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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with homozygosity for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele are in the highest risk category for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). However, some individuals in this category do not develop LOAD beyond the age of 75 years, despite being at elevated genetic risk. These "resilient" individuals may carry protective genetic factors. METHODS: This study aimed to systematically review any previous studies that involved resilient APOE ε4 homozygotes and to identify possible modifying or protective genetic factors. RESULTS: Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria and reported genetic factors contributing to reduced risk. We found that only two single nucleotide polymorphisms, CASP7 rs10553596 and SERPINA3 rs4934-A/A, had strong evidence. DISCUSSION: We found a paucity of studies adequately designed to discover protective genetic factors against LOAD. Many studies combined APOE ε4 homozygotes and heterozygotes together because of small sample sizes and used control populations too young to be clearly defined as controls for LOAD.

2.
Value Health ; 22(8): 854-862, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a validated model for evaluating the real-world effectiveness of long-term clinical management strategies for women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variants. METHODS: A microsimulation model was developed that included a BRCA-specific natural history for breast and ovarian cancer, a clinical framework for carrier follow-up, and cancer risk management strategies (breast screening, risk-reducing mastectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy). Adherence rates and outcomes for breast screening and risk-reducing surgery were obtained from BRCA carriers seen through a familial cancer service in Melbourne, Australia. The model was assessed for internal and external validity. The model was used to compare women perfectly adhering to screening recommendations versus actual adherence of the clinical cohort. RESULTS: The model accurately predicted cancer incidence, pathology, and mortality. Using actual adherence for breast screening resulted in additional breast cancer deaths (per 1000 women: BRCA1, 2.7; BRCA2, 1.6) compared with perfect screening adherence. This decreased average life expectancy by 0.30 life-years for BRCA1 and 0.07 life-years for BRCA2. When carriers had access to risk-reducing mastectomy, the benefit from improved screening adherence was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The developed model is a good descriptor of BRCA carriers' lifetime trajectory and its modification by use of risk management strategies alone or in combination. Evaluations of breast screening in BRCA carriers may overestimate the benefits of screening programs unless adherence is considered. By incorporating real-world clinical practice and patient behavior, this model can assist in developing clinical services and improving clinical outcomes for carriers.

3.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 21-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296311

RESUMO

TP53 pathogenic germline variation is associated with the multi-cancer predisposition Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Next-generation sequencing and multigene panel testing are highlighting variability in the clinical presentation of patients with TP53 positive results. We aimed to investigate if the p53 variants considered as major hotspots at both germline and somatic levels (p.Arg175His, p.Gly245Asp, p.Gly245Ser, p.Arg248Gln, p.Arg248Trp, p.Arg273Cys, p.Arg273His, and p.Arg282Trp) were associated with poorer prognostic features compared to other pathogenic missense variants in the DNA-binding domain. To do so, we assessed clinical features from 1025 carriers of germline TP53 pathogenic variants (749 probands and 276 relatives) from three independent datasets (IARC TP53 Database, Ambry Single Gene Testing, and Ambry Multigene Panel Testing). We observed that, compared to carriers of non-hotspot germline variants, individuals that carried a hotspot germline variant were more likely to present with a Classic LFS phenotype, earlier age of first breast cancer onset, and shorter time to diagnosis to any cancer. Further studies with larger datasets addressing differences in cancer phenotypes by genotype are thus needed to replicate our findings and consider variant effect and position, towards future personalized clinical management of pathogenic variant carriers.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2815-2822, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relative cost-effectiveness of cascade genetic testing in asymptomatic relatives of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) compared with periodical clinical surveillance. METHODS: A decision-analytic model, combining a decision tree and a Markov model, was used to determine the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for the two strategies. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the robustness of findings and to explore decision uncertainty. RESULTS: The incremental cost per additional QALY of cascade genetic testing prior to periodical clinical surveillance of first-degree relatives compared with periodical clinical surveillance alone was estimated at approximately AUD $6100. At established thresholds of cost-effectiveness, there is a 90% probability that cascade genetic testing is cost-effective. Extensive sensitivity analyses, including the addition of second-degree relatives, did not alter the conclusions drawn from the main analysis. CONCLUSION: Using cascade genetic testing to guide clinical surveillance of asymptomatic relatives of patients with DCM is very likely to be cost-effective. As the DCM pathogenic variant detection rate rises and new evidence for personalized treatment of at-risk individuals becomes available, the cost-effectiveness of cascade testing will further increase.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-fuction variants in RAD51C are associated with familial ovarian cancer, but its role in hereditary breast cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study was to couple breast tumor sequencing with case/control data to clarify the contribution of RAD51C to hereditary breast cancer. METHODS: RAD51C was sequenced in 3080 breast cancer index cases that were negative in BRCA1/2 clinical tests and 4840 population-matched cancer-free controls. Pedigree and pathology data were analysed. Nine breast cancers and one ovarian cancer from RAD51C variant carriers were sequenced to identify bi-alleic inactivation of RAD51C, copy number variation, mutational signatures and the spectrum of somatic mutations in breast cancer driver genes . The promoter of RAD51C was analysed for DNA methylation. RESULTS: A statistically significant excess of loss of function variants were identified in 3080 cases (0.4%) compared with two among 4840 controls (0.04%; odds ratio=8.67, 95% confidence interval=1.89 to 80.52, P<.001) with over half of the carriers having no personal or family history of ovarian cancer. In addition, the association was highly statistically significant among cases with ER negative (P<.001) or triple-negative cancer (P<.001), but not in ER positive cases. Tumor sequencing from carriers confirmed bi-allelic inactivation in all the triple-negative cases and was associated with high HRD scores and mutational signature 3 indicating homologous recombination repair deficiency. CONCLUSION: This study provide evidence that germline loss-of-function variants of RAD51C are associated with hereditary breast cancer, particular triple-negative type. RAD51C-null breast cancers possess similar genomic and clinical features to BRCA1-null cancers and may also be vulnerable to DNA double-strand break inducing chemotherapies and PARP inhibitors.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1186-1196, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962500

