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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809461

RESUMO

In a recent prospective study, we reported an association between a low serum selenium level and five-year survival among breast cancer patients. We now have updated the cohort to include 10-year survival rates. A blood sample was obtained from 538 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer between 2008 and 2015 in the region of Szczecin, Poland. Blood was collected before initiation of treatment. Serum selenium levels were quantified by mass spectroscopy. Each patient was assigned to one of four quartiles based on the distribution of serum selenium levels in the whole cohort. Patients were followed from diagnosis until death or last known alive (mean follow-up 7.9 years). The 10-year actuarial cumulative survival was 65.1% for women in the lowest quartile of serum selenium, compared to 86.7% for women in the highest quartile (p < 0.001 for difference). Further studies are needed to confirm the protective effect of selenium on breast cancer survival. If confirmed this may lead to an investigation of selenium supplementation on survival of breast cancer patients.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670479

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency and magnitude of association of 21 recurrent founder germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and CHEK2 genes with ovarian cancer risk among unselected patients in Poland. We genotyped 21 recurrent germline mutations in BRCA1 (9 mutations), BRCA2 (4 mutations), RAD51C (3 mutations), PALB2 (2 mutations), and CHEK2 (3 mutations) among 2270 Polish ovarian cancer patients and 1743 healthy controls, and assessed the odds ratios (OR) for developing ovarian cancer for each gene. Mutations were detected in 369 out of 2095 (17.6%) unselected ovarian cancer cases and 117 out of 1743 (6.7%) unaffected controls. The ovarian cancer risk was associated with mutations in BRCA1 (OR = 40.79, 95% CI: 18.67-114.78; p = 0.29 × 10-15), in BRCA2 (OR = 25.98; 95% CI: 1.55-434.8; p = 0.001), in RAD51C (OR = 6.28; 95% CI 1.77-39.9; p = 0.02), and in PALB2 (OR 3.34; 95% CI: 1.06-14.68; p = 0.06). There was no association found for CHEK2. We found that pathogenic mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C or PALB2 are responsible for 12.5% of unselected cases of ovarian cancer. We recommend that all women with ovarian cancer in Poland and first-degree female relatives should be tested for this panel of 18 mutations.

3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

4.
Kidney Int ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309955

RESUMO

A study of 269 children enrolled into a National Registry for children with persistent glomerular hematuria identified 131 individuals with genetically confirmed X-linked Alport Syndrome. A single variant c.1871G>A p.Gly624Asp (G624D) in COL4A5 was predominant and accounted for 39% of X-linked Alport Syndrome in unrelated Polish families (44 of 113). To evaluate its origins, the genetic variation in a 2.79 Mb segment encompassing the COL4A5 locus on chromosome X was assessed. All G624D alleles were found on the same rare haplotype background, indicating a founder effect dating back to the 12-13th century. The phenotypic data of 131 children with X-linked Alport Syndrome and their 195 affected adult relatives revealed that the G624D variant was associated with a significantly milder clinical course in comparison to other pathogenic COL4A5 variants. Furthermore the clinical course of this genetically uniform cohort was milder than that observed in individuals with other COL4A5 missense mutations. In spite of the benign clinical manifestation throughout childhood and early adulthood, the G624D variant confers significant risk for both kidney failure and deafness in males, albeit 20-30 years later than that observed in individuals with other COL4A5 pathogenic variants (50% cumulative risk of starting dialysis at 54 years (95% confidence interval: 50-62) v. 26 years (95% confidence interval: 22-30)). Thus, males with G624D are candidates for existing and emerging therapies for Alport Syndrome.

5.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126682, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether blood cadmium levels were associated with incident lung cancer and could be used in the context of a screening program for early-stage lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We measured blood cadmium levels among 205 lung cancer patients and 205 matched controls. Cases and controls were matched for sex, age and smoking history (total pack-years, years since cessation for former smokers). RESULTS: The odds ratio for those in the highest quartile of cadmium level (versus lowest) was four-fold (OR = 4.41, 95 % CI:2.01-9.67, p < 0.01). The association was present in former smokers (OR = 16.8, 95 % CI:3.96-71.2, p < 0.01), but not in current smokers (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI: 0.34-4.38) or in never smokers (OR not defined). Among former smokers, the association was present in both early- and late-stage lung cancer. CONCLUSION: Blood cadmium levels may be a marker to help with the early detection of lung cancer among former smokers.

