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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013020, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different bone-modifying agents like bisphosphonates and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-inhibitors are used as supportive treatment in men with prostate cancer and bone metastases to prevent skeletal-related events (SREs). SREs such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, surgery and radiotherapy to the bone, and hypercalcemia lead to morbidity, a poor performance status, and impaired quality of life. Efficacy and acceptability of the bone-targeted therapy is therefore of high relevance. Until now recommendations in guidelines on which bone-modifying agents should be used are rare and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of bisphosphonates and RANKL-inhibitors as supportive treatment for prostate cancer patients with bone metastases and to generate a clinically meaningful treatment ranking according to their safety and efficacy using network meta-analysis. SEARCH METHODS: We identified studies by electronically searching the bibliographic databases Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase until 23 March 2020. We searched the Cochrane Library and various trial registries and screened abstracts of conference proceedings and reference lists of identified trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials comparing different bisphosphonates and RANKL-inihibitors with each other or against no further treatment or placebo for men with prostate cancer and bone metastases. We included men with castration-restrictive and castration-sensitive prostate cancer and conducted subgroup analyses according to this criteria. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials. We defined proportion of participants with pain response and the adverse events renal impairment and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) as the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were SREs in total and each separately (see above), mortality, quality of life, and further adverse events such as grade 3 to 4 adverse events, hypocalcemia, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. We conducted network meta-analysis and generated treatment rankings for all outcomes, except quality of life due to insufficient reporting on this outcome. We compiled ranking plots to compare single outcomes of efficacy against outcomes of acceptability of the bone-modifying agents. We assessed the certainty of the evidence for the main outcomes using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-five trials fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Twenty-one trials could be considered in the quantitative analysis, of which six bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid, risedronate, pamidronate, alendronate, etidronate, or clodronate) were compared with each other, the RANKL-inhibitor denosumab, or no treatment/placebo. By conducting network meta-analysis we were able to compare all of these reported agents directly and/or indirectly within the network for each outcome. In the abstract only the comparisons of zoledronic acid and denosumab against the main comparator (no treatment/placebo) are described for outcomes that were predefined as most relevant and that also appear in the 'Summary of findings' table. Other results, as well as results of subgroup analyses regarding castration status of participants, are displayed in the Results section of the full text. Treatment with zoledronic acid probably neither reduces nor increases the proportion of participants with pain response when compared to no treatment/placebo (risk ratio (RR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 2.32; per 1000 participants 121 more (19 less to 349 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 4 trials including 1013 participants). For this outcome none of the trials reported results for the comparison with denosumab. The adverse event renal impairment probably occurs more often when treated with zoledronic acid compared to treatment/placebo (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.45; per 1000 participants 78 more (10 more to 180 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 6 trials including 1769 participants). Results for denosumab could not be included for this outcome, since zero events cannot be considered in the network meta-analysis, therefore it does not appear in the ranking. Treatment with denosumab results in increased occurrence of the adverse event ONJ (RR 3.45, 95% CI 1.06 to 11.24; per 1000 participants 30 more (1 more to 125 more); high-certainty evidence; 4 trials, 3006 participants) compared to no treatment/placebo. When comparing zoledronic acid to no treatment/placebo, the confidence intervals include the possibility of benefit or harm, therefore treatment with zoledronic acid probably neither reduces nor increases ONJ (RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.73 to 4.87; per 1000 participants 11 more (3 less to 47 more); moderate-certainty evidence; network based on 4 trials including 3006 participants). Compared to no treatment/placebo, treatment with zoledronic acid (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.97) and denosumab (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96) may result in a reduction of the total number of SREs (per 1000 participants 75 fewer (131 fewer to 14 fewer) and 131 fewer (215 fewer to 19 fewer); both low-certainty evidence; 12 trials, 5240 participants). Treatment with zoledronic acid and denosumab likely neither reduces nor increases mortality when compared to no treatment/placebo (zoledronic acid RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01; per 1000 participants 48 fewer (97 fewer to 5 more); denosumab RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.11; per 1000 participants 34 fewer (111 fewer to 54 more); both moderate-certainty evidence; 13 trials, 5494 participants). Due to insufficient reporting, no network meta-analysis was possible for the outcome quality of life. One study with 1904 participants comparing zoledronic acid and denosumab showed that more zoledronic acid-treated participants than denosumab-treated participants experienced a greater than or equal to five-point decrease in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General total scores over a range of 18 months (average relative difference = 6.8%, range -9.4% to 14.6%) or worsening of cancer-related quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: When considering bone-modifying agents as supportive treatment, one has to balance between efficacy and acceptability. Results suggest that Zoledronic acid likely increases both the proportion of participants with pain response, and the proportion of participants experiencing adverse events However, more trials with head-to-head comparisons including all potential agents are needed to draw the whole picture and proof the results of this analysis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218279

