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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485525

RESUMO

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Diplomacia/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica/métodos , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Direitos Humanos/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
4.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(9): 1529-1545, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166174

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus continue to rise, which, coupled with increasing costs of complications, has appreciably increased expenditure in recent years. Poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia enhances complication rates and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Consequently, this needs to be addressed. Whilst the majority of patients with diabetes have type-2 diabetes, a considerable number of patients with diabetes require insulin to help control their diabetes. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia associated with insulin and help improve adherence, which can be a concern. However, their considerably higher costs have impacted on their funding and use, especially in countries with affordability issues. Biosimilars can help reduce the costs of long-acting insulin analogues thereby increasing available choices. However, the availability and use of long-acting insulin analogues can be affected by limited price reductions versus originators and limited demand-side initiatives to encourage their use. Consequently, we wanted to assess current utilisation rates for long-acting insulin analogues, especially biosimilars, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple Asian countries ranging from Japan (high-income) to Pakistan (lower-income) to inform future strategies. METHODOLOGY: Multiple approaches including assessing utilization and prices of insulins including biosimilars among six Asian countries and comparing the findings especially with other middle-income countries. RESULTS: Typically, there was increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues among the selected Asian countries. This was especially the case enhanced by biosimilars in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia reflecting their perceived benefits. However, there was limited use in Pakistan due to issues of affordability similar to a number of African countries. The high use of biosimilars in Bangladesh, India and Malaysia was helped by issues of affordability and local production. The limited use of biosimilars in Japan and Korea reflects limited price reductions and demand-side initiatives similar to a number of European countries. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues across countries is welcomed, adding to the range of insulins available, which increasingly includes biosimilars. A number of activities are needed to enhance the use of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars in Japan, Korea and Pakistan.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina de Ação Prolongada , Ásia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Insulina de Ação Prolongada/uso terapêutico , Japão , Paquistão
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 634778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748069

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease, are the most common causes of morbidity and death in the world, including Serbia, as a middle-income European country. The aim of the study was to determine the costs of preventive examinations for ischemic heart disease in active-duty military personnel, as well as to assess whether this was justified from the point of view of the limited health resources allocated for the treatment of the Republic of Serbia population. This is a retrospective cost-preventive study which included 738 male active-duty military personnel, aged from 23 to 58. The costs of primary prevention of ischemic heart disease in this population were investigated. Out of 738 subjects examined, arterial hypertension was detected in 101 subjects (in 74 of them, arterial hypertension was registered for the first time, while 27 subjects were already subjected to pharmacotherapy for arterial hypertension). Average costs of all services during the periodic-health-examination screening program were €76.96 per subject. However, average costs of all services during the periodic-health-examination screening program for patients with newfound arterial hypertension and poorly regulated arterial hypertension were €767.54 per patient and €2,103.63 per patient, respectively. Since periodic-health-examination screening program in military personnel enabled not only discovery of patient with newfound arterial hypertension but also regular monitoring of those who are already on antihypertensive therapy, significant savings of €690.58 per patient and €2,026.67 per patient can be achieved, respectively. As financial resources for providing health care in Serbia, as a middle-income country, are limited, further efforts should be put on screening programs for ischemic heart disease due to possible significant savings.


Assuntos
Militares , Isquemia Miocárdica , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sérvia
7.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 21, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an increasing aging population and a lower ratio between the active and the dependent population, population aging is considered a global social and health challenge, associated with increased demand in health care needs and social pension. This study projects the Greek and Cypriot population to guide future planning of social and health policies and services. METHODS: The total population by sex and age groups, Total Fertility Rate (TFR), life-expectancies at birth and Potential Support Ratio PSR (persons aged 20-64 years per person 65+ years) are projected probabilistically by the year 2100 using Bayesian hierarchical models and United Nations' population data for Greece and Cyprus from the period of 1950 to 2015. RESULTS: The TFR is projected to be around 1.5 children per woman in 2050 and around 1.75 in 2100 for both countries, with all values of prediction intervals being around or below the Replacement level fertility. PSR is expected to decrease remarkably and be 2.5 in 2050 and 1.6 in 2100 for Cyprus while for Greece it will be around 1.5 for both years 2050 and 2100. Life-expectancy is expected to increase to 84 years for men and 87 years for women in 2050 and 90 years for men and 94 years for women in 2100 for both countries. The share of the population aged 65 years and over is projected to increase in both countries and be the one third of the population by 2100. CONCLUSIONS: Greece and Cyprus will acquire the characteristics of an aging population, putting a significance pressure on the social and health systems of both countries. Both countries should reform their social and health policy agenda to confront population aging and its consequence. They should adopt fertility incentives and family policies to increase fertility and migrants' inclusiveness policies to improve the demographic structure and the economic activity. The national health systems should promote prevention strategies at the primary health sector and promote healthy aging while health research policy should aim to promote research in innovative technologies and digital health to create assistive technology for self-care and greater independence of older people.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Chipre , Feminino , Previsões , Grécia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333942