6.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 6351817, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101543

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ESR1 rs1643821 and TNF-α rs1800629 as potential genetic factors regulating anterior disc displacement without reduction-mediated inflammatory pathway. Background: The temporomandibular joint is a complex synovial joint that allows mandibular movement in three directions. Although temporomandibular disorders are widespread, limited data is available on the biochemical characteristics of the displaced disc and quality of the surrounding soft tissue. Changes in degenerative tissue provoke disc displacement which involves secretion of inflammatory markers and sequential conversion of fibroblast-like cells into chondrocyte-like cells. Due to the high occurrence in female adolescents, the potential role of sex hormones in temporomandibular joint disorders has been speculated. Furthermore, anterior disc displacement without reduction severely affects the quality of life. Methods: 124 Caucasian patients with a history of at least one anterior disc displacement without reduction within 3 months were enrolled. Anterior disc displacement without reduction was diagnosed based on clinical examination, diagnostic criteria (DC)/TMD, and cone-beam computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CBCT/MRI). The control group consisted of 126 patients with no temporomandibular joint disorders. Genotyping of two single nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) rs1643821, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) rs1800629 was performed. Results: ESR1 rs1643821 showed significant P values (using chi-square analysis) revealing the difference in anterior disc displacement without reduction frequencies while TNF-α rs1800629 polymorphism was found to be statistically insignificant when compared to the control group. Furthermore, patients with a genotype of ESR1 rs1643821 showed a decreased probability (OR = 0.412) against anterior disc displacement without reduction when compared to the GG genotype (OR = 1). Conclusion: ESR1 rs1643821 with A allele frequency was lower in patients with anterior disc displacement without reduction compared to the control group. Thus, the rs1643821 variant is significantly associated with susceptibility to the anterior disc displacement without a reduction in European Caucasians. Conversely, TNF-α rs1800629 was a statistically insignificant factor against anterior disc displacement without reduction when compared to the control group.

7.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

8.
Breast Cancer ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine spectrum and prevalence of germline mutations in TP53 gene among Polish women with early-onset breast cancer (BC), which has not been determined until now. METHODS: A cohort of 100 females with BC diagnosed ≤ 30 years of age and with a positive family history of cancer was used as a discovery cohort. 1880 women with BC ≤ 45 years old and a control group of 2000 healthy women were genotyped as a replication phase of this study. RESULTS: Four heterozygous pathogenic missense mutations were detected in a group of 100 patients with early-onset breast cancer. On the basis of software prediction and available literature data, all these variants were defined as pathogenic. None of these TP53 variants were detected among 1880 breast cancer patients and 2000 healthy controls. No large mutations were found among early-onset cases using MLPA reaction. CONCLUSION: Germline pathogenic TP53 variants were found in 4% early-onset Polish BC patients. No founder mutations were identified in Polish population. To improve the treatment and surveillance screening, the search for germline TP53 pathogenic variants is recommended for all female BC cases diagnosed ≤ 30 years old.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2793-2800, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875559

RESUMO

In designing national strategies for genetic testing, it is important to define the full spectrum of pathogenic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility genes. To investigate the frequency of mutations in PCa susceptibility genes in Polish familial PCa cases and to estimate gene-related PCa risks and probability of aggressive disease, we analyzed the coding regions of 14 genes by exome sequencing in 390 men with familial prostate cancer and 308 cancer-free controls. We compared the mutation frequencies between PCa cases and controls. We also compared clinical characteristics of prostate cancers between mutation carriers and noncarriers. Of the 390 PCa cases, 76 men (19.5%) carried a mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, NBN, ATM, CHEK2, HOXB13, MSH2 or MSH6 genes. No mutations were found in BRIP1, PTEN, TP53, MLH1, PMS2 and SPOP. Significant associations with familial PCa risk were observed for CHEK2, NBN, ATM, and HOXB13. High-grade (Gleason 8-10) tumors were seen in 56% of BRCA2, NBN or ATM carriers, compared to 21% of patients who tested negative for mutations in these genes (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-10.7, P = .0003). In summary, approximately 20% of familial prostate cancer cases in Poland can be attributed to mutations in eight susceptibility genes. Carriers of mutations in BRCA2, NBN and ATM develop aggressive disease and may benefit from intensified screening and/or chemotherapy.