RESUMO

Health literacy can be described as a complex process shaped by individual resources and preferences and by the nature and quality of health-related information people encounter. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of health care professionals on how gender as a personal determinant of health literacy affected their interactions with migrant patients. The interrelated challenges, needs and applied solutions were analyzed from a health literacy perspective. Five focus group discussions with health care professionals working with migrants (n = 31) were conducted in Cologne, Germany, audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Gender-specific aspects, such as the gender of health care providers as a factor, were portrayed above all in relation to patients from Turkey and Arab countries regarding access to and understanding of health-related information. These statements exclusively represent the possibly biased or assumptions-based perspectives of health care professionals on their migrant patients and were made against the background of a systemic lack of time and the challenge of overcoming language barriers. Especially in this context, reducing time pressure and improving communication in the treatment setting may be to the benefit of all actors within healthcare.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Migrantes , Feminino , Alemanha , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Turquia
3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(1): 142-163, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A multi-isotope study was conducted on individuals buried at Skriðuklaustur monastery (AD 1493-1554) to investigate their geographic origins and dietary composition. Comparative material from individuals excavated from Skeljastaðir, an inland farm site was also analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bone collagen was extracted from 50 humans (Skriðuklaustur and Skeljastaðir) and 25 animals (Skriðuklaustur) and analyzed for δ13 C, δ15 N, and δ34 S. Dental enamel samples from 31 individuals (Skriðuklaustur) were also analyzed for 87 Sr/86 Sr, δ18 O, δ13 C, and trace elements (Pb, Sr, Zn, Ba). RESULTS: The mean value determined from individuals from Skriðuklaustur (n = 36) was δ13 C = -18.7 ± 0.8‰, δ15 N = 12.8 ± 1.1‰, and δ34 S = 9.0 ± 1.6‰, whereas at Skeljastaðir (n = 14), it was δ13 C = -20.5 ± 0.8‰, δ15 N = 7.8 ± 0.9‰, and δ34 S = 9.4 ± 1.6‰. At Skriðuklaustur, human dental enamel samples (n = 31) provided a 87 Sr/86 Sr range of 0.7060-0.7088, δ18 Ophosphate from 13.9 to 16.1‰ and δ13 Ccarbonate from -16.6 to -12.9‰. Inferred drinking water (δ18 Odw ) values range from -12.3 to -8.9‰. Sr concentrations range from 25.8 to 156.7 ppm, Ba from 0.11 to 0.81 ppm, Zn from 43.8 to 145.8 ppm, and Pb from 0.13 to 9.40 ppm. DISCUSSION: A combination of results indicates that the people from Skriðuklaustur were born in Iceland, but some lived inland during childhood while others lived closer to the coast. Since Skriðuklaustur was a hospital, these individuals may have sought medical treatment at the monastery. The δ13 C and δ15 N values determined from bone collagen indicate that the people residing at Skriðuklaustur consumed a diet high in marine protein, while those residing at Skeljastaðir exhibit values more consistent with terrestrial resources.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Migração Humana/história , Arqueologia , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Islândia , Isótopos/análise , Masculino , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(11)2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a bone marrow-based hematological malignancy accounting for approximately two per cent of cancers. First-line treatment for transplant-ineligible individuals consists of multiple drug combinations of bortezomib (V), lenalidomide (R), or thalidomide (T). However, access to these medicines is restricted in many countries worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of multiple drug combinations of V, R, and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma and to inform an application for the inclusion of these medicines into the World Health Organization's (WHO) list of essential medicines. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL and MEDLINE, conference proceedings and study registries on 14 February 2019 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing multiple drug combinations of V, R and T for adults with newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing combination therapies of V, R, and T, plus melphalan and prednisone (MP) or dexamethasone (D) for first-line treatment of adults with transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. We excluded trials including adults with relapsed or refractory disease, trials comparing drug therapies to other types of therapy and trials including second-generation novel agents. