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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1652-1656, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing. RESULTS: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype. CONCLUSION: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503518

RESUMO

FUK encodes fucokinase, the only enzyme capable of converting L-fucose to fucose-1-phosphate, which will ultimately be used for synthesizing GDP-fucose, the donor substrate for all fucosyltransferases. Although it is essential for fucose salvage, this pathway is thought to make only a minor contribution to the total amount of GDP-fucose. A second pathway, the major de novo pathway, involves conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. Here we describe two unrelated individuals who have pathogenic variants in FUK and who presented with severe developmental delays, encephalopathy, intractable seizures, and hypotonia. The first individual was compound heterozygous for c.667T>C (p.Ser223Pro) and c.2047C>T (p.Arg683Cys), and the second individual was homozygous for c.2980A>C (p.Lys994Gln). Skin fibroblasts from the first individual confirmed the variants as loss of function and showed significant decreases in total GDP-[3H] fucose and [3H] fucose-1-phosphate. There was also a decrease in the incorporation of [5,6-3H]-fucose into fucosylated glycoproteins. Lys994 has previously been shown to be an important site for ubiquitin conjugation. Here, we show that loss-of-function variants in FUK cause a congenital glycosylation disorder characterized by a defective fucose-salvage pathway.

7.
JBMR Plus ; 2(4): 235-239, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283904

RESUMO

The heritable disorder osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VI is an autosomal recessive form of the disorder with moderate to severe bone fragility. OI type VI is caused by mutations in the serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, member 1 (SERPINF1), the gene coding for pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Here, we report a patient with OI type VI caused by a novel homozygous intronic variant in SERPINF1 identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES). The mutation was not identified using a low bone mass gene panel based on next-generation sequencing. This variant creates a novel consensus splice donor site (AGGC to AGGT) in intron 4. Analysis of cDNA generated from fibroblasts revealed retention of a 32-bp intronic fragment between exons 4 and 5 in the cDNA, a result of alternative splicing from the novel splice-donor site. As a result, the aberrant insertion of this intronic fragment generated a frameshift pathogenic variant and induced nonsense-mediated decay. Furthermore, gene expression by quantitative PCR showed SERPINF1 expression was dramatically reduced in patient fibroblasts, and PEDF level was also significantly reduced in the patient's plasma. In conclusion, we report a novel homozygous variant that generates an alternative splice-donor in intron 4 of SERPINF1 which gives rise to severe bone fragility. The work also demonstrates clinical utility of WES analysis, and consideration of noncoding variants, in the diagnostic setting of rare bone diseases. © 2018 The Authors. JBMR Plus is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes people to recurrent fractures, bone deformities, and short stature. There is a lack of large-scale systematic studies that have investigated growth parameters in OI. METHODS: Using data from the Linked Clinical Research Centers, we compared height, growth velocity, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in 552 individuals with OI. Height, weight, and BMI were plotted on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative curves. RESULTS: In children, the median z-scores for height in OI types I, III, and IV were -0.66, -6.91, and -2.79, respectively. Growth velocity was diminished in OI types III and IV. The median z-score for weight in children with OI type III was -4.55. The median z-scores for BMI in children with OI types I, III, and IV were 0.10, 0.91, and 0.67, respectively. Generalized linear model analyses demonstrated that the height z-score was positively correlated with the severity of the OI subtype (P < 0.001), age, bisphosphonate use, and rodding (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: From the largest cohort of individuals with OI, we provide median values for height, weight, and BMI z-scores that can aid the evaluation of overall growth in the clinic setting. This study is an important first step in the generation of OI-specific growth curves.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1126-1142, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805043

RESUMO

The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.

11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(7): 1849-1858, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654216

RESUMO

Background For many patients with kidney failure, the cause and underlying defect remain unknown. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of a genetic order characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome and kidney failure.Methods We clinically and genetically characterized members of five families with autosomal dominant renal Fanconi syndrome and kidney failure. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis, sequencing, and expression studies in kidney biopsy specimens and renal cells along with knockout mouse studies and evaluations of mitochondrial morphology and function. Structural studies examined the effects of recognized mutations.Results The renal disease in these patients resulted from monoallelic mutations in the gene encoding glycine amidinotransferase (GATM), a renal proximal tubular enzyme in the creatine biosynthetic pathway that is otherwise associated with a recessive disorder of creatine deficiency. In silico analysis showed that the particular GATM mutations, identified in 28 members of the five families, create an additional interaction interface within the GATM protein and likely cause the linear aggregation of GATM observed in patient biopsy specimens and cultured proximal tubule cells. GATM aggregates-containing mitochondria were elongated and associated with increased ROS production, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, enhanced expression of the profibrotic cytokine IL-18, and increased cell death.Conclusions In this novel genetic disorder, fully penetrant heterozygous missense mutations in GATM trigger intramitochondrial fibrillary deposition of GATM and lead to elongated and abnormal mitochondria. We speculate that this renal proximal tubular mitochondrial pathology initiates a response from the inflammasome, with subsequent development of kidney fibrosis.

