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1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1293-1298, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469414

RESUMO

Methylation of the promoter of the BRCA1 gene in DNA derived from peripheral blood cells is a possible risk factor for breast cancer. It is not clear if this association is restricted to certain types of breast cancer or is a general phenomenon. We evaluated BRCA1 methylation status in peripheral blood cells from 942 breast cancer patients and from 500 controls. We also assessed methylation status in 262 paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Methylation status was assessed using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting and was categorized as positive or negative. BRCA1 methylation in peripheral blood cells was strongly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (odds ratio [OR] 4.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.13-7.07; p < 0.001), but not of estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.46-1.42; p = 0.46). Methylation was also overrepresented among patients with high-grade cancers (OR 4.53; 95% CI: 2.91-7.05; p < 0.001) and medullary cancers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.38-6.88; p = 0.006). Moreover, we detected a significant concordance of BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood and paired tumor tissue (p < 0.001). We found that BRCA1 promoter methylation in peripheral blood cells is associated with approximately five times greater risk of TNBC. We propose that BRCA1 methylation in blood-derived DNA could be a novel biomarker of increased breast cancer susceptibility, in particular for triple-negative tumors.

3.
J Plant Physiol ; 245: 153082, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862648

RESUMO

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) conjugation is one of the mechanisms responsible for auxin homeostasis. IAA ester conjugates biosynthesis has been studied during development of maize seeds where IAA-inositol (IAInos) and its glycosidic forms make up about 50 % of its ester conjugates pool. 1-O-indole-3-acetyl-ß-d-glucose (IAGlc) synthase and indole-3-acetyl transferase (IAInos synthase) are key enzymes in a two-step pathway of IAInos synthesis. In the first reaction, IAA is glucosylated to a high energy acetal, 1-O-indole-3-acetyl-ß-d-glucose by IAGlc synthase, whereas in the second step, IAInos synthase transfers IAA moiety to myo-inositol forming a stable auxin ester, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol (IAInos). It should be mentioned that IAGlc synthase catalyzes a reversible reaction with unfavourable equilibrium that delivers IAGlc for favourable transacylation to IAInos. This is the first study where IAGlc synthase and IAInos synthase are simultaneously analyzed by enzymatic activity assay and quantitative RT-PCR in maize seeds at four stages of development (13, 26, 39 and 52 Days After Flowering). Activity of IAGlc/IAInos synthases as well as their expression profiles during seed development were different. While both enzymatic activities and ZmIAIn expression were the highest in seeds at 26 DAF, the highest expression of ZmIAGlc was observed at 13 DAF. Protein gel blot analysis showed that IAInos synthase exists as a mixture of several isoforms at a similar protein level at particular stages of seed development. Neither of other ester conjugates of IAA (IAA-mannose) nor IAA-amino acids were detected at the stages studied. Catalytic activity of l-tryptophan aminotransferase involved in IAA biosynthesis as well as UDPG pyrophosphorylase, synthesizing UDPG as a substrate for IAGlc synthase, were also analyzed. l-tryptophan aminotransferase activity was the highest at 26 DAF. Changes in enzyme activity of UDPG pyrophosphorylase are difficult to interpret. Expression levels of ZmIPS and ZmIPP encoding two enzymes of myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway: inositol-x-phosphate synthase (IPS) and inositol-x-phosphate phosphatase (IPP), respectively, were analyzed. 26 DAF seeds displayed the highest expression level of ZmIPS, whereas transcription of ZmIPP was the highest at 13 DAF.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 144, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for contralateral breast cancer (CBC), with the consequent burden of further treatment and potentially less favorable prognosis. We aimed to develop and validate a CBC risk prediction model and evaluate its applicability for clinical decision-making. METHODS: We included data of 132,756 invasive non-metastatic breast cancer patients from 20 studies with 4682 CBC events and a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We developed a multivariable Fine and Gray prediction model (PredictCBC-1A) including patient, primary tumor, and treatment characteristics and BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, accounting for the competing risks of death and distant metastasis. We also developed a model without BRCA1/2 mutation status (PredictCBC-1B) since this information was available for only 6% of patients and is routinely unavailable in the general breast cancer population. Prediction performance was evaluated using calibration and discrimination, calculated by a time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary breast cancer, and an internal-external cross-validation procedure. Decision curve analysis was performed to evaluate the net benefit of the model to quantify clinical utility. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, BRCA1/2 germline mutation status, family history, and systemic adjuvant treatment showed the strongest associations with CBC risk. The AUC of PredictCBC-1A was 0.63 (95% prediction interval (PI) at 5 years, 0.52-0.74; at 10 years, 0.53-0.72). Calibration-in-the-large was -0.13 (95% PI: -1.62-1.37), and the calibration slope was 0.90 (95% PI: 0.73-1.08). The AUC of Predict-1B at 10 years was 0.59 (95% PI: 0.52-0.66); calibration was slightly lower. Decision curve analysis for preventive contralateral mastectomy showed potential clinical utility of PredictCBC-1A between thresholds of 4-10% 10-year CBC risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a reasonably calibrated model to predict the risk of CBC in women of European-descent; however, prediction accuracy was moderate. Our model shows potential for improved risk counseling, but decision-making regarding contralateral preventive mastectomy, especially in the general breast cancer population where limited information of the mutation status in BRCA1/2 is available, remains challenging.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614901

