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2.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624112

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies report that overweight or obese asthmatic subjects have more severe disease than those of a healthy weight. We postulated accumulation of adipose tissue within the airway wall may occur in overweight patients and contribute to airway pathology. Our aim was to determine the relationship between adipose tissue within the airway wall and body mass index (BMI) in individuals with and without asthma.Transverse airway sections were sampled in a stratified manner from post-mortem lungs of control subjects (n=15) and cases of nonfatal (NFA, n=21) and fatal (FA, n=16) asthma. The relationship between airway adipose tissue, remodelling and inflammation was also assessed. The areas of the airway wall and adipose tissue were estimated by point count and expressed as area per mm of basement membrane perimeter (Pbm). The number of eosinophils and neutrophils were expressed as area densities.BMI ranged from 15 to 45 (kg·m-2) and was greater in NFA (p<0.05). Adipose tissue was identified in the outer wall of large airways (Pbm>6 mm), but was rarely seen in small airways (Pbm<6 mm). Adipose tissue area correlated positively with BMI and airway wall thickness in all groups. Densities of neutrophils correlated with adipose tissue area in control subjects (Pbm>6 mm, p=0.04) and both neutrophils and eosinophils in FA (Pbm>12 mm, p<0.01).These data show that adipose tissue is present within the airway wall and is related to BMI, wall thickness and the number of inflammatory cells. The accumulation of airway adipose tissue in overweight individuals may therefore contribute to airway pathophysiology.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

4.
J R Army Med Corps ; 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) occurs when peripheral tissue is damaged by cold exposure but not to the extent of freezing. Historically, the phenotype of NFCIs sustained was severe, whereas today the spectrum of injury represented in the UK military predominantly comprises subtler injuries. The diagnostic challenge of recognising these injuries, both in the acute and chronic settings, can lead to mismanagement and subsequent morbidity. METHODS: We characterised a recent case series of 100 UK Service Personnel referred with suspected NFCI to a Military UK NFCI clinic. We characterised the acute and chronic phenotype of those diagnosed with NFCI (n=76) and made comparison to those who received alternate diagnoses (n=24), to find discriminatory symptoms and signs. RESULTS: The most common acute symptoms of NFCI were the extremities becoming cold to the point of loss of feeling for more than 30 min (sensitivity 96%, specificity 90%, p<0.001), followed by a period of painful rewarming (sensitivity 81%, specificity 67%, p<0.001). In-field foot/hand inspections took place in half of the NFCI cases. Importantly, remaining in the field and undergoing multiple cycles of cooling and rewarming after an initial NFCI was associated with having double the risk of the NFCI persisting for more than a week. The most common and discriminant chronic symptoms and signs of NFCI were having extremities that behave differently during cold exposures (sensitivity 81%, specificity 75%, p<0.001) and having abnormal pinprick sensation in the affected extremity (sensitivity 88%, specificity 88%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A small collection of symptoms and signs characterise acute and chronic NFCIs and distinguish this vasoneuropathy from NFCI mimics.

5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(3): 309-317, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875247

RESUMO

Rationale: The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduces exacerbations in adults with persistent symptomatic asthma. However, owing to the pleotropic properties of macrolides, unintended bacteriological consequences such as augmented pathogen colonization or dissemination of antibiotic-resistant organisms can occur, calling into question the long-term safety of azithromycin maintenance therapy.Objectives: To assess the effects of azithromycin on the airway microbiota, pathogen abundance, and carriage of antibiotic resistance genes.Methods: 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR were performed to assess the effect of azithromycin on sputum microbiology from participants of the AMAZES (Asthma and Macrolides: The Azithromycin Efficacy and Safety) trial: a 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of thrice-weekly 500 mg oral azithromycin in adults with persistent uncontrolled asthma. Pooled-template shotgun metagenomic sequencing, quantitative PCR, and isolate whole-genome sequencing were performed to assess antibiotic resistance.Measurements and Main Results: Paired sputum samples were available from 61 patients (n = 34 placebo, n = 27 azithromycin). Azithromycin did not affect bacterial load (P = 0.37) but did significantly decrease Faith's phylogenetic diversity (P = 0.026) and Haemophilus influenzae load (P < 0.0001). Azithromycin did not significantly affect levels of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Moraxella catarrhalis. Of the 89 antibiotic resistance genes detected, five macrolide resistance genes and two tetracycline resistance genes were increased significantly.Conclusions: In patients with persistent uncontrolled asthma, azithromycin reduced airway H. influenzae load compared with placebo but did not change total bacterial load. Macrolide resistance increased, reflecting previous studies. These results highlight the need for studies assessing the efficacy of nonantibiotic macrolides as a long-term therapy for patients with persistent uncontrolled asthma.