RESUMO

Long-lasting economic recessions spreading from initial cradle markets worldwide should be a periodic event inherent to capitalism as a prevailing socio-economic model [...].

9.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2067-2077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116987

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a Pandemic Risk Exposure Measurement (PREM) model to determine the factors that affect a country's prospective vulnerability to a pandemic risk exposure also considering the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: To develop the model, drew up an inventory of possible factor variables that might expose a country's vulnerability to a pandemic such as COVID-19. This model was based on the analysis of existing literature and consultations with some experts and associations. To support the inventory of selected possible factor variables, we have conducted a survey with participants sampled from people working in a risk management environment carrying out a risk management function. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, specifically exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha to determine and group these factor variables and determine their reliability, respectively. This enabled the development of the PREM model. To eliminate possible bias, hierarchical regression analysis was carried out to examine the effect of the "Level of Experienced Hazard of the Participant (LEH)" considering also the "Level of Expertise and Knowledge about Risk and Risk Management (LEK)". Results: Exploratory factor analysis loaded best on four factors from 19 variables: Demographic Features, Country's Activity Features, Economic Exposure and Societal Vulnerability (i.e. the PREM Model). This model explains 65.5% of the variance in the level of experienced hazard (LEH). Additionally, we determined that LEK explains only about 2% of the variance in LEH. Conclusion: The developed PREM model shows that monitoring of Demographic Features, Country's Activity Features, Economic Exposure and Societal Vulnerability can help a country to identify the possible impact of pandemic risk exposure and develop policies, strategies, regulations, etc., to help a country strengthen its capacity to meet the economic, social and in turn healthcare demands due to pandemic hazards such as COVID-19.

10.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2261-2280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117004

RESUMO

Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of healthcare spending among the leading Asian economies. Methods: We have selected a total of nine Asian nations, based on the strength of their economic output and long-term real GDP growth rates. The OECD members included Japan and the Republic of Korea, while the seven non-OECD nations were China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand. Healthcare systems efficiency was analyzed over the period 1996-2017. To assess the effectiveness of healthcare expenditure of each group of countries, the two-way fixed effects model (country- and year effects) was used. Results: Quality of governance and current health expenditure determine healthcare system performance. Population density and urbanization are positively associated with a healthy life expectancy in the non-OECD Asian countries. In this group, unsafe water drinking has a statistically negative effect on healthy life expectancy. Interestingly, only per capita consumption of carbohydrates is significantly linked with healthy life expectancy. In these non-OECD Asian countries, unsafe water drinking and per capita carbon dioxide emissions increase infant mortality. There is a strong negative association between GDP per capita and infant mortality in both sub-samples, although its impact is far larger in the OECD group. In Japan and South Korea, unemployment is negatively associated with infant mortality. Conclusion: Japan outperforms other countries from the sample in major healthcare performance indicators, while South Korea is ranked second. The only exception is per capita carbon dioxide emissions, which have maximal values in the Republic of Korea and Japan. Non-OECD nations' outcomes were led by China, as the largest economy. This group was characterized with substantial improvement in efficiency of health spending since the middle of the 1990s. Yet, progress was noted with remarkable heterogeneity within the group.