RESUMO

Bloom Syndrome is a rare recessive disease which includes a susceptibility to various cancers. It is caused by homozygous mutations of the BLM gene. To investigate whether heterozygous carriers of a BLM mutation are predisposed to breast cancer, we sequenced BLM in 617 patients from Polish families with a strong family history of breast cancer. We detected a founder mutation (c.1642C>T, p.Gln548Ter) in 3 of the 617 breast cancer patients (0.49%) who were sequenced. Then, we genotyped 14,804 unselected breast cancer cases and 4698 cancer-free women for the founder mutation. It was identified in 82 of 14,804 (0.55%) unselected cases and in 26 of 4698 (0.55%) controls (OR = 1.0; 95%CI 0.6-1.6). Clinical characteristics of breast cancers in the BLM mutation carriers and non-carriers were similar. Loss of the wild-type BLM allele was not detected in cancers from the BLM mutation carriers. No cancer type was more common in the relatives of mutation carriers compared to relatives of non-carriers. The BLM founder mutation p.Gln548Ter, which in a homozygous state is a cause of Bloom syndrome, does not appear to predispose to breast cancer in a heterozygous state. The finding casts doubt on the designation of BLM as an autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility gene.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660093

RESUMO

Background: Pathogenic germline variants in MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes account for the majority of Lynch syndrome (LS). In this first report from Pakistan, we investigated the prevalence of pathogenic MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 variants in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Methods: Consecutive cases (n = 212) were recruited at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH&RC), between November 2007 to March 2011. Patients with a family history of > 3 or 2 HNPCC-associated cancers were classified as HNPCC (n = 9) or suspected-HNPCC (n = 20), respectively (group 1; n = 29). Cases with no family history were designated as non-HNPCC (group 2; n = 183). MLH1/MSH2/MSH6 genes were comprehensively screened in group 1. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants identified in group 1 were subsequently evaluated in group 2. Results: Eight distinct pathogenic/likely pathogenic MLH1/MSH2 variants were found in group 1 (10/29; 34.5%), belonging to HNPCC (5/9; 55.6%) and suspected-HNPCC (5/20; 25%) families and in group 2 (2/183; 1.1%) belonging to non-HNPCC. Overall, three recurrent variants (MSH2 c.943-1G > C, MLH1 c.1358dup and c.2041G > A) accounted for 58.3% (7/12) of all families harboring pathogenic/likely pathogenic MLH1/MSH2 variants. Pathogenic MSH6 variants were not detected. Conclusion: Pathogenic/likely pathogenic MLH1/MSH2 variants account for a substantial proportion of CRC patients with HNPCC/suspected-HNPCC in Pakistan. Our findings suggest that HNPCC/suspected-HNPCC families should be tested for these recurrent variants prior to comprehensive gene screening in this population.

