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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125450, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499291

RESUMO

A round robin comparison was performed in order to test the performance of a recently developed LC-MS/MS method for quantification of 6 folate forms. Eighty-nine samples representing the food groups of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, dairy products, meat, and offal were analyzed by two LC-MS/MS methods and a microbiological assay (MA). A plant-origin deconjugase enzyme (Arabidopsis thaliana) for deconjugation of folates (PE-LC-MS/MS), or animal-origin deconjugase (rat serum and chicken pancreas) (AE-LC-MS/MS) was used in the LC-MS/MS methods, each in a single enzymatic step. In contrast, the MA involved tri-enzyme extraction including human plasma as a deconjugase. A significant bias of 17% lower and 25% higher results was found when PE-LC-MS/MS was compared to MA and AE-LC-MS/MS, respectively. The PE-LC-MS/MS provides fast quantification of various folate vitamers and total folate content, which could be a proper substitute to the currently standardized but imprecise and time-consuming microbiological assay in the future.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most children do not meet dietary guidelines for fish intake. Fish is the main source of EPA (20:5n-3), DHA (22:6n-3) and vitamin D, but may replace better iron sources such as meat. We investigated if intake of 300 g/week oily fish was achievable in children and how it affected their nutrient status. Additionally, we validated a fish food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by correlations against EPA + DHA in red blood cells (RBC). METHODS: In a randomised 12-week trial, 199 children (8-9 years) received oily fish or poultry (control) to be eaten five times/week. We measured dietary intake and analysed fasting RBC EPA + DHA, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), blood haemoglobin and plasma ferritin. RESULTS: 197 (99%) children completed the study. The median (25th-75th percentile) intake was 375 (325-426) and 400 (359-452) g/week oily fish and poultry, respectively. The fish group increased their intake of EPA + DHA by 749 (593-891) mg/day and vitamin D by 3.1 (1.6-3.8) µg/day. Endpoint RBC EPA + DHA was 2.3 (95% CI 1.9; 2.6) fatty acid %-point higher than the poultry group (P < 0.001). The fish group avoided the expected 25(OH)D winter decline (P < 0.001) and had 23%-point less vitamin D insufficiency (winter subgroup, n = 82). Haemoglobin and ferritin decreased slightly in both groups (P < 0.05), but the number of children with low values did not change (P > 0.14). FFQ estimates moderately reflected habitual intake (r = 0.28-0.35) and sufficiently captured intervention-introduced changes in intake (r > 0.65). CONCLUSION: Oily fish intake of 300 g/week was achievable and improved children's EPA + DHA and 25(OH)D status, without markedly compromising iron status. These results justify public health initiatives focusing on children's fish intake.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036792

RESUMO

Salmon have been widely publicized as a good dietary source of vitamin D, but recent data points to large variation in vitamin D content and differences between wild and farmed salmon. We aimed to: (1) investigate the content of vitamin D in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in wild species caught in two different waters, (2) perform a 12-week feeding trial in farmed Salmo salar with 270-1440 µg vitamin D3/kg feed (4-20 times maximum level in the EU) and (3) conduct a review for the published data on the content of vitamin D in salmonids. Content of vitamin D3 in the fillet from wild salmon caught in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea was significantly different (p < 0.05), being 18.5 ± 4.6 µg/100 g and 9.4 ± 1.9 µg/100 g, respectively. In the farmed salmon the content ranged from 2.9 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g to 9.5 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Data from 2018 shows that farmed salmon contained 2.3-7.3 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Information on the content of vitamin D in wild and farmed salmonids is very limited, which calls for further research to ensure a sustainable production of salmon with adequate vitamin D.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aquicultura , Calcifediol/química , Carne/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852657

