 infection had a longer in-patient admission and higher rates of intensive care admission. CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with STEMI and concurrent COVID-19 infection, there is a strong signal toward higher thrombus burden and poorer outcomes. This supports the need for establishing COVID-19 status in all STEMI cases. Further work is required to understand the mechanism of increased thrombosis and the benefit of aggressive antithrombotic therapy in selected cases.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Trombose Coronária/sangue , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Seleção de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Troponina T/sangue
10.
Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1731-1751.e10, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common pediatric chronic liver disease. Little is known about outcomes in recognized youth. METHODS: We compared paired liver biopsies from 122 of 139 children with NAFLD (74% male; 64% white; 71% Hispanic; mean age, 13 ± 3 years; age range, 8-17 years) who received placebo and standard of care lifestyle advice in 2 double-blind, randomized clinical trials within the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) clinical research network from 2005 through 2015. We analyzed histologic changes with respect to baseline and longitudinal change in clinical variables using regression analysis. RESULTS: At enrollment, 31% of the children had definite NASH, 34% had borderline zone 1 NASH, 13% had borderline zone 3 NASH, and 21% had fatty liver but not NASH. Over a mean period of 1.6 ± 0.4 years, borderline or definite NASH resolved in 29% of the children, whereas 18% of the children with fatty liver or borderline NASH developed definite NASH. Fibrosis improved in 34% of the children but worsened in 23%. Any progression to definite NASH and/or in fibrosis was associated with adolescent age, and higher waist circumference, levels of alanine or aspartate aminotransferase, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline (<0.05), and over follow-up time, with increasing level of alanine aminotransferase, hemoglobin A1C (P<.05), gamma-glutamyl transferase and development of type 2 diabetes (P<.01). Increasing level of gamma-glutamyl transferase was also associated with reduced odds of any improvement (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of children with NAFLD enrolled in placebo groups of clinical trials had histologic features of progression within 2 years, in association with increasing obesity and serum levels of aminotransferases and loss of glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e014409, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475202

RESUMO

Background Limited information exists regarding procedural success and clinical outcomes in patients with previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to compare outcomes in patients undergoing PCI with or without CABG. Methods and Results This was an observational cohort study of 123 780 consecutive PCI procedures from the Pan-London (UK) PCI registry from 2005 to 2015. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 3.0 years (interquartile range, 1.2-4.6 years). A total of 12 641(10.2%) patients had a history of previous CABG, of whom 29.3% (n=3703) underwent PCI to native vessels and 70.7% (n=8938) to bypass grafts. There were significant differences in the demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics of these groups. The risk of mortality during follow-up was significantly higher in patients with prior CABG (23.2%; P=0.0005) compared with patients with no prior CABG (12.1%) and was seen for patients who underwent either native vessel (20.1%) or bypass graft PCI (24.2%; P<0.0001). However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference in outcomes seen between the groups when PCI was performed in native vessels in patients with previous CABG (hazard ratio [HR],1.02; 95%CI, 0.77-1.34; P=0.89), but a significantly higher mortality was seen among patients with PCI to bypass grafts (HR,1.33; 95% CI, 1.03-1.71; P=0.026). This was seen after multivariate adjustment and propensity matching. Conclusions Patients with prior CABG were older with greater comorbidities and more complex procedural characteristics, but after adjustment for these differences, the clinical outcomes were similar to the patients undergoing PCI without prior CABG. In these patients, native-vessel PCI was associated with better outcomes compared with the treatment of vein grafts.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(12): 1049-1057, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264693