8.
Hematology ; 24(1): 679-719, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581933

RESUMO

Objective: Investigate globally, current treatment patterns, benefit-risk assessments, humanistic, societal and economic burden of platelet transfusion (PT). Methods: Publications from 1998 to June 27, 2018 were identified, based on databases searches including MEDLINE®; Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Data from studies meeting pre-specified criteria were extracted and validated by independent reviewers. Data were obtained for efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trials (RCTs); data for epidemiology, treatment patterns, effectiveness, safety, humanistic and societal burden from real-world evidence (RWE) studies; and economic data from both. Results: A total of 3425 abstracts, 194 publications (190 studies) were included. PT use varied widely, from 0%-100% of TCP patients; 1.7%-24.5% in large studies (>1000 patients). Most were used prophylactically rather than therapeutically. 5 of 43 RCTs compared prophylactic PT with no intervention, with mixed results. In RWE studies PT generally increased platelet count (PC). This increase varied by patient characteristics and hence did not always translate into a clinically significant reduction in bleeding risk. Safety concerns included infection risk, alloimmunization and refractoriness with associated cost burden. Discussion: In RCTs and RWE studies there was significant heterogeneity in study design and outcome measures. In RWE studies, patients receiving PT may have been at higher risk than those not receiving PT creating potential bias. There were limited data on humanistic and societal burden. Conclusion: Although PTs are used widely for increasing PC in TCP, it is important to understand the limitations of PTs, and to explore the use of alternative treatment options where available.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(2): 427-431, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NBN 657del5 founder mutation predisposes to breast and prostate cancer. Recently, it has been reported that the pathogenicity of this mutation with regard to prostate cancer risk is modified by a missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). METHODS: To evaluate the interaction of the 657del5 and E185Q founder alleles of NBN on breast cancer risk in Poland, 4964 women with breast cancer and 6152 controls were genotyped for these two recurrent variants of NBN (657del5 truncating variant and E185Q missense variant). RESULTS: The NBN 657del5 mutation was detected in 57 of 4964 unselected cases and in 35 of 6152 controls (OR = 2.0, p = 0.001). The E185Q GG genotype was detected in 2167 of 4964 unselected cases and in 2617 of 6152 controls (OR = 1.04, p = 0.3). In carriers of the 657del5 deletion, the elevated cancer risk was restricted to women with the GG genotype of the E185Q variant (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.9-6.6; p < 0.0001). Among women with other E185Q genotypes, the OR associated with 657del5 was 1.0 (95% CI 0.5-1.8; p = 0.9). The interaction between the two alleles was statistically significant (homogeneity p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In Poland, the pathogenicity of the NBN 657del5 mutation is restricted to women with a homozygous GG genotype of missense variant of the same gene (E185Q). This is the first clear example whereby a moderate penetrance breast cancer gene is impacted by a genetic modifier.

10.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 56: 46-51, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the results of studies in populations with low selenium status indicate an inverse correlation between body selenium levels and the risk of the lung cancer, the effect of this microelement on survival has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 302 patients diagnosed with lung cancer in Szczecin, Poland. Selenium concentration in serum was measured at the time of diagnosis and before treatment. All patients were followed for a maximum of 80 months or until death. Vital status was obtained from the Polish National Death Registry. RESULTS: Using Cox proportional hazard analysis, performed for all individuals with lung cancer, the hazard ratio (HR) for death from all causes was 1.25 (95% CI: 0.86-1.83, P = 0.99) for patients in the lowest tertile compared to those in the highest tertile of serum selenium levels. Among the patients with stage I disease this relationship was significant (HR-2.73; P = 0.01) for selenium level in tertile 1 (<57 µg/L) compared to tertile 3 (>69 µg/L, reference). The 80 months crude survival after diagnosis was 79.5% (95% CI: 68.5-92.4%) for individuals in the highest tertile and 58.1% (95% CI: 45.1-74.9%) for individuals in the lowest tertile with stage I lung cancer. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in patients undergoing treatment for stage I lung cancer, serum selenium levels at the time of diagnosis (>69 µg/L) may be associated with improved overall survival.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(3): 657-663, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: XRCC2 participates in homologous recombination and in DNA repair. XRCC2 has been reported to be a breast cancer susceptibility gene and is now included in several breast cancer susceptibility gene panels. METHODS: We sequenced XRCC2 in 617 Polish women with familial breast cancer and found a founder mutation. We then genotyped 12,617 women with breast cancer and 4599 controls for the XRCC2 founder mutation. RESULTS: We identified a recurrent truncating mutation of XRCC2 (c.96delT, p.Phe32fs) in 3 of 617 patients with familial breast cancer who were sequenced. The c.96delT mutation was then detected in 29 of 12,617 unselected breast cancer cases (0.23%) compared to 11 of 4599 cancer-free women (0.24%) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.48-1.93). The mutation frequency in 1988 women with familial breast cancer was 0.2% (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.27-2.65). Breast cancers in XRCC2 mutation carriers and non-carriers were similar with respect to age of diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Loss of the wild-type XRCC2 allele was observed only in one of the eight breast cancers from patients who carried the XRCC2 mutation. No cancer type was more common in first- or second-degree relatives of XRCC2 mutation carriers than in relatives of the non-carriers. CONCLUSION: XRCC2 c.96delT is a protein-truncating founder variant in Poland. There is no evidence that this mutation predisposes to breast cancer (and other cancers). It is premature to consider XRCC2 as a breast cancer-predisposing gene.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348523