11.
Front Public Health ; 8: 492, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042939

RESUMO

Background: Dynamics of health care has changed over time along with development of the countries themselves. The aim of the study is to compare macroeconomic and health expenditure indicators of interest, such as total health expenditure (THE) as percentage of global domestic product, global domestic product per capita in US$, and private households' out-of-pocket payments of Balkan and Eastern European countries on health, as well as to assess their progress over the observed period. Methods: This research report represents a descriptive data analysis of indicators extracted from the European Health for All database. The data were analyzed using a linear trend and regression analysis to estimate the timeline changes. Results: Greece and Slovenia have the largest median values of global domestic product per capita throughout the whole period, and the largest increment trend was in Lithuania. Median value in out-of-pocket payment of THE was the highest in Albania and Ukraine, while the largest decrease in trend was noticed in Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Greece had the largest median value of THE as percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the observed period, while regression trend analysis showed that Serbia had the largest increase. Most of the countries showed a significant correlation between observed indicators. Conclusion: Trends in the economy must be constantly monitored due to the fact that the population is aging and non-communicable diseases are multiplying, which requires innovations in medical treatment and pharmaceutical development.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Albânia , Península Balcânica , Bósnia e Herzegóvina , Grécia , Produto Interno Bruto , Lituânia , Sérvia , Eslovênia , Ucrânia
12.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 20(6): 571-576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) spreading took place in the Russian Federation in recent 10 months. Russia has a reliable and effective governmental public health infrastructure that worked at an advanced level to control the situation since the first day of receiving reports about pneumonia ofunknown etiology cases in December 2019 and the registration of the first COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China, in January 2020. Several measures were applied (administrative, organizational, technical, sanitary, and hygiene), nevertheless, creating an adequate response to the COVID-19 pandemic was 15 a challenge for the Russian national public health authorities. AREAS COVERED: We used official information of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (Rospotrebnadzor), the Russian Federation Government, and Moscow Government, and the official World Health Organization (WHO);the analysis was conducted between 1 December 2019 and 31 March 2020. EXPERT OPINION: Rospotrebnadzor implemented a set of measures which comprised of three stages: 1. Stage 1 Preventive and sanitary measures; 2. Stage 2 Organizational and technical measures; 3. Stage 3 Organizational and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , COVID-19 , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamento
13.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1380, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655455

RESUMO

Background: Development of medical tourism improves access to healthcare in countries where the necessary medical procedures are not available or accessible to its citizens. In the country of destination, medical tourism stimulates economic development and raises the quality of healthcare provided. There are both microeconomic and macroeconomic factors affecting the development of medical tourism. Microeconomic factors relate to the receivers and providers of healthcare. Macroeconomic factors relate to the government policy being implemented to support the development of medical tourism. This study aims to identify factors affecting the development of medical tourism in Russia. Methodology: An expert survey of 36 heads of medical organizations in Russia was conducted to assess the problems that impede the development of the medical care system to foreign patients in Russia, as well as propose possible solutions. The degree of covariation among experts was calculated using the Kendall concordance coefficient. Results: The experts gave consistent evaluation to numerous sets of problems that impede the development and proposed concrete measures for the development of inbound medical tourism in Russia. These measures ranged from microeconomic to macroeconomic approaches and were directed toward a holistic and coordinated development of medical tourism within Russia. Conclusion: Based on the results, Russia has several micro- and macroeconomic competitive advantages and disadvantages in facilitating medical tourism. The study yielded a set of measures for the development of inbound medical tourism and the promotion of the export of medical services in the Russian Federation, which can be extended to other countries or parties who are seeking to develop medical tourism.