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included trials. As effect measures we used hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) and risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events. An HR or RR < 1 indicates an advantage for the intervention compared to the main comparator MP. Where available, we extracted quality of life (QoL) data (scores of standardised questionnaires). Results quoted are from network meta-analysis (NMA) unless stated. MAIN RESULTS: We included 25 studies (148 references) comprising 11,403 participants and 21 treatment regimens. Treatments were differentiated between restricted treatment duration (treatment with a pre-specified amount of cycles) and continuous therapy (treatment administered until disease progression, the person becomes intolerant to the drug, or treatment given for a prolonged period). Continuous therapies are indicated with a "c". Risk of bias was generally high across studies due to the open-label study design. Overall survival (OS) Evidence suggests that treatment with RD (HR 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.99), median OS 55.2 months (35.2 to 87.0)); TMP (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.97), median OS: 46.4 months (35.9 to 60.0)); and VRDc (HR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.92), median OS 71.0 months (37.8 to 133.8)) probably increases survival compared to median reported OS of 34.8 months with MP (moderate certainty). Treatment with VMP may result in a large increase in OS, compared to MP (HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.07), median OS 49.7 months (32.5 to 77.3)), low certainty). Progression-free survival (PFS) Treatment withRD (HR 0.65 (95% CI0.44 to 0.96), median PFS: 24.9 months (16.9 to 36.8)); TMP (HR 0.63 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), median PFS:25.7 months (20.8 to 32.4)); VMP (HR 0.56 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.90), median PFS: 28.9 months (18.0 to 46.3)); and VRDc (HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.58), median PFS: 47.6 months (27.9 to 81.0)) may result in a large increase in PFS (low certainty) compared to MP (median reported PFS: 16.2 months). Adverse events The risk of polyneuropathies may be lower with RD compared to treatment with MP (RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.16 to 1.99), risk for RD: 0.5% (0.1 to 1.8), mean reported risk for MP: 0.9% (10 of 1074 patients affected), low certainty). However, the CIs are also compatible with no difference or an increase in neuropathies. Treatment with TMP (RR 4.44 (95% CI1.77 to 11.11), risk: 4.0% (1.6 to 10.0)) and VMP (RR 88.22 (95% CI 5.36 to 1451.11), risk: 79.4% (4.8 to 1306.0)) probably results in a large increase in polyneuropathies compared to MP (moderate certainty). No study reported the amount of participants with grade ≥ 3 polyneuropathies for treatment with VRDc. VMP probably increases the proportion of participants with serious adverse events (SAEs) compared to MP (RR 1.28 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54), risk for VMP: 46.2% (38.3 to 55.6), mean risk for MP: 36.1% (177 of 490 patients affected), moderate certainty). RD, TMP, and VRDc were not connected to MP in the network and the risk of SAEs could not be compared. Treatment with RD (RR 4.18 (95% CI 2.13 to 8.20), NMA-risk: 38.5% (19.6 to 75.4)); and TMP (RR 4.10 (95% CI 2.40 to 7.01), risk: 37.7% (22.1 to 64.5)) results in a large increase of withdrawals from the trial due to adverse events (high certainty) compared to MP (mean reported risk: 9.2% (77 of 837 patients withdrew)). The risk is probably slightly increased with VMP (RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.81), risk: 9.75% (5.8 to 16.7), moderate certainty), while it is much increased with VRDc (RR 8.92 (95% CI 3.82 to 20.84), risk: 82.1% (35.1 to 191.7), high certainty) compared to MP. Quality of life QoL was reported in four studies for seven different treatment regimens (MP, MPc, RD, RMP, RMPc, TMP, TMPc) and was measured with four different tools. Assessment and reporting differed between studies and could not be meta-analysed. However, all studies reported an improvement of QoL after initiation of anti-myeloma treatment for all assessed treatment regimens. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on our four pre-selected comparisons of interest, continuous treatment with VRD had the largest survival benefit compared with MP, while RD and TMP also probably considerably increase survival. However, treatment combinations of V, R, and T also substantially increase the incidence of AEs, and lead to a higher risk of treatment discontinuation. Their effectiveness and safety profiles may best be analysed in further randomised head-to-head trials. Further trials should focus on consistent reporting of safety outcomes and should use a standardised instrument to evaluate QoL to ensure comparability of treatment-combinations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lenalidomida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Talidomida/uso terapêutico
5.
Anthropol Anz ; 76(3): 211-215, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865765