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low vitamin D status is prevalent worldwide. We aim to investigate the effect of vitamin D fortification on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in women of Danish and Pakistani origin at risk of vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial during winter time, designed to provide 20 µg vitamin D3/day through fortified yoghurt, cheese, eggs and crisp bread, and assess the change in serum 25(OH)D. Participants were 143 women of Danish and Pakistani origin, living in Denmark, randomized into four groups, stratified by ethnicity. RESULTS: Mean (SD) baseline 25(OH)D concentrations among women of Danish and Pakistani origin were 49.6 (18) and 46.9 (22) nmol/L, respectively (P = 0.4). While 9% of Danish women had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, the prevalence among women of Pakistani origin was 24%. Median (IQR) vitamin D intake among Danish and Pakistani women at endpoint was 32.0 (27.0, 34.4) µg/day and 24.2 (19.2, 30.8) µg/day, respectively. Endpoint serum 25(OH)D increased in fortified groups to 77.8 (14) nmol/L among Danish women and 54.7 (18) nmol/L among women of Pakistani origin (P < 0.01). At endpoint, 0% in the Danish-fortified group and 3% in the Pakistani-fortified group had 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L, compared with 23 % and 34% in their respective control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D fortification of four different foods for 12 weeks during winter was effective in increasing serum 25(OH)D and reducing the prevalence of very low vitamin D status among women of Danish and Pakistani origin. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV WITH IDENTIFIER: NCT02631629.

6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1594: 34-44, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799066

RESUMO

A rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for analysis of naturally-occurring folates and folic acid in food has been developed and validated. A single-enzyme extraction step, in which a pure recombinant enzyme of plant origin (Arabidopsis thaliana) was used, enabled fast and reproducible deglutamylation during folate extraction within the incubation time of 1 h. Six commonly occurring folate forms (tetrahydrofolate, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, 10-formylfolic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate) were detected and quantified in 9 min using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 13C5-labeled 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 13C5-labeled folic acid and 13C5-labeled 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were used as internal standards for the quantification. The method is described by a calibration curve (R2>0.99 and trueness 85-115%), a limit of quantification at 0.1 µg/100 g, trueness at 80-120% in spiked samples and certified reference materials, and a precision <10%. However, the precision in quantification of tetrahydrofolate was not within the acceptable limits due to the lack of use of the corresponding internal standard. An interconversion study of unstable formyl forms was performed which showed that 50% of 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate is converted to 5-formyltetrahydrofolate during the analysis. The developed LC-MS/MS method is a candidate for a future standard method for folate analysis in food.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Ácido Fólico/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Calibragem , Ácido Fólico/análogos & derivados , Limite de Detecção , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/análise
7.
Meat Sci ; 143: 60-68, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715661

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 µg vitamin D3/kg of feed; (2)50 µg of 25-hydroxvitamin D3/kg of feed (25-OH-D3); (3)50 µg vitamin D2/kg of feed; (4)50 µg vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D2). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D3 is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/análise , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa , Ganho de Peso
8.
Food Chem ; 256: 18-24, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606435

RESUMO

This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p < 0.001) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (by 38-56%; p < 0.05) and serum 25-OH-D concentration (by 20-36%; p < 0.05), compared to that from Vit D2 and Mushroom D2 supplemented animals. Irrespective of vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, vitamin D3 biofortification of cattle diets is the most efficacious way to enhance total beef vitamin D activity.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos da radiação , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Carne/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Agaricales/metabolismo , Animais , Músculos do Dorso/química , Músculos do Dorso/metabolismo , Calcifediol/análise , Calcifediol/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Bovinos , Colecalciferol/síntese química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta/veterinária , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 15: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643928

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation. Methods: Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39 ± 11 years with a mean ± SD BMI of 33 ± 4 kg/m2, completed an eight-week low energy diet (LED). Serum concentration of folate, retinol, B12, D and E and C-reactive protein and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured at baseline and at end of the LED. Results: At baseline, 8% of the participants were deficient in folate, 13% in vitamin B12, 2% in retinol, 28% in vitamin D (72% were insufficient in vitamin D), and none were deficient in vitamin E. At baseline, BMI was inversely associated with retinol (P < 0.05) as was total and abdominal fat percentage with folate (P < 0.05); further BMI and measures of adiposity were positively associated with CRP (P < 0.01) and Hcy (P < 0.05). Homocysteine was inversely associated with all vitamins but retinol (P < 0.001). After the LED, the participants lost a mean [95% confidence intervals] of 12.3 [- 13.1,-11.6] kg. The serum concentration of folate, vitamin B12 and D were increased (P < 0.001) after the LED whereas the concentration of retinol and vitamin E were reduced (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Eight-weeks LED resulted in 13% weight loss and an increase in the serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and D. Baseline adiposity was inversely associated with folate and retinol, and positively associated with markers of inflammation. Trial registration: Ethical Committee of Copenhagen as no. H-4-2013-135, NCT01561131.