14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 64, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated globalisation has substantially contributed to the rise of emerging markets worldwide. The G7 and Emerging Markets Seven (EM7) behaved in significantly different macroeconomic ways before, during, and after the 2008 Global Crisis. Average real GDP growth rates remained substantially higher among the EM7, while unemployment rates changed their patterns after the crisis. Since 2017, however, approximately one half of the worldwide economic growth is attributable to the EM7, and only a quarter to the G7. This paper aims to analyse the association between the health spending and real GDP growth in the G7 and the EM7 countries. RESULTS: In terms of GDP growth, the EM7 exhibited a higher degree of resilience during the 2008 crisis, compared to the G7. Unemployment in the G7 nations was rising significantly, compared to pre-recession levels, but, in the EM7, it remained traditionally high. In the G7, the austerity (measured as a percentage of GDP) significantly decreased the public health expenditure, even more so than in the EM7. Out-of-pocket health expenditure grew at a far more concerning pace in the EM7 compared to the G7 during the crisis, exposing the vulnerability of households living close to the poverty line. Regression analysis demonstrated that, in the G7, real GDP growth had a positive impact on out-of-pocket expenditure, measured as a percentage of current health expenditure, expressed as a percentage of GDP (CHE). In the EM7, it negatively affected CHE, CHE per capita, and out-of-pocket expenditure per capita. CONCLUSION: The EM7 countries demonstrated stronger endurance, withstanding the consequences of the crisis as compared to the G7 economies. Evidence of this was most visible in real growth and unemployment rates, before, during and after the crisis. It influenced health spending patterns in both groups, although they tended to diverge instead of converge in several important areas.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Produto Interno Bruto , Gastos em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pobreza
15.
J Med Econ ; 23(10): 1111-1122, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fraud- or theft-related crimes account for the highest number of crimes in the mental health industry in the US. AIM: This exploratory study aims to demonstrate a fraudster's and respective victims' profiles as well as to identify the loss predictors' hierarchy in the mental health industry in the US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Psychiatric Crime database and mixed-effects models are utilized for this purpose. RESULTS: A typical fraudster's profile is defined as a 53-year old male psychiatrist who victimizes one or two of the largest federal insurance programs in states with high property crime ratios. The results revealed the year and state where the fraud is prosecuted explain the largest portion of the variance in loss size. Predictably, case-specific factors also have a significant impact on the loss. Specifically, Medicaid, the existence of collusion, and fraudster's age are associated with the fraud loss. CONCLUSIONS: This study empirically justifies considering loss, due to healthcare fraud, from a multi-level perspective. Identified typical fraudster's and respective victim's profiles helped to elaborate on specific practical recommendations aimed at fraud prevention in the mental healthcare system in the US.

16.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 18: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265598

RESUMO

Since its inception in 2003, Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation journal has come a long way over the past 18 years. Possibly much longer than many of its contemporaries in the blossoming science of health economics might have anticipated. Today, entering 2020 it celebrates the Age of Maturity. We believe that in the third decade of XXI century the interdisciplinary science of health economics, will rejuvenate and come back to us younger than ever from its early historical roots almost a century ago. The spreading of economic globalization in several distinctive ways, either led by multinational business corporations or newly emerged Asian leadership, or both, is likely to make challenges for contemporary health systems far more serious. The fourth industrial revolution (cyber physical systems and artificial intelligence technology) and accelerated innovation in the field of E-Health and digital health, will probably change the workflow in medical and health care, and inevitably transform the labour market in the upcoming decades. So, let us be up to the task. Let us provide academic centres, industry-sponsored pharmaceutical and medical device innovation hubs, and governing authorities alike, with a powerful forum for debate on cost-effective resource allocation in the years to come.