6.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(3): 599-606, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676870

RESUMO

Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent treatment for asthma in which ablative thermal energy is delivered to specific large airways according to clinical guidelines. Therefore, current practice is effectively "blind," as it is not informed by patient-specific data. The present study seeks to establish whether a patient-specific approach based on structural or functional patient data can improve outcomes and/or reduce the number of procedures required for clinical efficacy. We employed a combination of extensive human lung specimens and novel computational methods to predict bronchial thermoplasty outcomes guided by structural or functional data compared with current clinical practice. Response to bronchial thermoplasty was determined from changes in airway responses to strong bronchoconstrictor simulations and flow heterogeneity after one or three simulated thermoplasty procedures. Structure-guided treatment showed significant improvement over current unguided clinical practice, with a single session of structure-guided treatment producing improvements comparable with three sessions of unguided treatment. In comparison, function-guided treatment did not produce a significant improvement over current practice. Structure-guided targeting of bronchial thermoplasty is a promising avenue for improving therapy and reinforces the need for advanced imaging technologies. The functional imaging-guided approach is predicted to be less effective presently, and we make recommendations on how this approach could be improved. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Bronchial thermoplasty is a recent treatment for asthma in which thermal energy is delivered via bronchoscope to specific airways in an effort to directly target airway smooth muscle. Current practice involves the treatment of a standard set of airways, unguided by patient-specific data. We consider the potential for guided treatments, either by functional or structural data from the lung, and show that treatment guided by structural data has the potential to improve clinical practice.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 51-60.e11, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved diagnostic tools for predicting future exacerbation frequency in asthmatic patients are required. A sputum gene expression signature of 6 biomarkers (6-gene signature [6GS], including Charcot-Leyden crystal galectin [CLC]; carboxypeptidase 3 [CPA3]; deoxyribonuclease 1-like 3 [DNASE1L3]; alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney [ALPL]; CXCR2; and IL1B) predicts inflammatory and treatment response phenotypes in patients with stable asthma. Recently, we demonstrated that azithromycin (AZM) add-on treatment in patients with uncontrolled moderate-to-severe asthma significantly reduced asthma exacerbations (AMAZES clinical trial). OBJECTIVES: We sought to test whether the 6GS predicts future exacerbation and inflammatory phenotypes in a subpopulation of AMAZES and to test the effect of AZM therapy on 6GS expression and prognostic capacity. METHODS: One hundred forty-two patients (73 placebo-treated and 69 AZM-treated patients) had sputum stored for quantitative PCR of 6GS markers at baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) determination were performed on baseline measures, and in an exploratory analysis the predictive value of the 6GS was compared with conventional biomarkers for exacerbation and inflammatory phenotypes. RESULTS: The 6GS significantly predicted all future exacerbation phenotypes tested. Calculated AUCs for the 6GS were significantly greater than AUCs for peripheral blood eosinophil counts, sputum neutrophil counts, and combined sputum eosinophil and neutrophil counts. 6GS AUCs were also numerically but not significantly greater than those for fractional exhaled nitric oxide values and sputum eosinophil counts. AZM treatment altered neither 6GS expression nor the predictive capacity of the 6GS for future exacerbation phenotypes. The 6GS was a significant predictor of airway inflammatory phenotype in this population. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that a sputum gene signature can predict future exacerbation phenotypes of asthma, with the greatest biomarker performance in identifying those who would experience frequent severe exacerbations. AZM therapy did not modify 6GS expression or biomarker performance, suggesting the therapeutic action of AZM is independent of 6GS-related inflammatory pathways.