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: Short bowel syndrome is associated with significant comorbidities and mortality. This study is important as unlike current systems, it provides a validated piglet model which mirrors anatomical, histological, and serological characteristics observed in human SBS. This model can be used to advance knowledge into mechanistic pathways and therapeutic modalities to improve outcomes for SBS patients. This study is novel in that in addition to significant reduction in the remnant bowel and noted liver disease, we also developed a method to emulate ileocecal valve resection and described gut adaptive responses which has important clinical implications in humans.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Colo/cirurgia , Íleo/patologia , Íleo/cirurgia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/patologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperbilirrubinemia/metabolismo , Hiperbilirrubinemia/patologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/metabolismo , Suínos
13.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(8): 948-957, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), mortality is directly related to time to reperfusion with guidelines recommending patients be delivered directly to centres for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to describe the impact of inter-hospital transfer on reperfusion time and to assess whether or not treatment delays influenced clinical outcomes in comparison with direct admission to a primary PCI centre in a large regional network. METHOD AND RESULTS: We undertook an observational cohort study of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI between 2005 and 2015 in London, UK. Patient details were recorded at the time of the procedure in databases using the British Cardiovascular Intervention Society PCI dataset. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality at a median of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 2.2-5.8 years). Secondary outcomes were in-hospital major adverse cardiac events. Of 25,315 patients, 17,560 (69.4%) were admitted directly to a primary PCI centre and 7755 (31.6%) were transferred from a non-primary PCI centre. Patients in the direct admission group were older and more likely to have left ventricular impairment compared with the inter-hospital transfer group. Median time from call for help to reperfusion in transferred patients was 52 minutes longer compared with patients admitted directly (p <0.001). However, call to first hospital admission was similar. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly lower mortality rates in patients who were transferred directed to a primary PCI centre compared with patients who were transferred from a non-PCI centre (17.4% direct vs. 18.7% transfer, p=0.017). Furthermore, after propensity matching, direct admission for primary PCI was still a predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: In this large registry of over 25,000 STEMI patients treated by primary PCI survival was better in patients admitted directly to a cardiac centre versus patients transferred for primary PCI, most likely due to longer call to balloon times in patient transferred from other hospitals.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
14.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 21(3): 350-358, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in technology, patients with Cardiogenic Shock (CS) presenting with ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) still have a poor prognosis with high mortality rates. A large proportion of these patients have multi-vessel coronary artery disease, the treatment of which is still unclear. We aimed to assess the trends in management of CS patients with multi-vessel disease (MVD), particularly looking at the incidence and outcomes of complete revascularisation compared to culprit vessel only. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 21,210 STEMI patients treated between 2005 and 2015 at the 8 Heart Attack Centres in London, UK. Patients' details were recorded prospectively into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. 1058 patients presented with CS and MVD. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients were followed-up for a median of 4.1 years (IQR range: 2.2-5.8 years). 497 (47.0%) patients underwent complete revascularisation during primary PCI for CS with stable rates seen over time. These patients were more likely to be male, hypertensive and more likely to have poor LV function compared to the culprit vessel intervention group. Although crude, in hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rates were similar (40.8% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.558) between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no significant differences in mortality rates between the two groups (53.8% complete revascularisation vs. 46.8% culprit vessel intervention, p = 0.252) during the follow-up period. After multivariate cox analysis (HR 0.69 95% CI (0.44-0.98)) and the use of propensity matching (HR: 0.81 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) complete revascularisation was associated with reduced mortality. A number of co-variates were included in the model, including age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, previous PCI, previous MI, chronic renal failure, Anterior infarct, number of treated vessels, pre-procedure TIMI flow, procedural success and GP IIb/IIIA use. CONCLUSION: In a contemporary observational series of CS patients with MVD, complete revascularisation appears to be associated with better outcomes compared to culprit vessel only intervention. This supports on-going clinical trials in this area and provides further evidence of the association of complete revascularisation in STEMI with good outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 35(1): 63-71, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872510

RESUMO

Parenteral nutrition (PN) has revolutionized the care of patients with intestinal failure by providing nutrition intravenously. Worldwide, PN remains a standard tool of nutrition delivery in neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients. Though the benefits are evident, patients receiving PN can suffer serious cholestasis due to lack of enteral feeding and sometimes have fatal complications from liver injury and gut atrophy, including PN-associated liver disease or intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Recent studies into gut-systemic cross talk via the bile acid-regulated farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) axis, gut microbial control of the TGR5-glucagon-like peptide (GLP) axis, sepsis, and role of prematurity of hepatobiliary receptors are greatly broadening our understanding of PN-associated injury. It has also been shown that the composition of ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids given parenterally as lipid emulsions can variably drive damage to hepatocytes and cell integrity. This manuscript reviews the mechanisms for the multifactorial pathogenesis of liver disease and gut injury with PN and discusses novel ameliorative strategies.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Colestase/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Enteropatias/etiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/patologia
16.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 38(5): 411-440, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802441