10.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1589-1604, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750457

RESUMO

There have been few clinical or scientific reports of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease due to REN mutations (ADTKD-REN), limiting characterization. To further study this, we formed an international cohort characterizing 111 individuals from 30 families with both clinical and laboratory findings. Sixty-nine individuals had a REN mutation in the signal peptide region (signal group), 27 in the prosegment (prosegment group), and 15 in the mature renin peptide (mature group). Signal group patients were most severely affected, presenting at a mean age of 19.7 years, with the prosegment group presenting at 22.4 years, and the mature group at 37 years. Anemia was present in childhood in 91% in the signal group, 69% prosegment, and none of the mature group. REN signal peptide mutations reduced hydrophobicity of the signal peptide, which is necessary for recognition and translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to aberrant delivery of preprorenin into the cytoplasm. REN mutations in the prosegment led to deposition of prorenin and renin in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment and decreased prorenin secretion. Mutations in mature renin led to deposition of the mutant prorenin in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to patients with ADTKD-UMOD, with a rate of progression to end stage kidney disease (63.6 years) that was significantly slower vs. the signal (53.1 years) and prosegment groups (50.8 years) (significant hazard ratio 0.367). Thus, clinical and laboratory studies revealed subtypes of ADTKD-REN that are pathophysiologically, diagnostically, and clinically distinct.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824581

RESUMO

There are twenty recurrent mutations in six breast-cancer-predisposing genes in Poland (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, NBN, and RECQL). The frequencies of the twenty alleles have not been measured in a large series of early-onset breast cancer patients from Poland unselected for family history. We genotyped 2464 women with breast cancer diagnosed below age 41 years for twenty recurrent germline mutations in six genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2 CHEK2, PALB2, NBN, and RECQL. A mutation in one of the six genes was identified in 419 of the 2464 early-onset breast cancer cases (17%), including 22.4% of those cases diagnosed below age 31. The mutation frequency was 18.8% for familial breast cancer cases and 6% for non-familial cases. Among women with breast cancer below age 31, the mutation frequency was 23.6% for familial cases and 17.4% in non-familial cases. The majority of mutations (76.2%) were seen in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In Poland, a panel of twenty recurrent mutations in six genes can identify a genetic basis for a high percentage of early-onset cases and testing is recommended for all women with breast cancer at age 40 or below.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765800

RESUMO

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) are Zinc-related proteins which are involved in processes crucial for carcinogenesis such as angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMPs and MTs that affect genes expression have been associated with cancer risk, including breast, lung and colon. Methods: The study group consisted of 648 unselected patients (299 with breast cancer, 199 with lung cancer, 150 with colon cancer) and 648 unaffected individuals. Five SNPs, rs1799750 in MMP-1, rs243865 in MMP-2, rs11568818 in MMP-7, rs2252070 in MMP-13 and rs28366003 in MT2A were genotyped and serum zinc (Zn) level was measured. The cancer risk was calculated using multivariable logistic regression with respect to Zn. Results: None of the 5 tested polymorphisms showed a correlation with cancer risk in studied groups, although for MMP-2, MMP-7 and MT2A non-significant differences in genotypes frequencies among cases and controls were observed. Conclusions: Analyses of polymorphisms, rs1799750 in MMP-1, rs243865 in MMP-2, rs11568818 in MMP-7, rs2252070 in MMP-13 and rs28366003 in MT2A in relation to serum Zn level did not show significant association with breast, lung and colon cancer risk among polish patients. Further studies are needed to verify this observation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630672

RESUMO

Asthma often begins in childhood, although making an early diagnosis is difficult. Clinical manifestations, the exclusion of other causes of bronchial obstruction, and responsiveness to anti-inflammatory therapy are the main tool of diagnosis. However, novel, precise, and functional biochemical markers are needed in the differentiation of asthma phenotypes, endotypes, and creating personalized therapy. The aim of the study was to search for metabolomic-based asthma biomarkers among free amino acids (AAs). A wide panel of serum-free AAs in asthmatic children, covering both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic AAs, were analyzed. The examination included two groups of individuals between 3 and 18 years old: asthmatic children and the control group consisted of children with neither asthma nor allergies. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS technique) was used for AA measurements. The data were analyzed by applying uni- and multivariate statistical tests. The obtained results indicate the decreased serum concentration of taurine, L-valine, DL-ß-aminoisobutyric acid, and increased levels of Æ´-amino-n-butyric acid and L-arginine in asthmatic children when compared to controls. The altered concentration of these AAs can testify to their role in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The authors' results should contribute to the future introduction of new diagnostic markers into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Asma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648197