10.
Food Chem ; 254: 144-149, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548435

RESUMO

Information on the retention of vitamin D in food following household cooking is scarce. So far the retention of its metabolites vitamin D3, vitamin D2, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 has shown that the type of food and the cooking method are the essential determinants, and there is no significant difference between the metabolites. We investigated the retention of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 in sunflower oil, vitamin D3 in rainbow trout, and vitamin D2 in button mushrooms. The investigated cooking methods were boiling at different pH, steam cooking, microwave cooking, pan-frying, and oven baking. There was no difference between the retention of vitamin D3 and vitamin D2 added to sunflower oil, which ranged from 70 to 99%. In rainbow trout, the retention of vitamin D3 at 85-114% was not significantly different from 100%, except for panfrying at 85%. However, the retention of vitamin D2 in mushrooms at 62-88% was significantly different from 100% (p ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Colecalciferol/análise , Culinária/métodos , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Óleo de Girassol/química , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Carne/análise
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(10): 3731-3738, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973683

RESUMO

Context: Vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are stored in adipose tissue, but the clinical relevance is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate changes in serum 25(OH)D and adipose tissue vitamin D levels after stopping vitamin D supplementation. Design: A prospective, double-blind cohort follow-up study. Setting: Clinical Research Unit at University Hospital of North Norway. Patients: Seventy-six subjects were included after participation in a 3- to 5-year prevention of type 2 diabetes study and were administered 20,000 IU of vitamin D or placebo per week. Intervention: During the 12-month follow-up period, blood samples were drawn at the beginning and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Fat biopsies were taken at the start and end. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in 25(OH)D level in serum and 25(OH)D and vitamin D levels in adipose tissue. Results: Forty-one of 42 subjects who were given vitamin D and 33 of 34 subjects who were given placebo completed the study. At the inclusion, mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 122 and 71 nmol/L in the vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in the vitamin D group than in the placebo group throughout and were 84.5 and 73.1 nmol/L, respectively, after 12 months. In the vitamin D group, adipose tissue vitamin D levels decreased by 52% over 12 months. Conclusion: Vitamin D and 25(OH)D stored in adipose tissue after 3 to 5 years of vitamin D supplementation may have a clinically relevant effect on serum 25(OH)D level the following year.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
12.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 27(5): 399-407, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556690

RESUMO

Impaired muscle function has been coupled to vitamin D insufficiency in young women and in elderly men and women. Those living at Northern latitudes are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency due to low sun exposure which may be more pronounced among elite swimmers because of their indoor training schedules. We aimed to examine vitamin D status among young elite swimmers and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and muscle strength. Twenty-nine swimmers, 12 female and 17 male (16-24 years) residing at latitude 55-56°N were studied in March and April. Blood samples were analyzed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and hand-grip strength was measured as marker of muscle strength. Subjects´ vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and sun exposure and training status by questionnaires. Mean (± SD) s-25(OH)D was 52.6 ± 18.3nmol/L among all swimmers. In 45% of the swimmers s-25(OH)D was below 50 nmol/L. Female swimmers had higher s-25(OH)D concentration than male swimmers (61.7 ± 17,5 nmol/L vs. 46.2 ± 16,5 nmol/L, p = .026). Among male swimmers, those with sufficient vitamin D status had higher hand grip strength than those with insufficient vitamin D status (50.6 ± 6.4 kg vs. 41.1 ± 7.8 kg, p = .02). Among Danish elite swimmers 45% had an insufficient vitamin D status during the spring; the prevalence being higher among male swimmers. Muscle strength was significantly higher in male swimmers with sufficient vitamin D status.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Natação/fisiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2017 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295513