RESUMO

Arsenic is recognized as a potent carcinogen at high concentrations, but the relationship between environmental arsenic and breast cancer risk has not well been studied. Most research has focused on the effect of arsenic in populations with high endemic exposure, and not in populations with arsenic levels within normal limits. We sought to determine if blood arsenic levels predict the risk of breast and other cancers risk among women in northern Poland. The cohort consisted of 1,702 healthy women, aged 40 and above, identified between 2010 and 2017. Blood arsenic level was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up (range 0.7-7.3 years), there were 110 incident cases of cancer diagnosed in the cohort, including 68 cases of breast cancer. Women in the highest quartile of arsenic had a highly significant 13-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer, compared to women in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.02-43.0). Results were similar for arsenic and all incident cancers (HR quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 13.3; 95% CI 4.78-37.0). If confirmed, our study suggests that the blood arsenic level may be a useful predictive marker of cancer risk in women.

13.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(8): 845-855, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274334

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate purified honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom (HBV) biotherapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) knee pain and physical function. Design and Patients: Five hundred and thirty-eight patients with Kellgren/Lawrence grade 1-3 radiographic knee OA and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score ≥2 were randomized 1:2 to either control ("histamine") or HBV in this double-blind study. Interventions: After a dose escalation period, patients received 12 weekly dermal injections of control ("histamine") or HBV. At each of the 12 weekly visits, a set of 15 dermal injections (each containing 2.75 µg histamine or 100 µg HBV) were administered at prespecified acupuncture points (5 on each knee: knee top, eye-1 medial, eye-2 lateral, ST 34, BL 40 and 5 near the spinous processes: BL 19, 21, 23, 25, and 27). Outcome Measures: Assessments included WOMAC pain and physical function subscales, visual analog scale (VAS), patient global assessment (PGA), and physician global assessment (PhGA). Rescue medication use (acetaminophen) and routine safety parameters were monitored. Results: HBV biotherapy demonstrated a highly significant improvement over control in WOMAC pain score after 12 weeks (1.1 U mean difference; confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.3-2.0; analysis of covariance [ANCOVA] p = 0.0010 with baseline as covariate) that was also sustained 4 weeks post-treatment. Furthermore, WOMAC physical function was significantly improved over control with HBV (3.1 U mean difference; 95% CI: 0.3-5.9; ANCOVA p = 0.0046), and sustained 4 weeks post-treatment. VAS scores were significantly improved with HBV versus control, as well as PGA and PhGA evaluations, which showed that patients responded more favorably ("very good/good") to their overall OA condition (82.0% vs. 62.4% [p = 0.0001] and 82.1% vs. 54.9% [p = 0.0015], respectively). Use of rescue acetaminophen was similar between the groups (77%-78% of patients). HBV was associated with higher incidence of injection site reactions (<5%); however, the overall safety profiles were comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusions: This phase 3 trial demonstrated that HBV biotherapy resulted in significant improvements in knee OA pain and physical function.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Venenos de Abelha , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Idoso , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Artralgia/terapia , Venenos de Abelha/administração & dosagem , Venenos de Abelha/efeitos adversos , Venenos de Abelha/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor
14.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 9698367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354894