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens is an important cause of lung cancer. One of these substances is chromium, which is found ubiquitously across the planet. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified chromium(VI) as a human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum chromium levels, as well as DNA variants in selected genes involved in carcinogenesis, xenobiotic-metabolism, and oxidative stress could be helpful in the detection of lung cancer. We conducted a study using 218 lung cancer patients and 218 matched healthy controls. We measured serum chromium levels and genotyped ten genetic variants in ERCC2, XRCC1, MT1B, GSTP1, ABCB1, NQ01, CRTC3, GPX1, SOD2 and CAT. The odds ratios of being diagnosed with lung cancer were calculated using conditional logistic regression with respect to serum chromium level and genotypes. The odds ratio for the occurrence of lung cancer increased with increasing serum chromium levels. The difference between the quartiles with the lowest vs. highest chromium level was more than fourfold in the entire group (OR 4.52, CI 2.17-9.42, p < 0.01). This correlation was significantly increased by more than twice when specific genotypes were taken into consideration (ERCC-rs12181 TT, OR 12.34, CI 1.17-130.01, p = 0.04; CRTC3-rs12915189 non GG, OR 9.73, CI 1.58-60.10, p = 0.01; GSTP1-rs1695 non AA, OR 9.47, CI 2.06-43.49, p = < 0.01; CAT-rs1001179 non CC, OR 9.18, CI 1.64-51.24, p = 0.01). Total serum chromium levels > 0.1 µg/L were correlated with 73% (52/71) of lung cancers diagnosed with stage I disease. Our findings support the role of chromium and the influence of key proteins on lung cancer burden in the general population.

15.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 3057168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695228

RESUMO

Aims: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the risk of vascular events remains high. We aimed at identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on antithrombotic treatments in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. Methods: Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL on March 1st, 2018. This systematic review (SR) uses a narrative synthesis to summarize the evidence for the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies in the population of both chronic CAD or PAD patients. Results: Four RCTs from 27 publications were included. Study groups included 15,603 to 27,395 patients. ASA alone was the most extensively studied (n = 3); other studies included rivaroxaban with or without ASA (n = 1), vorapaxar alone (n = 1), and clopidogrel with (n = 1) or without ASA (n = 1). Clopidogrel alone and clopidogrel plus ASA compared to ASA presented similar efficacy with comparable safety profile. Rivaroxaban plus ASA significantly reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke compared to ASA alone, although major bleeding with rivaroxaban plus ASA increased. Conclusion: There is limited and heterogeneous evidence on the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with chronic CAD or PAD. Clopidogrel alone and clopidogrel plus ASA did not demonstrate superiority over ASA alone. A combination of rivaroxaban plus ASA may offer significant additional benefit in reducing cardiovascular outcomes, yet it may increase the risk of bleeding, compared to ASA alone.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

17.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(5): 603-609, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, is effective in children with difficult idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Prolonged CsA treatment can result in several adverse effects, the most significant being nephrotoxicity (CsAN). The plasma and urine levels of the proteins annexin V (AnV) and uromodulin (UM) were investigated in order to assess their usefulness as indicators of early-stage CsAN. Uromodulin is considered a distal tubular damage marker. Annnexin V is present in the distal tubules. OBJECTIVES: To measure AnV in children with INS receiving CsA treatment and to assess the usefulness of this biomarker for monitoring CsAN and as an indicator of changes in the distal tubules of the nephron. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The prospective study included 30 patients with INS and 22 controls. Plasma and urinary AnV levels were measured 3 times: before CsA treatment, and after 6 and 12 months of therapy. The AnV levels were compared to those of UM. RESULTS: The urinary AnV and UM levels were significantly higher in the INS patients before CsA therapy in comparison to the reference group. A progressive increase of urinary AnV was observed after 6 and 12 months of therapy. Urinary UM only increased after 6 months. No significant correlations were found between plasma and urinary concentrations of the proteins studied. CONCLUSIONS: The increased urinary excretion of AnV in children with INS receiving CsA treatment may suggest its usefulness as an early marker of subclinical CsAN. Annexin V seems to be a more sensitive indicator of tubular damage in the course of CsA therapy than UM, though large, multicenter studies are needed.


Assuntos
Anexina A5/sangue , Anexina A5/urina , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/sangue , Síndrome Nefrótica/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uromodulina/sangue , Uromodulina/urina
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
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