RESUMO

The Indian Society of Gastroenterology developed this evidence-based practice guideline for management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults. A modified Delphi process was used to develop this consensus containing 58 statements, which were generated by electronic voting iteration as well as face-to-face meeting and review of the supporting literature primarily from India. These statements include 10 on epidemiology, 8 on clinical presentation, 10 on investigations, 23 on treatment (including medical, endoscopic, and surgical modalities), and 7 on complications of GERD. When the proportion of those who voted either to accept completely or with minor reservation was 80% or higher, the statement was regarded as accepted. The prevalence of GERD in India ranges from 7.6% to 30%, being < 10% in most population studies, and higher in cohort studies. The dietary factors associated with GERD include use of spices and non-vegetarian food. Helicobacter pylori is thought to have a negative relation with GERD; H. pylori negative patients have higher grade of symptoms of GERD and esophagitis. Less than 10% of GERD patients in India have erosive esophagitis. In patients with occasional or mild symptoms, antacids and histamine H2 receptor blockers (H2RAs) may be used, and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) should be used in patients with frequent or severe symptoms. Prokinetics have limited proven role in management of GERD.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologia/normas , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Esofagite/epidemiologia , Esofagite/etiologia , Feminino , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas
17.
Pediatr Radiol ; 49(13): 1742-1753, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While liver biopsy remains the gold standard, given the procedure risks and sampling errors, there is a need for reliable noninvasive biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: Determine the accuracy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2-D SWE) in predicting the histological severity of liver fibrosis in pediatric patients with known or suspected liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects 0-18 years old with known or suspected liver disease and liver biopsy within 30 days (n=70) were included. Comparisons by 2-D SWE were made to a control group (n=79). Two-dimensional SWE was performed using the GE LOGIQ E9 system. Liver biopsy specimens were scored according to METAVIR and Ishak scoring systems using Spearman's Rho correlation. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were conducted. RESULTS: Control group median 2-D SWE measurements were lower than in subjects with any degree of liver fibrosis (P<0.001). Those with METAVIR F0 and Ishak 0 scores had significantly lower median 2-D SWE measurements (1.35 m/s; 1.36 m/s) than those with more advanced liver disease (F1-F3: 1.49-1.62 m/s; 1-4: 1.45-1.63 m/s) (P<0.05 for all), whereas the 2-D SWE in the higher scores were similar. Results did not differ between METAVIR and Ishak scores for any degree of fibrosis. Fibrosis scores moderately correlated with median 2-D SWE measurements (rs=0.43). The area under the curve for F1 compared to combined control/F0 was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.95; P<0.001) with sensitivity of 94.6% and specificity of 78.6%. Results for Ishak score 1 were similar. The ideal cutoff value for identifying fibrosis was determined to be 1.29 m/s. CONCLUSION: The liver 2-D SWE measurements correlated with the histological liver fibrosis scores, regardless of the histopathological scoring system, although 2-D SWE was better at identifying patients with early fibrosis, not at distinguishing among the individual fibrosis levels. Two-dimensional SWE using the GE LOGIQ US system is useful for identifying pediatric patients at risk for liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/patologia , Adolescente , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
18.
Eur Heart J ; 40(31): 2620-2629, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220238