RESUMO

Elevated levels of non-accidental fractures in different populations, regions, and time periods are considered an indicator for violence within a population. Whilst soldiers from a mass grave contribute unambiguously to the bioarchaeological evidence for the presence of warfare in medieval England, we aim to further analyse the absence of temporal variation in the general population-wide fracture distribution pattern. A detailed study, consisting only of clearly dated and aged male individuals was conducted to investigate the impact of prolonged warfare and general instability by means of blunt force fracture distribution patterns in early (AD 1066-1100), middle (AD 1100-1380) and late (AD 1380-1558) medieval England. Statistically significant differences were only observed between the 26-35 years age group of the middle period (AD 1100-1380) vs the 18-25 year age group of the late period (AD 1380-1558). The latter included many individuals from Towton, North Yorkshire, and therefore battle-related injuries are reflected in the pattern. The former presented inconclusive causal effects, none of them could be reliably linked to warfare. It was concluded that aside from the inclusion of battle-related graves no evidence for the impact of prolonged warfare and economic instability could be observed in medieval England.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Militares , Inglaterra , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/história , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/história , Violência , Guerra
6.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 140: 52-57, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824313

RESUMO

Biological and social factors, such as age, comorbidities and the care system, may - as well-established effect-modifiers - limit the transferability of study results to populations with dissimilar characteristics. In order to enable transparent and evidence-based decisions in systematic reviews and guidelines targeting subpopulations that are little or not represented in the study landscape, the GRADE approach is a valid tool to assess the certainty of the evidence. GRADE provides a structured methodology that covers all steps, from developing a precise question, prioritizing patient-relevant outcomes and assessing the available evidence to derive recommendations for practice, among other things. Evaluating confidence in a body of evidence comprises judgments on risk of bias, study heterogeneity, directness, including comparability between study population and target population, precision of effect estimates and publication bias. Because GRADE demands transparent decisions about the applicability of study results from the study population to the target population, gaps in the evidence landscape can be uncovered. Overall, the approach cannot solve the problem of the transferability of study results. It does, however, support the explicit handling of applicability and can give impetus to targeted research gaps.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Alemanha , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Viés de Seleção , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 115(31-32): 535-540, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common neoplasm in young adults, with an incidence of 2 to 3 cases per 100 000 persons per year. Risk-adapted chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually lead to cure. Finding ways to lessen the treatment- associated morbidity and mortality is a major goal of current research. METHODS: For the creation of an updated guideline (DKH grant number 111778), a systematic literature search was carried out in medical databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL) and guideline databases (GIN) (search dates: January 2012 to June 2017). RESULTS: Results from 10 meta-analyses, 89 randomized and controlled trials, and 81 prospective or retrospective trials were evaluated. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) is strongly recommended in the initial diagnostic evaluation, as well as for the guidance of treatment in advanced stages. In early stages, two cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and involved-site radiotherapy (IS-RT) at a dose of 20 Gy are recommended. For the treatment of intermedi- ate stages, two cycles of escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) + two cycles of ABVD and 30 Gy IS-RT are recommended. In advanced stages, two cycles of escalated BEACOPP are administered, and then PET is performed for the guidance of further treatment: two further cycles of escalated BEACOPP are recommended if the PET is negative and four further cycles if it is positive, followed by radiotherapy of PET- positive residual tumor tissue. The five-year survival of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is 95%. In case of disease recurrence, high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation is performed, and targeted drugs including brentuxi- mab vedotin, nivolumab, and pembrolizuab are used. CONCLUSION: The highly favorable long-term prognosis of HL necessitates careful consideration of the intensity of treatment as well as thorough follow-up to enable the detection of late sequelae, such as second tumors or organ damage.