RESUMO

Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) in serum was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hypothesis that the three sources of vitamin D affect vitamin D status equally was rejected. Based on the assumption that 1 µg vitD3/day will show an increase in vitamin D status of 1.96 nmol/L, the results showed that 23 µg vitD2 and 6.8 µg 25OH-D3 was similar to 10 µg vitD3. These results demonstrate that further investigations are necessary to determine how to quantify the total vitamin D activity based on chemical quantification of the individual vitamin D metabolites to replace the total vitamin D activity assessed in biological rat models.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Dinamarca , Método Duplo-Cego , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 104(3): 629-37, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27488236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. DESIGN: We conducted an 8-wk winter RCT in adults aged 45-70 y (n = 55) who were stratified into 3 groups and were requested to consume ≤2 eggs/wk (control group, in which status was expected to decline), 7 vitamin D3-enhanced eggs/wk, or seven 25(OH)D3-enhanced eggs/wk. Serum 25(OH)D was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Although there was no significant difference (P > 0.1; ANOVA) in the mean preintervention serum 25(OH)D in the 3 groups, it was ∼7-8 nmol/L lower in the control group than in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs. With the use of an ANCOVA, in which baseline 25(OH)D was accounted for, vitamin D3-egg and 25(OH)D3-egg groups were shown to have had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.005) postintervention serum 25(OH)D than in the control group. With the use of a within-group analysis, it was shown that, although serum 25(OH)D in the control group significantly decreased over winter (mean ± SD: -6.4 ± 6.7 nmol/L; P = 0.001), there was no change in the 2 groups who consumed vitamin D-enhanced eggs (P > 0.1 for both). CONCLUSION: Weekly consumption of 7 vitamin D-enhanced eggs has an important impact on winter vitamin D status in adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02678364.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Calcifediol/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Ovos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Animais , Calcifediol/análise , Galinhas , Colecalciferol/análise , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Prevalência , Risco , Estações do Ano , Sensação , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
15.
Food Chem ; 212: 386-91, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27374546

RESUMO

The dietary intake of vitamin D is currently below the recommended intake of 10-20µg vitamin D/day. Foods with increased content of vitamin D or new products with enhanced vitamin D are warranted. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential new resource in food production lines. In the present study the exposure conditions with ultraviolet (UV) LEDs were systematically investigated in the wavelength range 280-340nm for achieving optimal vitamin D bio-fortification in pig skin. A wavelength of 296nm was found to be optimal for vitamin D3 production. The maximum dose of 20kJ/m(2) produced 3.5-4µg vitamin D3/cm(2) pig skin. Vitamin D3 produced was independent on the combination of time and intensity of the LED source. The increased UV exposure by UV-LEDs may be readily implemented in existing food production facilities, without major modifications to the process or processing equipment, for bio-fortifying food products containing pork skin.


Assuntos
Iluminação/instrumentação , Carne Vermelha/análise , Semicondutores , Pele/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Alimentos Fortificados , Carne Vermelha/efeitos da radiação , Pele/química , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Suínos
16.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 71(3): 314-21, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27323764

RESUMO

Commercial mushroom production can expose mushrooms post-harvest to UV light for purposes of vitamin D2 enrichment by converting the naturally occurring provitamin D2 (ergosterol). The objectives of the present study were to artificially simulate solar UV-B doses occurring naturally in Central Europe and to investigate vitamin D2 and vitamin D4 production in sliced Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms) and to analyse and compare the agaritine content of naturally and artificially UV-irradiated mushrooms. Agaritine was measured for safety aspects even though there is no rationale for a link between UV light exposure and agaritine content. The artificial UV-B dose of 0.53 J/cm(2) raised the vitamin D2 content to significantly (P < 0.001) higher levels of 67.1 ± 9.9 µg/g dry weight (DW) than sun exposure (3.9 ± 0.8 µg/g dry DW). We observed a positive correlation between vitamin D4 and vitamin D2 production (r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.001) after artificial UV irradiation, with vitamin D4 levels ranging from 0 to 20.9 µg/g DW. The agaritine content varied widely but remained within normal ranges in all samples. Irrespective of the irradiation source, agaritine dropped dramatically in conjunction with all UV-B doses both artificial and natural solar, probably due to its known instability. The biological action of vitamin D from UV-exposed mushrooms reflects the activity of these two major vitamin D analogues (D2, D4). Vitamin D4 should be analysed and agaritine disregarded in future studies of UV-exposed mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Irradiação de Alimentos , Fenil-Hidrazinas/análise , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Agaricales/química , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Europa (Continente) , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Vitamina D/análise
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(16): 3167-75, 2016 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27045951