RESUMO

Recurring nature of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and steroid dependence imply a long-term treatment with glucocorticosteroids (GCSs), which increases the risk of bone metabolism disorders. The search for new markers of that process is essential. The aims of this study were to assess the concentrations of sclerostin (Scl) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in the plasma of children with INS and compare Scl and FGF-23 to existing markers of bone metabolism, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH). The study involved 70 children, 50 with INS and 20 healthy children. Patients with INS were divided into 4 groups depending on the number of relapses and applied therapy. Significantly higher concentrations of FGF-23 and Scl were found in all patient groups with INS compared to the control group, and increase in the concentrations of examined parameters depending on the number of NS relapses was showed. In patients from the group with numerous relapses, higher concentrations of FGF-23 and Scl in the relapse phase than those in the remission phase were found. We observed positive correlation in these proteins with parathyroid hormone. Positive correlation of FGF-23 and Scl in the examined group was noted. Children having relapsing INS treated with steroids have higher levels of Scl and FGF-23 that can indicate the bone metabolism disorders. The significance of these observations requires further research.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/sangue , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3311-3320, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173646

RESUMO

To optimize genetic testing, it is necessary to establish the spectrum of breast cancer-predisposing mutations in particular ethnic groups. We studied 1,018 women with a strong family history for breast cancer (families with hereditary breast cancer; HBC) from genetically homogenous population of Poland, which is populated by ethnic Slavs, for mutations in 14 cancer susceptibility genes. Additionally, we compared the frequency of candidate pathogenic variants in breast cancer cases and controls. Germline mutations were detected in 512 of 1,018 probands with breast cancer (50.3%), including BRCA1/2 mutations detected in 420 families and non-BRCA mutations seen in 92 families. Thirteen BRCA1/2 founder mutations represented 84% of all BRCA1/2-positive cases. Seven founder mutations of CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL represented 73% of all non-BRCA-positive cases. Odds ratios for hereditary breast cancer were 87.6 for BRCA1, 15.4 for PALB2, 7.2 for CHEK2, 2.8 for NBN and 15.8 for RECQL. Odds ratios for XRCC2, BLM and BARD1 were below 1.3. In summary, we found that 20 founder mutations in six genes (BRCA1/2, CHEK2, PALB2, NBN and RECQL) are responsible for 82% of Polish hereditary breast cancer families. A simple test for these 20 mutations will facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in Poland. It may also facilitate genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in other Slavic populations and women of Slavic descent worldwide.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia
16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142030