RESUMO

AIMS: The public reporting of healthcare outcomes has a number of potential benefits; however, unintended consequences may limit its effectiveness as a quality improvement process. We aimed to assess whether the introduction of individual operator specific outcome reporting after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK was associated with a change in patient risk factor profiles, procedural management, or 30-day mortality outcomes in a large cohort of consecutive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was an observational cohort study of 123 780 consecutive PCI procedures from the Pan-London (UK) PCI registry, from January 2005 to December 2015. Outcomes were compared pre- (2005-11) and post- (2011-15) public reporting including the use of an interrupted time series analysis. Patients treated after public reporting was introduced were older and had more complex medical problems. Despite this, reported in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events rates were significantly lower after the introduction of public reporting (2.3 vs. 2.7%, P < 0.0001). Interrupted time series analysis demonstrated evidence of a reduction in 30-day mortality rates after the introduction of public reporting, which was over and above the existing trend in mortality before the introduction of public outcome reporting (35% decrease relative risk 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.77; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The introduction of public reporting has been associated with an improvement in outcomes after PCI in this data set, without evidence of risk-averse behaviour. However, the lower reported complication rates might suggest a change in operator behaviour and decision-making confirming the need for continued surveillance of the impact of public reporting on outcomes and operator behaviour.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Angina Estável/cirurgia , Cardiologistas/psicologia , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Angina Estável/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Notificação de Abuso/ética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/ética , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(2): 182-189, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common; however, no information is available on how pediatric gastroenterologists in the United States manage NAFLD. Therefore, study objectives were to understand how pediatric gastroenterologists in the US approach the management of NAFLD, and to identify barriers to care for children with NAFLD. METHODS: We performed structured one-on-one interviews to ascertain each individual pediatric gastroenterologist's approach to the management of NAFLD in children. Responses were recorded from open-ended questions regarding screening for comorbidities, recommendations regarding nutrition, physical activity, medications, and perceived barriers to care. RESULTS: Response rate was 72.0% (486/675). Mean number of patients examined per week was 3 (standard deviation [SD] 3.5). Dietary intervention was recommended by 98.4% of pediatric gastroenterologists. Notably, 18 different dietary recommendations were reported. A majority of physicians provided targets for exercise frequency (72.6%, mean 5.6 days/wk, SD 1.6) and duration (69.9%, mean 40.2 minutes/session, SD 16.4). Medications were prescribed by 50.6%. Almost one-half of physicians (47.5%) screened for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Providers who spent more than 25 minutes at the initial visit were more likely to screen for comorbidities (P = 0.003). Barriers to care were reported by 92.8% with 29.0% reporting ≥3 barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of US pediatric gastroenterologists regularly encounter children with NAFLD. Varied recommendations regarding diet and exercise highlight the need for prospective clinical trials. NAFLD requires a multidimensional approach with adequate resources in the home, community, and clinical setting.


Assuntos
Gastroenterologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Pediatria/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(17): 1989-1999, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) present with multivessel disease (MVD). There is uncertainty in the role of complete coronary revascularization in this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of complete revascularization compared with culprit vessel-only intervention in a large contemporary cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for NSTEMI. METHODS: The authors undertook an observational cohort study of 37,491 NSTEMI patients treated between 2005 and 2015 at the 8 heart attack centers in London. Clinical details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. A total of 21,857 patients (58.3%) presented with NSTEMI and MVD. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 2.2 to 5.8 years). RESULTS: A total of 11,737 (53.7%) patients underwent single-stage complete revascularization during PCI for NSTEMI, rates that significantly increased during the study period (p = 0.006). Those patients undergoing complete revascularization were older and more likely to be male, diabetic, have renal disease and a history of previous myocardial infarction/revascularization compared with the culprit-only revascularization group. Although crude, in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were similar (5.2% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.462) between the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significant differences in mortality rates between the 2 groups (22.5% complete revascularization vs. 25.9% culprit vessel intervention; p = 0.0005) during the follow-up period. After multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.85 to 0.97) and the use of propensity matching (hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.98) complete revascularization was associated with reduced mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In NSTEMI patients with MVD, despite higher initial (in-hospital) mortality rates, single-stage complete coronary revascularization appears to be superior to culprit-only vessel PCI in terms of long-term mortality rates. This supports the need for further randomized study to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários , Revascularização Miocárdica , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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