8.
Sleep Health ; 5(1): 91-100, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether in-home screening for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) promotes healthcare-seeking or lifestyle modification behaviour. We also examined the uptake and adherence rates to different treatment options, the factors affecting adherence, and the impact of treatment on health-related quality of life. DESIGN: Follow-up survey of adults at high risk of OSA. SETTING: Community-based sample. PARTICIPANTS: Adults who completed an in-home sleep study in the 2005-07 or 2010-15 Busselton surveys of adults with apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) > 15 (n = 192). MEASUREMENTS: The follow-up questionnaire was administered in 2016 and assessed healthcare-seeking and lifestyle modification behaviour, treatment utilization and adherence, and health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Of the 159 that recalled receiving a result from their in-home sleep study, 65% (n = 103) sought help and/or made lifestyle changes, 49% (n = 78) discussed the results with their GP, 21% (n = 33) underwent a confirmatory study and 33% (n = 53) started treatment. The most common treatment used was continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (72%) and adherence rates were high (84%). Self-reported snoring, breathing pauses, daytime tiredness and AHI were identified as predictors of whether people displayed healthcare-seeking behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides promising evidence that in-home screening for OSA could contribute towards relieving the associated morbidity, especially if health promotion strategies including education are implemented.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália Ocidental
9.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(11): 5437-5455, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460138

RESUMO

It is challenging to recover local optic axis orientation from samples probed with fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). In addition to the effect of preceding tissue layers, the transmission through fiber and system elements, and imperfect system alignment, need to be compensated. Here, we present a method to retrieve the required correction factors from measurements with depth-multiplexed PS-OCT, which accurately measures the full Jones matrix. The correction considers both retardation and diattenuation and is applied in the wavenumber domain, preserving the axial resolution of the system. The robustness of the method is validated by measuring a birefringence phantom with a misaligned system. Imaging ex-vivo lamb trachea and human bronchus demonstrates the utility of reconstructing the local optic axis orientation to assess smooth muscle, which is expected to be useful in the assessment of airway smooth muscle thickness in asthma, amongst other fiber-based applications.

10.
Sleep ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203079

RESUMO

Clinical Trial Name: Obstructive sleep apnoea and related symptoms study, www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au, ACTRN12612001136897.

12.
Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047178

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel) is an uncommon, progressive retinal disease usually affecting both eyes. Currently there is no know treatment however with similar comorbidities to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) there is plausibility of an association which may accelerate disease progression. BACKGROUND: To identify an association between MacTel and OSA and whether OSA may result in increased disease progression. DESIGN: Matched case-control study and retrospective cohort analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-seven patients with MacTel and 165 matched controls from the Busselton Health Study. METHODS: MacTel participants were matched based on age, gender and body mass index (BMI) (and where possible hypertension and diabetes) on a 3:1 ratio with controls from the Busselton Health Study. Participants undertook a sleep questionnaire using a previously validated questionnaire. In a subset sleep apnoea severity was objectively measured via overnight ambulatory polygraphy (30 cases and 83 matched controls; ApneaLink device; ResMed, Sydney, Australia). In a retrospective analysis of the suspected MacTel cases we assessed whether major markers of OSA severity and MacTel progression were associated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Apnoea Hypopnea Index along with key markers of MacTel progression. RESULTS: MacTel patients did not have a higher risk of sleep apnoea when compared to age, sex and BMI -matched controls (mean ± SD Apnoea hypopnea index [AHI] cases 9.6 ± 14.7 vs. controls 9.7 ± 10.8, P = 0.95). No markers of disease progression in the cases were associated with any marker of OSA severity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Sleep apnoea does not increase the risk or accelerate the progression of MacTel.

13.
Respirology ; 23(10): 881-882, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048026
14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(4): 1090-1096, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024335

RESUMO

In asthma, it is unclear if the airway smooth muscle cells proliferate more or are increased at the onset of asthma and remain stable. This study aimed to compare smooth muscle cell proliferation in individuals with and without asthma and correlate proliferation rates with cell size and number and with granulocytic airway inflammation. Postmortem airway sections were labeled with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and percent positive muscle cells calculated. On the same sections, smooth muscle cell size and number and the number of eosinophils and neutrophils were estimated and compared in cases of nonfatal ( n = 15) and fatal ( n = 15) asthma and control subjects ( n = 15). The %PCNA+ muscle cells was not significantly different in fatal (29.4 ± 7.7%, mean ± SD), nonfatal asthma (28.6 ± 8.3%), or control subjects (24.6 ± 6.7%) and not related to mean muscle cell size ( r = 0.09), number ( r = 0.36), thickness of the muscle layer ( r = 0.05), or eosinophil numbers ( r = 0.04) in the asthma cases. These data support the hypothesis that in asthma the increased thickness of the smooth muscle layer may be present before or at the onset of asthma and independent of concurrent granulocytic inflammation or exacerbation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There is debate regarding the origins of the increased airway smooth muscle in asthma. It may be independent of inflammation or arise as a proliferative response to inflammation. The present study found no increase in the proportion of proliferating smooth muscle cells in asthma and no relation of proliferation to numbers of airway smooth muscle cells or inflammation. These results support a stable increase in smooth muscle in asthma that is independent of airway inflammation.