RESUMO

In addition to several well-established breast cancer (BC) susceptibility genes, the contribution of other candidate genes to BC risk remains mostly undefined. BARD1 is a potentially predisposing BC gene, however, the rarity of its mutations and an insufficient family/study size have hampered corroboration and estimation of the associated cancer risks. To clarify the role of BARD1 mutations in BC predisposition, a comprehensive case-control association study of a recurring nonsense mutation c.1690C>T (p.Q564X) was performed, comprising ~14,000 unselected BC patients and ~5900 controls from Polish and Belarusian populations. For comparisons, two BARD1 variants of unknown significance were also genotyped. We detected the highest number of BARD1 variants in BC cases in any individual BARD1-specific study, including 38 p.Q564X mutations. The p.Q564X was associated with a moderately increased risk of BC (OR = 2.30, p = 0.04). The estimated risk was even higher for triple-negative BC and bilateral BC. As expected, the two tested variants of unknown significance did not show significant associations with BC risk. Our study provides substantial evidence for the association of a deleterious BARD1 mutation with BC as a low/moderate risk allele. The p.Q564X was shown to be a Central European recurrent mutation with potential relevance for future genetic testing.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0208610, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common adult malignancy accounting for the largest proportion of cancer related deaths. Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element and is a component of several major metabolic pathways playing an important role in many physiological processes. In this study we evaluated the association between Fe concentration in serum, iron metabolism parameters and genetic variaton in 7 genes involved in iron metabolism and anti-oxidative processes with the incidence of lung cancer in Poland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 200 lung cancer patients and 200 matched healthy control subjects. We analyzed serum iron concentration and iron metabolism parameters (TIBC, UIBC, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation), and genotyped seven variants in seven genes: HFE, TFR1, HAMP, TF, SOD2, CAT and GPX1. RESULTS: Lung cancer patients compared to their matched controls had significantly higher mean serum iron level (p = 0.01), ferritin level (p = 0.007) and TIBC (p = 0.006). Analysis revealed that higher concentration of iron and ferritin (IVth quartile) compared to the lower concentration (Ist quartile) was associated with over 2-fold increased lung cancer incidence. We also found that higher transferrin saturation (p = 0.01) and lower TIBC (p<0.01) are associated with better survival of lung cancer patients. The analysis of polymorphisms in iron related genes did not reveal a significant difference between lung cancer patients and controls. However, rs10421768 in HAMP showed a borderline statistically significant correlation with lung cancer risk (OR = 2.83, p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case control study indicate that higher body iron represented by higher Fe and ferritin levels may be associated with lung cancer incidence. Rs10421768 in HAMP may be associated with about 3-times higher lung cancer risk. Higher Fe body content may be associated with better survival of lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
J Med Econ ; 22(5): 403-413, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696307

RESUMO

AIMS: There have been no systematic literature reviews (SLRs) evaluating the identified association between outcomes (e.g. clinical, functional, adherence, societal burden) and Quality-of-Life (QoL) or Healthcare Resource Utilization (HCRU) in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to conduct a SLR of published data on the relationship between outcomes and QoL or HCRU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in Embase and Medline, for articles which reported on the association between outcomes and QoL or HCRU. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify the most relevant articles and studies and extract their data. A summary table was developed to illustrate the strength of associations, based on p-values and correlations. RESULTS: One thousand and two abstracts were retrieved; five duplicates were excluded; 997 abstracts were screened and 95 references were retained for full-text screening. Thrirty-one references were included in the review. The most commonly used questionnaire, which also demonstrated the strongest associations (defined as a p < 0.0001 and/or correlation ±0.70), was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) associated with HCRU and QoL (the SF-36, the Schizophrenia Quality-of-Life questionnaire [S-QOL-18], the Quality-of-Life Scale [QLS]). Other robust correlations included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) with QoL (EQ5D), relapse with HCRU, and remission with QoL (EQ5D). Lastly, functioning (Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire [WORQ] and Personal and Social Performance Scale [PSP]) was found to be associated to QoL (QLS and Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics Questionnaire [SWN]). LIMITATIONS: This study included data from an 11-year period, and other instruments less frequently used may be further investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that the PANSS is the clinical outcome that currently provides the most frequent and systematic associations with HCRU and QoL endpoints in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Recidiva , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(3): 1180-1187, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590007

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish the contribution of four founder alleles of NBN to prostate cancer risk and cancer survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five thousand one hundred eighty-nine men with prostate cancer and 6,152 controls were genotyped for four recurrent variants of NBN (657del5, R215W, I171V, and E185Q). RESULTS: The NBN 657del5 mutation was detected in 74 of 5,189 unselected cases and in 35 of 6,152 controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; p < 0.001). In carriers of 657del5 deletion, the cancer risk was restricted to men with the GG genotype of the E185Q variant of the same gene. Among men with the GG genotype, the OR associated with 657del5 was 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 8.0). Among men with other E185Q genotypes, the OR associated with 657del5 was 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.4) and the interaction was significant (homogeneity p=0.006). After a median follow-up of 109 months, mortality was worse for 657del5 mutation carriers than for non-carriers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6; p=0.001). The adverse effect of 657del5 on survival was only seen on the background of the GG genotype of E185Q (HR, 1.9; p=0.0004). CONCLUSION: The NBN 657del5 mutation predisposes to poor prognosis prostate cancer. The pathogenicity of this mutation, with regards to both prostate cancer risk and survival, is modified by a missense variant of the same gene (E185Q).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
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