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1.
J Int Soc Prev Community Dent ; 5(5): 354-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539385

RESUMO

The implant-to-tissue interface is an extremely dynamic region of interaction. Generally, a surgical procedure is performed on a patient to insert a foreign material into the bone, and the body is called on to "heal" the wound. The time schedule crucial for a healing process that is expected to result in restitution ad integrum must be determined with respect to the condition of the individual patient and tissue to be treated. There are various factors responsible for the formation of an adequate bone-implant interface. A comprehensive review of the response of bone to implant is described.

2.
Indian J Med Res ; 141(5): 663-72, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139787

RESUMO

Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública , Características de Residência , População Rural , Escarro/microbiologia
3.
Indian J Dent ; 6(1): 20-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25767356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate 2.5 mg (Periochip) and Minocycline hydrochloride 1 mg (Arestin) as local drug delivery agents in the management of chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients in the age group of 30-50 years suffering from chronic periodontitis (12 males and 8 females), with almost identical probing depth bilaterally (5-8 mm), and exhibiting bleeding on probing were selected and divided into two groups: Group I consisted of periodontal pockets on the left side and received Periochip and group II consisted of periodontal pockets on the right side and received Arestin. Patients were recalled after 6 weeks and 3 months intervals from the baseline visit to record plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. RESULTS: There was reduction in all the parameters in both the groups at 6 weeks and 3 months as compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: From the results of the present study, it was concluded that both the drugs were equally effective in reduction of plaque scores as well as gingival scores. It was further observed that Arestin resulted in better results at 6 weeks while Periochip showed better results at 3 months with respect to probing depth reduction.

5.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 175(2): 813-24, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25344433

RESUMO

Soil is a sink of pesticide residues as well as microorganisms. Fungi are well known for solubilization of inorganic phosphates, and this activity of fungal isolates may be affected by the presence of pesticide residues in the soil. In the present study, five generically different fungal isolates, viz. Aspergillus niger JQ660373, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium aculeatum JQ660374, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp., were tested and compared for their phosphate-solubilizing ability in the absence and presence of monocrotophos (500 mg L(-1)). After 168 h of incubation, four times high amount of tricalcium phosphate was solubilized by isolates in the growth medium containing monocrotophos in comparison to control (without monocrotophos). Concurrently, 78 % of the applied monocrotophos was degraded by these fungal isolates. Kinetics of phosphate solubilization shifted from logarithmic to power model in the presence of monocrotophos. Similarly, the phosphatase activity was also found significantly high in the presence of monocrotophos. The combined order of phosphate solubilization as well as monocrotophos degradation was found to be A. niger JQ660373 > P. aculeatum JQ660374 > A. flavus > F. pallidoroseum > Macrophomina sp. On the contrary, phosphate solubilization negatively correlated with the pH of the growth medium. Hence, it could be concluded that these fungal species efficiently solubilize inorganic phosphates and monocrotophos poses a positive effect on their ability and in turn degraded by them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on P solubilization by Macrophomina sp. and F. pallidoroseum.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/metabolismo , Monocrotofós/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteínas Fúngicas/agonistas , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Monocrotofós/química , Monocrotofós/farmacologia , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/metabolismo , Fosfatos/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Solubilidade
6.
J Int Oral Health ; 6(4): 89-91, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214741

RESUMO

Buccal exostoses occur along the buccal aspect of the maxilla or mandible, usually in the premolar and molar areas. It has been suggested that the bony outgrowth represents a reaction to increased or abnormal occlusal stress to the teeth in the involved areas. Gingival recessions may occur without any symptoms but may give rise to the patient concern about poor esthetics, dentine hypersensitivity, inability to perform oral hygiene procedures, and loss of the tooth. This article presents a rare case of exostosis in the mandibular right canine region and single tooth recession in the mandibular left central incisor region which was successfully managed by a combination of osseous resective surgery done to treat exostosis and lateral pedicle technique for root coverage.

7.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 172(7): 3570-82, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24557957

RESUMO

Continuous and repeated use of pesticides affects soil microbial flora and fauna and hence indirectly affects the activity of diverse microbial enzymes present within it. The present study investigates the interaction effect of different concentrations of monocrotophos on diverse hydrolases and oxidases, viz., protease, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cellulase, amylase, invertase, arginine deaminase, and dehydrogenase, present in sandy loam soil of Rajasthan under in vitro conditions for 30 days. Soil sample was inoculated with three different concentrations of monocrotophos, viz., 50, 100, and 150 µg kg(-1), and incubated in dark at room temperature. At regular interval of 5 days, sample was withdrawn and enzyme activity was calculated and compared with that of control. Application of various concentrations of monocrotophos enhanced the activity of diverse enzymes present in soil. Therefore, the study revealed synergistic or additive effect of monocrotophos on all the tested microbial enzyme entities. Increasing concentration of the pesticide, however, poses an antagonistic interaction on the increment of different enzymes activities. Therefore, it can be concluded from the study that monocrotophos impose a positive effect at low concentration of pesticide, whereas high concentration poses negative effect on the activity of different enzymes present in soil.