17.
Front Public Health ; 8: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133335

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant neoplasms. The aim of the study was to evaluate and correlate most important epidemiological and economic indicators of CRC in 11 selected Balkan countries. The number of new CRC cases was 56,960, and the highest 5-year CRC prevalence was in Slovenia, Croatia, and Greece. Age-standardized CRC incidence rates were highest in Slovenia, Serbia, and Croatia, and age-standardized mortality rates were highest in Croatia, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Current Health Expenditure as % of Gross Domestic Product was the highest in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. The GDP per capita levels have shown positive correlation with the CRC incidence rate and prevalence. Absolute numbers of new and death-related CRC cases and 5-year prevalence in absolute numbers have shown strong positive correlation with GDP in million current US$. It has been shown that various economic indicators can be linked to the rate of incidence and prevalence of the CRC patients in the selected Balkan countries. Therefore, economic factors can influence the epidemiology of CRC, and heavy CRC burden in the Balkan region may be one of the indexes of the economic development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Península Balcânica , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Bulgária , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Croácia/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Eslovênia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0226766, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic collection of mortality/morbidity data over time is crucial for monitoring trends in population health, developing health policies, assessing the impact of health programs. In Poland, a comprehensive analysis describing trends in disease burden for major conditions has never been published. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides data on the burden of over 300 diseases in 195 countries since 1990. We used the GBD database to undertake an assessment of disease burden in Poland, evaluate changes in population health between 1990-2017, and compare Poland with other Central European (CE) countries. METHODS: The results of GBD 2017 for 1990 and 2017 for Poland and CE were used to assess rates and trends in years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Data came from cause-of-death registration systems, population health surveys, disease registries, hospitalization databases, and the scientific literature. Analytical approaches have been used to adjust for missing data, errors in cause-of-death certification, and differences in data collection methodology. Main estimation strategies were ensemble modelling for mortality and Bayesian meta-regression for disability. RESULTS: Between 1990-2017, age-standardized YLL rates for all causes declined in Poland by 46.0% (95% UI: 43.7-48.2), YLD rates declined by 4.0% (4.2-4.9), DALY rates by 31.7% (29.2-34.4). For both YLLs and YLDs, greater relative declines were observed for females. There was a large decrease in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disease DALYs (48.2%; 46.3-50.4). DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) decreased slightly (2.0%; 0.1-4.6). In 2017, Poland performed better than CE as a whole (ranked fourth for YLLs, sixth for YLDs, and fifth for DALYs) and achieved greater reductions in YLLs and DALYs than most CE countries. In 2017 and 1990, the leading cause of YLLs and DALYs in Poland and CE was ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and the leading cause of YLDs was low back pain. In 2017, the top 20 causes of YLLs and YLDs in Poland and CE were the same, although in different order. In Poland, age-standardized DALYs from neonatal causes, other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases, and road injuries declined substantially between 1990-2017, while alcohol use disorders and chronic liver diseases increased. The highest observed-to-expected ratios were seen for alcohol use disorders for YLLs, neonatal sepsis for YLDs, and falls for DALYs (3.21, 2.65, and 2.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was relatively little geographical variation in premature death and disability in CE in 2017, although some between-country differences existed. Health in Poland has been improving since 1990; in 2017 Poland outperformed CE as a whole for YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs. While the health gap between Poland and Western Europe has diminished, it remains substantial. The shift to NCDs and chronic disability, together with marked between-gender health inequalities, poses a challenge for the Polish health-care system. IHD is still the leading cause of disease burden in Poland, but DALYs from IHD are declining. To further reduce disease burden, an integrated response focused on NCDs and population groups with disproportionally high burden is needed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sistemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Polônia/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079338

RESUMO

Studies in the alcohol consumption area are mostly related to the (ab)use of alcohol in young people. However, today, a growing number of researchers are emphasizing the clinical and public health significance of alcohol consumption in the elderly. In the WHO reports, harmful alcohol consumption is responsible for 5.3% of the global burden of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption among men and women aged 55 and over in Serbia and Hungary, leveraging data from the 2013 Serbian National Health Survey and from the 2014 Hungarian National Health Survey. Respondents aged 55 and over were analysed based on logistic multivariate models. The prevalence of alcohol consumption was 41.5% and 62.5% in Serbia and Hungary, respectively. It was higher among men in both countries, but among women, it was significantly higher in Hungary than in Serbia. The statistically significant predictors affecting alcohol consumption in Serbia included age, education, well-being index, long-term disease and overall health status, with marital status being an additional factor among men. In Hungary, education and long-term disease affected alcohol consumption in both sexes, while age and employment were additional factors among women. In both countries for both sexes, younger age, more significantly than primary education and good health, was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Adolescente , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(2)2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024295

RESUMO

Antimicrobial agents have a rather special position due to their importance as essential medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases. Evidence-based prescriptions are needed to optimize the use of antimicrobials in humans, as well as to decrease antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the inpatient consumption of antimicrobial drugs for systemic use in the period 2011-2018 in Kazakhstan. This article presents the results of an evaluation of the inpatient use of antibacterial drugs for systemic use (group J01) for the period 2011-2018 using the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification)/defined daily dose (DDD) methodology recommended by the World Health Organization. Inpatient antimicrobial utilization is expressed as DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day (DID). The results of the assessment for inpatient antibiotic use (over an eight-year period) showed a decrease in the total consumption of antibiotics for systemic action in Kazakhstan (2011: 12.72 DID; 2018: 2.74 DID). Among oral formulations, levofloxacin was consumed the most, and cefazolin was consumed the most among the parenteral formulations of antimicrobials. The three drugs consumed the most included cefazolin (first-generation cephalosporin), ceftriaxone (third-generation cephalosporin), and cefuroxime (second-generation cephalosporin). The total consumption of antibacterials for systemic action in Kazakhstan decreased during the analyzed period, but there was an irrational use of certain groups of drugs.

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