RESUMO

Systemic healthcare issues and geographical challenges restrict women's access to BRCA1/2 testing to inform the use of tailored treatments for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Consequently, BRCA1/2 testing in this population is low and improved testing pathways are urgently needed. This study aimed to determine the acceptability and feasibility of telephone genetic counselling (TGC) to facilitate treatment-focused BRCA1/2 testing in Australia for women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Women who received TGC were invited to complete a survey examining their experiences of the service. A cost analysis was conducted to compare the service to standard, in-person genetic counselling. One hundred and seven women responded (48% response rate); 8 had a BRCA1/2 variant affecting function. Geographical barriers prevented women from accessing genetic services in the past. All participants had a positive attitude towards testing, and regret following testing was minimal. While the impact of testing was greater for those with a positive test result, overall, genetic testing did not put the additional psychosocial burden on the participants. Participant's evaluations of the telephone interactions with the genetic counsellors were highly satisfactory. The service was also found to be cost-effective. This model of telephone genetic counselling was an acceptable and effective way to reduce barriers to BRCA1/2 testing for women with ovarian cancer.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2162-2163, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944416

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the affiliation details for Lei Zhang were given as Monash University. While working on the Article Dr. Zhang was also affiliated with the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, PR China. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
J Genet Couns ; 28(4): 750-759, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969465

RESUMO

The practice of recontacting patients to provide new health information is becoming increasingly common in clinical genetics, despite the limited research to evidence the patient experience. We explored how men with Lynch Syndrome (LS) understand and experience being recontacted about a potential increased risk of prostate cancer. Sixteen men with LS (Meanage 51 years) were recruited from an Australian screening study to undergo a semi-structured interview. A modified grounded theory approach was used to guide data collection and thematic analysis. Qualitative coding was shared by the research team to triangulate analysis. The practice of recontact was viewed by participants as acceptable and was associated with minimal emotional distress. The majority of men understood that they may be above population risk of prostate cancer, although evidence was still emerging. Men reported high engagement with personal and familial health, including regular screening practices and familial risk communication. Findings suggest that men's carrier status and beliefs about the actionability of the new cancer risk information influence their response to recontact. Recontact practices that include the offer of risk management strategies may lead to improved patient outcomes (e.g., reduced cancer worry and increased health engagement), if perceived as valuable by recipients.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(6): 788-800, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840781

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the TP53 gene cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a condition that predisposes individuals to a wide range of cancer types. Identification of individuals carrying a TP53 pathogenic variant is linked to clinical management decisions, such as the avoidance of radiotherapy and use of high-intensity screening programs. The aim of this study was to develop an evidence-based quantitative model that integrates independent in silico data (Align-GVGD and BayesDel) and somatic to germline ratio (SGR), to assign pathogenicity to every possible missense variant in the TP53 gene. To do this, a likelihood ratio for pathogenicity (LR) was derived from each component calibrated using reference sets of assumed pathogenic and benign missense variants. A posterior probability of pathogenicity was generated by combining LRs, and algorithm outputs were validated using different approaches. A total of 730 TP53 missense variants could be assigned to a clinically interpretable class. The outputs of the model correlated well with existing clinical information, functional data, and ClinVar classifications. In conclusion, these quantitative outputs provide the basis for individualized assessment of cancer risk useful for clinical interpretation. In addition, we propose the value of the novel SGR approach for use within the ACMG/AMP guidelines for variant classification.

10.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 388-397, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776170

RESUMO

Internationally, the practice of offering additional findings (AFs) when undertaking a clinically indicated genomic test differs. In the USA, the recommendation is to include analysis for AFs alongside diagnostic analysis, unless a patient opts-out, whereas European and Canadian guidelines recommend opt-in models. These guidelines all consider the offer of AFs as an activity concurrent with the offer of diagnostic testing. This paper describes a novel two-step model for managing AFs within the healthcare system in Victoria, Australia and presents the study protocol for its evaluation. Adults who have received results of diagnostic whole exome sequencing undertaken within the healthcare system are invited to attend a genetic counseling appointment to consider reanalysis of their stored genomic data for AFs. The evaluation protocol addresses uptake, decision-making, understanding, counseling challenges, and explores preferences for future models of care. Recruitment commenced in November 2017 and will cease when 200 participants have been approached. When the study is concluded, the evaluation results will contribute to the evidence base guiding approaches to counseling and models of care for AFs.