Assuntos
Hidrolases/análise , Monocrotofós/análise , Oxirredutases/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Índia
8.
Indian J Dent ; 5(3): 132-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various treatment modalities have been devised for gingival recession, which is one of the most common signs of periodontal disease. The present study evaluates the efficacy of bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in the treatment of human gingival recession. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty cases of Miller's class I or class II localized gingival recession defects on the facial surface were treated with 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin in conjunction with coronally positioned flap. Pre-operative and post-operative assessments were performed with respect to probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and clinical recession at 12, 24 and 36 weeks. The data thus collected were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement based on Student's t test was found in all the three clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: Bioresorbable 100% type I collagen membrane of bovine origin has given inspiring results in the treatment of human gingival recession defects, thereby justifying the use of this material wherever indicated.

9.
Biodegradation ; 25(3): 437-46, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24179090

RESUMO

Fungal degradation is emerging as a new powerful tool for the removal of potent neurotoxin pesticide, monocrotophos. Therefore, the present study is aimed at comparative characterization of monocrotophos degrading ability of three different fungal strains. Fungal strains were isolated from local agricultural soil by enrichment culture method, screened by gradient culture and identified as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. Growth kinetics revealed a direct positive influence of monocrotophos on the viability of fungal isolates. Fungal degradation was studied in phosphorus free liquid culture medium supplemented with 150 mg L(-1) concentration of monocrotophos for a period of 15 days under optimized culture conditions. Degradation of MCP followed first order kinetics with kdeg of 0.007, 0.002 and 0.005 day(-1) and half life (t1/2) of 4.21, 12.64 and 6.32 days for A. flavus, F. pallidoroseum and Macrophomina sp. respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report signifying the potential of monocrotophos degradation by Fusarium and Macrophomina sp. The results were further confirmed by HPTLC and FTIR which indicates disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. Degradation of monocrotophos by fungal isolates was accompanied by the release of extracellular alkaline phosphatases, inorganic phosphates and ammonia. The overall comparative analysis followed the order of A. flavus > Macrophomina sp. > F. pallidoroseum. Therefore, it could be concluded from the study that these three different fungal strains could be effectively used as a potential candidate for the removal of monocrotophos from contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Monocrotofós/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/biossíntese , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Meios de Cultura , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales/isolamento & purificação
10.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e77979, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24205052

RESUMO

Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m(2)and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m(2)and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m(2)). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 171(6): 1473-86, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23963716

RESUMO

The present study explores the potential of extracellular fungal organophosphate (OP) hydrolase for the degradation of monocrotophos. Extracellular OP hydrolases were isolated and purified from five different fungal isolates viz. Aspergillus niger (M1), Aspergillus flavus (M2), Penicillium aculeatum (M3), Fusarium pallidoroseum (M4), and Macrophomina sp. (M5) by AmSO4 precipitation, dialysis, and G-100 chromatography. M3 showed highest percentage yield of 68.81 followed by 55.41 % for M1. Each of the purified enzyme fraction constituted of two different subunits of 33- and 67-kDa molecular weight. Optimum enzyme fraction (150 µg ml(-1)) rapidly degraded monocrotophos within 120 h in phosphorus-free liquid culture medium (CZM) with K deg of 0.0368, 0.0138, 0.048, 0.016, 0.0138, and 0.048 day(-1) and half-life of 0.79, 2.11, 0.6, 1.8, and 2.11 days for M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively. The results were further confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared which indicate the disappearance of monocrotophos by hydrolytic cleavage of vinyl phosphate bond. The overall order of enzymatic degradation was found to be P. aculeatum > A. niger > F. pallidoroseum > A. flavus = Macrophomina sp. Hence, the study concludes that extracellular OP hydrolases efficiently degraded monocrotophos and could be used as a potential candidate for the detoxification of this neurotoxin pesticide.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Monocrotofós/metabolismo , Penicillium/enzimologia , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Aspergillus/química , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Cinética , Monocrotofós/química , Penicillium/química , Penicillium/metabolismo , Praguicidas/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação
12.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 77(5): 961-5, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23666511

RESUMO

The present study aimed at a comparative characterization of two distinct extracellular monocrotophos hydrolases, from Penicillium aculeatum ITCC 7980.10 (M3) and Fusarium pallidoroseum ITCC 7785.10 (M4), isolated from agricultural fields. The MCP hydrolases were purified by Sephadex G-100 column and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B ion-exchange column followed by SDS-PAGE analysis, which showed the presence of two hydrolases, of 33 and 67 kDa respectively. Both enzymes were most active at alkaline pH and were stable over a wide range of temperatures (60-70 °C). Between the strains, the MCP hydrolases from M3 were 2-fold more active than that from M4. Enzyme kinetic studies showed lowest Km (33.52 mM) and highest Vmax (5.18 U/mg protein) for OPH67 of M3 in comparison to the Km and Vmax of the other hydrolases purified from M3 and M4, suggesting that M3 OPH67 was the most efficient MCP hydrolase. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification of two distinct extracellular thermostable MCP hydrolases from fungal strains Penicillium aculeatum ITCC 7980.10 and Fusarium pallidoroseum ITCC 7785.10. Owing to its potential MCP hydrolyzing activity, M3 OPH67 can perhaps used directly or in the encapsulated form for remediation of MCP contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Espaço Extracelular/enzimologia , Fusarium/citologia , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Monocrotofós/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/citologia , Amidas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Estabilidade Enzimática , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hidrólise , Cinética , Monocrotofós/química , Monocrotofós/metabolismo , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/metabolismo
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