12.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1175-1185, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome. METHODS: Families underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Twelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings. CONCLUSION: These clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.

13.
Nat Med ; 23(12): 1444-1453, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106398

RESUMO

Asprosin is a recently discovered fasting-induced hormone that promotes hepatic glucose production. Here we demonstrate that asprosin in the circulation crosses the blood-brain barrier and directly activates orexigenic AgRP+ neurons via a cAMP-dependent pathway. This signaling results in inhibition of downstream anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-positive neurons in a GABA-dependent manner, which then leads to appetite stimulation and a drive to accumulate adiposity and body weight. In humans, a genetic deficiency in asprosin causes a syndrome characterized by low appetite and extreme leanness; this is phenocopied by mice carrying similar mutations and can be fully rescued by asprosin. Furthermore, we found that obese humans and mice had pathologically elevated concentrations of circulating asprosin, and neutralization of asprosin in the blood with a monoclonal antibody reduced appetite and body weight in obese mice, in addition to improving their glycemic profile. Thus, in addition to performing a glucogenic function, asprosin is a centrally acting orexigenic hormone that is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of both obesity and diabetes.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/fisiologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(10): 2789-2794, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815944

RESUMO

Nemaline myopathy is a rare inherited disorder characterized by weakness, hypotonia, and depressed deep tendon reflexes. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with the most severe phenotype presenting as perinatal akinesia, severe muscle weakness, feeding difficulties and respiratory failure, leading to early mortality. Pathogenic variants in 12 genes, encoding components of the sarcomere or factors related to myogenesis, have been reported in patients affected with the disorder. Here, we describe an early, lethal presentation of decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, muscle weakness, and neonatal respiratory failure requiring ventilator support in three siblings from a consanguineous family. All exhibited perinatal fractures, and thus, a skeletal dysplasia was considered as possibly contributing to the phenotype. However, whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous, loss-of-function pathogenic variant in LMOD3, which has recently been associated with nemaline myopathy and, in a subset of patients, perinatal fractures. This case demonstrates the importance of considering congenital neuromuscular disorders in the differential diagnosis of perinatal fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mutação , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/patologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/complicações , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Linhagem
15.
Hum Mutat ; 38(10): 1365-1371, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649782

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding components of the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. We identified heterozygous, novel variants in ACTL6A, a gene encoding a component of the BAF complex, in three subjects with varying degrees of intellectual disability. Two subjects have missense variants affecting highly conserved amino acid residues within the actin-like domain. Missense mutations in the homologous region in yeast actin were previously reported to be dominant lethal and were associated with impaired binding of the human ACTL6A to ß-actin and BRG1. A third subject has a splicing variant that creates an in-frame deletion. Our findings suggest that the variants identified in our subjects may have a deleterious effect on the function of the protein by disturbing the integrity of the BAF complex. Thus, ACTL6A gene mutation analysis should be considered in patients with intellectual disability, learning disabilities, or developmental language disorder.


Assuntos
Actinas/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Exoma , Face , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Micrognatismo/fisiopatologia , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 466: 105-111, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delaying plasma separation after phlebotomy (processing delay) can cause perturbations of numerous small molecule analytes. This poses a major challenge to the clinical application of metabolomics analyses. In this study, we further define the analyte changes that occur during processing delays and generate a model for the post hoc detection of this preanalytical error. METHODS: Using an untargeted metabolomics platform we analyzed EDTA-preserved plasma specimens harvested after processing delays lasting from minutes to days. Identified biomarkers were tested on (i) a test-set of samples exposed to either minimal (n=28) or long delays (n=40) and (ii) samples collected in a clinical setting for metabolomics analysis (n=141). RESULTS: A total of 149 of 803 plasma analytes changed significantly during processing delays lasting 0-20h. Biomarkers related to erythrocyte metabolism, e.g., 5-oxoproline, lactate, and an ornithine/arginine ratio, were the strongest predictors of plasma separation delays, providing 100% diagnostic accuracy in the test set. Together these biomarkers could accurately predict processing delays >2h in a pilot study and we found evidence of sample mishandling in 4 of 141 clinically derived specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the widespread effects of processing delays and proposes that erythrocyte metabolism creates a reproducible signal that can identify mishandled specimens in metabolomics studies.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Plasma/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(3): 733-739, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888646