15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(9): 1057-1066, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894209

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Childhood risk factors for long-term lung health often coexist and their specific patterns may affect subsequent lung function differently. OBJECTIVES: To identify childhood risk factor profiles and their influence on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in middle age, and potential pathways. METHODS: Profiles of 11 childhood respiratory risk factors, documented at age 7, were identified in 8,352 participants from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study using latent class analysis. We investigated associations between risk profiles and post-bronchodilator lung function and COPD at age 53, mediation by childhood lung function and adult asthma, and interaction with personal smoking. RESULTS: Six risk profiles were identified: 1) unexposed or least exposed (49%); 2) parental smoking (21.5%); 3) allergy (10%); 4) frequent asthma, bronchitis (8.7%); 5) infrequent asthma, bronchitis (8.3%); and 6) frequent asthma, bronchitis, allergy (2.6%). Profile 6 was most strongly associated with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (-261; 95% confidence interval, -373 to -148 ml); lower FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) (-3.4; -4.8 to -1.9%) and increased COPD risk (odds ratio, 4.9; 2.1 to 11.0) at age 53. The effect of profile 6 on COPD was largely mediated by adult active asthma (62.5%) and reduced childhood lung function (26.5%). Profiles 2 and 4 had smaller adverse effects than profile 6. Notably, the effects of profiles 2 and 6 were synergistically stronger for smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Profiles of childhood respiratory risk factors predict middle-age lung function levels and COPD risk. Specifically, children with frequent asthma attacks and allergies, especially if they also become adult smokers, are the most vulnerable group. Targeting active asthma in adulthood (i.e., a dominant mediator) and smoking (i.e., an effect modifier) may block causal pathways and lessen the effect of such established early-life exposures.

16.
Respirology ; 23(12): 1138-1145, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The pathology of asthma is characterized by airway inflammation (granulocytic (GA) or paucigranulocytic (PGA)) and remodelling of airway structures. However, the relationship between inflammatory phenotypes and remodelling is unclear. We hypothesized that some features of airway remodelling are dependent on granulocytic airway inflammation while others are not. METHODS: Post-mortem airway sections from control subjects (n = 48) and cases of asthma with (n = 51) or without (n = 29) granulocytic inflammation in the inner airway wall were studied. The thickness of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer, basement membrane and inner and outer airway walls, the size and number of ASM cells, the volume fraction of extracellular matrix within the ASM layer, ASM shortening and luminal mucus were estimated. Airway dimensions were compared between the three subject groups. RESULTS: In cases of PGA, only the thickness of the ASM layer and basement membrane was increased compared with control subjects. In cases of GA, not only the ASM and basement membrane were increased in thickness, but there was also increased inner and outer airway wall thickness and increased narrowing of the airway lumen due to ASM shortening and mucus obstruction, compared with control subjects. Granulocytic inflammation was observed more often in cases of fatal asthma. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that inner and outer wall thickening coexists with inflammation, whereas thickening of the ASM layer and basement membrane may be present even in the absence of inflammation. Remodelling of the ASM layer and basement membrane may therefore be less susceptible to anti-inflammatory therapy.

17.
Genome Announc ; 6(25)2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930028

RESUMO

Banisteriopsis caapi is a native South American vine that has been used for centuries by certain tribes along the Amazon basin to treat illnesses. In this study, we present the fully annotated chloroplast genome of Banisteriopsis caapi.