RESUMO

Assessment of total vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements (DSs) may be incomplete if 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] intake is not included. However, 25(OH)D data for such intake assessments are lacking, no food or DS reference materials (RMs) are available, and comparison of laboratory performance has been needed. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 concentrations in food and DS materials could be measured with acceptable reproducibility. Five experienced laboratories from the United States and other countries participated, all using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry but no common analytical protocol; however, various methods were used for determining vitamin D3 in the DS. Five animal-based materials (including three commercially available RMs) and one DS were analyzed. Reproducibility results for the materials were acceptable. Thus, it is possible to obtain consistent results among experienced laboratories for vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in foods and a DS.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/análise
18.
Br J Nutr ; 115(7): 1232-9, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26864127

RESUMO

There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P<0·001). However, the D2 supplement was more effective than bread in increasing S-25(OH)D2 (P<0·001). Both D2 and D3 supplementation increased total S-25(OH)D compared with placebo (P=0·030 and P=0·001, respectively), but D2 supplementation resulted in lower S-25(OH)D3 (P<0·001). Thus, D2 from UV-irradiated yeast in bread was not bioavailable in humans. Our results support the evidence that D2 is less potent in increasing total S-25(OH)D concentrations than D3, also indicating a decrease in the percentage contribution of S-25(OH)D3 to the total vitamin D pool.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Pão/microbiologia , Cálcio/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Ergocalciferóis/farmacocinética , Feminino , Finlândia , Alimentos Fortificados/microbiologia , Humanos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Placebos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nutr Sci ; 5: e3, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26793309

RESUMO

The content of vitamin D in pork produced in conventional systems depends on the vitamin D concentration in the pig feed. Both vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) are essential sources of dietary vitamin D; however, bioavailability assessed by serum 25(OH)D3 concentration is reported to be different between the two sources. Furthermore, the relationship between serum 25(OH)D3 level and the tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of increasing the content of vitamin D in different pig tissues by increasing the levels of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in the pig feed for 49 d before slaughter. Concurrently, the 25(OH)D3 level in serum was investigated as a biomarker to assess the content of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in pig tissues. Adipose tissue, white and red muscle, the liver and serum were sampled from pigs fed feed containing either vitamin D3 or 25(OH)D3 at 5, 20, 35 or 50 µg/kg feed for 7 weeks before slaughter. The tissue 25(OH)D3 level was significantly higher in the pigs fed 25(OH)D3 compared with those fed vitamin D3, while the tissue vitamin D3 level was higher in the pigs fed vitamin D3 compared with those fed 25(OH)D3. The content of 25(OH)D3 in the different tissues fully correlated with the serum 25(OH)D3 level, whereas the correlation between the tissue content of vitamin D3 and serum 25(OH)D3 was dependent on the source of the ingested vitamin D3.

20.
Food Chem ; 192: 402-8, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26304366

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method to study vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode with deuterium-labeled vitamin K1 as an internal standard. The precision was estimated as the pooled estimate of three replicates performed on three different days for spinach, peas, apples, banana, and beetroot. The repeatability was 5.2% and the internal reproducibility was 6.2%. Recovery was in the range 90-120%. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the present method and by a method using the same principle as the CEN-standard i.e. liquid-liquid extraction and post-column zinc reduction with fluorescence detection. Limit of quantification was estimated to 0.05 µg/100g fresh weight.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Frutas/química , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química , Vitamina K 1/química , Pressão Atmosférica
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