RESUMO

Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD) corner fracture type (also known as SMD "Sutcliffe" type, MIM 184255) is a rare skeletal dysplasia that presents with mild to moderate short stature, developmental coxa vara, mild platyspondyly, corner fracture-like lesions, and metaphyseal abnormalities with sparing of the epiphyses. The molecular basis for this disorder has yet to be clarified. We describe two patients with SMD corner fracture type and heterozygous pathogenic variants in COL2A1. These two cases together with a third case of SMD corner fracture type with a heterozygous COL2A1 pathogenic variant previously described suggest that this disorder overlaps with type II collagenopathies. The finding of one of the pathogenic variants in a previously reported case of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) Strudwick type and the significant clinical similarity suggest an overlap between SMD corner fracture and SEMD Strudwick types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Articulação do Quadril/anormalidades , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico , Fraturas da Tíbia/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exoma , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Radiografia
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(16): 3446-3453, 2016 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378692

RESUMO

Cell lineages of the early human gonad commit to one of the two mutually antagonistic organogenetic fates, the testis or the ovary. Some individuals with a 46,XX karyotype develop testes or ovotestes (testicular or ovotesticular disorder of sex development; TDSD/OTDSD), due to the presence of the testis-determining gene, SRY Other rare complex syndromic forms of TDSD/OTDSD are associated with mutations in pro-ovarian genes that repress testis development (e.g. WNT4); however, the genetic cause of the more common non-syndromic forms is unknown. Steroidogenic factor-1 (known as NR5A1) is a key regulator of reproductive development and function. Loss-of-function changes in NR5A1 in 46,XY individuals are associated with a spectrum of phenotypes in humans ranging from a lack of testis formation to male infertility. Mutations in NR5A1 in 46,XX women are associated with primary ovarian insufficiency, which includes a lack of ovary formation, primary and secondary amenorrhoea as well as early menopause. Here, we show that a specific recurrent heterozygous missense mutation (p.Arg92Trp) in the accessory DNA-binding region of NR5A1 is associated with variable degree of testis development in 46,XX children and adults from four unrelated families. Remarkably, in one family a sibling raised as a girl and carrying this NR5A1 mutation was found to have a 46,XY karyotype with partial testicular dysgenesis. These unique findings highlight how a specific variant in a developmental transcription factor can switch organ fate from the ovary to testis in mammals and represents the first missense mutation causing isolated, non-syndromic 46,XX testicular/ovotesticular DSD in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Fator Esteroidogênico 1/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/genética , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/patologia , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Criança , Transtorno 46,XY do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Feminino , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/patologia , Humanos , Cariótipo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/patologia , Linhagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/patologia , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/patologia
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(10): 2711-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27320698

RESUMO

We present a 5-year-old female with a distinctive phenotype comprising global developmental delays, pre- and post-natal growth restriction, striking joint laxity with soft skin, and scoliosis. She had a triangular facies, a prominent forehead, proptosis, a small nose, and a small jaw. Her ocular findings included corneal clouding, colobomas of the iris and optic nerve, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Exome sequencing identified homozygosity for c.970T>A, predicting p.(Cys324Ser), in the xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 7 (B4GALT7) gene. Variant segregation was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and the missense substitution was predicted to be pathogenic. As the phenotype of this child is consistent with that described in other "linkeropathy" syndromes, we conclude that p.(Cys324Ser) is likely to be disease-causing. The eye features were a notable part of this child's presentation and mutations in the linkeropathy genes (XYLT1, XYLT2, B4GALT7, B3GALT6, and B3GAT3) can be associated with ocular findings, including blue sclerae, refractive errors, corneal clouding, strabismus, nystagmus, cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal abnormalities, including retinal detachment. The corneal clouding and cataracts in this patient may thus have been caused by her B4GALT7 mutation, but the colobomas are a novel phenotypic finding. However, a different genetic etiology or a role for modifying genetic factors has not been excluded in the etiology of her colobomas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Alelos , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/genética , Pré-Escolar , Coloboma/diagnóstico , Coloboma/genética , Opacidade da Córnea/diagnóstico , Opacidade da Córnea/genética , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Síndrome
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