18.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 59(3): 355-362, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668295

RESUMO

Bronchial thermoplasty is a relatively new but seemingly effective treatment in subjects with asthma who do not respond to conventional therapy. Although the favored mechanism is ablation of the airway smooth muscle layer, because bronchial thermoplasty treats only a small number of central airways, there is ongoing debate regarding its precise method of action. Our aim in the present study was to elucidate the underlying method of action behind bronchial thermoplasty. We employed a combination of extensive human lung specimens and novel computational methods. Whole left lungs were acquired from the Prairie Provinces Fatal Asthma Study. Subjects were classified as control (n = 31), nonfatal asthma (n = 32), or fatal asthma (n = 25). Simulated lungs for each group were constructed stochastically, and flow distributions and functional indicators (e.g., resistance) were quantified both before and after a 75% reduction in airway smooth muscle in the "thermoplasty-treated" airways. Bronchial thermoplasty triggered global redistribution of clustered flow patterns wherein structural changes to the treated central airways led to a reopening cascade in the small airways and significant improvement in lung function via reduced spatial heterogeneity of flow patterns. This mechanism accounted for progressively greater efficacy of thermoplasty with both severity of asthma and degree of muscle activation, broadly consistent with existing clinical findings. We report a probable mechanism of action for bronchial thermoplasty: alteration of lung-wide flow patterns in response to structural alteration of the treated central airways. This insight could lead to improved therapy via patient-specific, tailored versions of the treatment-as well as to implications for more conventional asthma therapies.

19.
Nutrients ; 10(4)2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642414

RESUMO

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder that predisposes an individual to Cardiovascular Diseases and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Proteomics and bioinformatics have proven to be an effective tool to study complex diseases and mechanisms of action of nutrients. We previously showed that substitution of the majority of carbohydrate in a high fat diet by purple potatoes (PP) or purple carrots (PC) improved insulin sensitivity and hypertension in an animal model of MetS (obese Zucker rats) compared to a control sucrose-rich diet. In the current study, we used TMT 10plex mass tag combined with LC-MS/MS technique to study proteomic modulation in the liver (n = 3 samples/diet) and adipose tissue (n = 3 samples/diet) of high fat diet-fed rats with or without substituting sucrose for purple vegetables, followed by functional enrichment analysis, in an attempt to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic changes seen with purple vegetable feeding. Protein folding, lipid metabolism and cholesterol efflux were identified as the main modulated biological themes in adipose tissue, whereas lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress were the main modulated themes in liver. We propose that enhanced protein folding, increased cholesterol efflux and higher free fatty acid (FFA) re-esterification are mechanisms by which PP and PC positively modulate MetS pathologies in adipose tissue, whereas, decreased de novo lipogenesis, oxidative stress and FFA uptake, are responsible for the beneficial effects in liver. In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the reported metabolic health benefits of purple carrots and potatoes and validate that these vegetables are good choices to replace other simple carbohydrate sources for better metabolic health.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Verduras/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Cor , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esterificação , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Dobramento de Proteína , Ratos Zucker , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(7): 535-544, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time. We related the trajectories identified to childhood factors and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using logistic regression, and estimated population-attributable fractions of COPD. FINDINGS: Of the 8583 participants in the original cohort, 2438 had at least two waves of lung function data at age 7 years and 53 years and comprised the study population. We identified six trajectories: early below average, accelerated decline (97 [4%] participants); persistently low (136 [6%] participants); early low, accelerated growth, normal decline (196 [8%] participants); persistently high (293 [12%] participants); below average (772 [32%] participants); and average (944 [39%] participants). The three trajectories early below average, accelerated decline; persistently low; and below average had increased risk of COPD at age 53 years compared with the average group (early below average, accelerated decline: odds ratio 35·0, 95% CI 19·5-64·0; persistently low: 9·5, 4·5-20·6; and below average: 3·7, 1·9-6·9). Early-life predictors of the three trajectories included childhood asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis, eczema, parental asthma, and maternal smoking. Personal smoking and active adult asthma increased the impact of maternal smoking and childhood asthma, respectively, on the early below average, accelerated decline trajectory. INTERPRETATION: We identified six potential FEV1 trajectories, two of which were novel. Three trajectories contributed 75% of COPD burden and were associated with modifiable early-life exposures whose impact was aggravated by adult factors. We postulate that reducing maternal smoking, encouraging immunisation, and avoiding personal smoking, especially in those with smoking parents or low childhood lung function, might minimise COPD risk. Clinicians and patients with asthma should be made aware of the potential long-term implications of non-optimal asthma control for lung function trajectory throughout life, and the role and benefit of optimal asthma control on improving lung function should be investigated in future intervention trials. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; European Union's Horizon 2020; The University of Melbourne; Clifford Craig Medical Research Trust of Tasmania; The Victorian, Queensland & Tasmanian Asthma Foundations; The Royal Hobart Hospital; Helen MacPherson Smith Trust; and GlaxoSmithKline.

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