Assuntos
Doença de Hodgkin/classificação , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Adulto , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Guias como Assunto , Doença de Hodgkin/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , Radioterapia/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169524, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122013

RESUMO

The recovery of three stone-like ovoid objects within the burial of a pre-Mesolithic (Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene) individual at Al Khiday cemetery (Central Sudan) raises the question of the nature and origin of these objects. The position in which the objects were found in relation to the human skeleton suggested a pathological condition affecting the individual, possibly urinary bladder, kidney stones or gallstones. To solve this issue, a multi-analytical approach, consisting of tomographic, microstructural and compositional analyses, was therefore performed. Based on their microstructure and mineralogical composition, consisting of hydroxylapatite and whitlockite, the investigated stones were identified as primary (endogenous) prostatic calculi. In addition, the occurrence of bacterial imprints also indicates on-going infectious processes in the individual. This discovery of the earliest known case of lithiasis extends the appearance of prostatic stones into the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene, a disease which therefore can no longer be considered exclusive to the modern era, but which also affected prehistoric individuals, whose lifestyle and diet were significantly different to our own.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Fósseis , Litíase , Doenças Prostáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Sudão
9.
Int J Paleopathol ; 13: 39-48, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539507

RESUMO

This paper describes the pathological changes observed on the skeleton of a c.12-14 year old person buried in a north-east England Quaker cemetery dated to AD 1711-1857. Bone formation (woven and lamellar) and destruction are present mainly on the mandible, clavicles, sternum and scapulae, long bones of the right arm, left ribs, spine, ilia, and the femora and tibiae. Differential diagnoses of tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases, smallpox, actinomycosis, neoplastic disease, and "phossy jaw" are considered. While the pathological changes could represent all previously described diseases and thus be associated with the insalubrious conditions in which this person lived, it is also possible that this person worked in the matchmaking industry known to be present in the region at the time. Attention is drawn to the previously overlooked condition "phossy jaw" caused by phosphorus poisoning, which was strongly associated with this industry. While matchstick making was an industry often associated with women and girls, DNA analysis of a bone sample from the skeleton did not successfully identify biological sex. Two dental calculus samples from this person were analysed for phosphorus, and comparisons were made with samples from the same and a different site; the levels did not indicate the person was more exposed to phosphorus than any of the other people at Coach Lane. However, the pathological lesions described also have relevance in a clinical context, because "phossy jaw" has been observed in living populations, arising as a consequence of ingesting phosphorous contained within some pharmaceuticals used for treating neoplastic disease and osteoporosis.

10.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e100808, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25028938

RESUMO

Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.


Assuntos
Culinária/história , Cálculos Dentários , Manipulação de Alimentos/história , Alimentos/história , Plantas , Meio Ambiente , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleodontologia , Sudão
11.
Int J Paleopathol ; 3(1): 30-38, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29539357

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to assess the presence of stress in a high status German population from Jelgava, Latvia. The skeletal material used in this study came from a recently excavated church cemetery, with most of the burials dating to the 17-18th centuries. In total, 108 individuals (80 adults and 28 non-adults) were analysed for evidence of scurvy, rickets/osteomalacia and anaemia. The presence of scurvy and healed rickets/osteomalacia could not be confirmed in any adult individual. Among non-adults, a possible diagnosis of scurvy was considered in six individuals, and active rickets was suggested in two others. Cribra orbitalia in adult and non-adult individuals also argued for the presence of childhood stress. These results, combined with previously acquired data on linear enamel hypoplasia, indicated that children in this population suffered from nutritional deficiencies. The presence of childhood stress markers in adult individuals implies that many children survived stress episodes, possibly due to generally good access to resources, as supported by historical accounts and previous studies on stature and dental disease.

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