11.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 1958-1968, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To consider the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering preventive population genomic screening to all young adults in a single-payer health-care system. METHODS: We modeled screening of 2,688,192 individuals, all adults aged 18-25 years in Australia, for pathogenic variants in BRCA1/BRCA2/MLH1/MSH2 genes, and carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and fragile X syndrome (FXS), at 71% testing uptake using per-test costs ranging from AUD$200 to $1200 (~USD$140 to $850). Investment costs included genetic counseling, surveillance, and interventions (reimbursed only) for at-risk individuals/couples. Cost-effectiveness was defined below AUD$50,000/DALY (disability-adjusted life year) prevented, using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), compared with current targeted testing. Outcomes were cancer incidence/mortality, disease cases, and treatment costs reduced. RESULTS: Population screening would reduce variant-attributable cancers by 28.8%, cancer deaths by 31.2%, and CF/SMA/FXS cases by 24.8%, compared with targeted testing. Assuming AUD$400 per test, investment required would be between 4 and 5 times higher than current expenditure. However, screening would lead to substantial savings in medical costs and DALYs prevented, at a highly cost-effective ICER of AUD$4038/DALY. At AUD$200 per test, screening would approach cost-saving for the health system (ICER = AUD$22/DALY). CONCLUSION: Preventive genomic screening in early adulthood would be highly cost-effective in a single-payer health-care system, but ethical issues must be considered.

13.
J Pathol ; 248(2): 243-252, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746706

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) diagnosed after a negative mammogram but prior to the next screening episode is termed an 'interval BC' (IBC). Understanding the molecular differences between IBC and screen-detected BCs (SDBC) could improve mammographic screening and management options. Therefore, we assessed both germline and somatic genomic aberrations in a prospective cohort. Utilising the Lifepool cohort of >54 000 women attending mammographic screening programs, 930 BC cases with screening status were identified (726 SDBC and 204 IBC). Clinico-pathological and family history information were recorded. Germline and tumour DNA were collected where available and sequenced for BC predisposition and driver gene mutations. Compared to SDBC, IBCs were significantly associated with a younger age at diagnosis and tumour characteristics associated with worse prognosis. Germline DNA assessment of BC cases that developed post-enrolment (276 SDBCs and 77 IBCs) for pathogenic mutations in 12 hereditary BC predisposition genes identified 8 carriers (2.27%). The germline mutation frequency was higher in IBC versus SDBC, although not statistically significant (3.90% versus 1.81%, p = 0.174). Comparing somatic genetic features of IBC and SDBC matched for grade, histological subtype and hormone receptor revealed no significant differences, with the exception of higher homologous recombination deficiency scores in IBC, and copy number changes on chromosome Xq in triple negative SDBCs. Our data demonstrates that while IBCs are clinically more aggressive than SDBC, when matched for confounding clinico-pathological features they do not represent a unique molecular class of invasive BC, but could be a consequence of timing of tumour initiation and mammographic screening. Copyright © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380018

RESUMO

Aims: Unexplained sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be attributable to cardiogenetic disease. Presence or absence of autopsy anomalies detected following premature sudden death direct appropriate clinical evaluation of at-risk relatives towards inherited cardiomyopathies or primary arrhythmia syndromes, respectively. We investigated the relevance of non-diagnostic pathological abnormalities of indeterminate causality (uncertain) such as myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, or inflammatory infiltrates to SCD. Methods and results: At-risk relatives of unexplained SCD cases aged 1-64 years without prior cardiac disease (n = 98) with either normal and negative (40%, true sudden arrhythmic death syndrome; SADS) or isolated non-diagnostic (60%, uncertain sudden unexplained death; SUD) cardiac histological autopsy findings at a central forensic pathology unit were referred to the regional unexplained SCD clinic for clinical cardiac phenotyping. Uncertain SUD were older than true SADS cases (31.8 years vs. 21.1 years, P < 0.001). A cardiogenetic diagnosis was established in 24 families (24.5%) following investigation of 346 referred relatives. The proportions of uncertain SUD and true SADS explained by familial cardiogenetic diagnoses were similar (20% vs. 31%, P = 0.34, respectively), with primary arrhythmia syndromes predominating. Unexplained SCD cases were more likely than matched non-cardiac premature death controls to demonstrate at least one uncertain autopsy finding (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Primary arrhythmia syndromes predominate as familial cardiogenetic diagnoses amongst both uncertain SUD and true SADS cases. Non-diagnostic or uncertain histological findings associate with SUD, though cannot be attributed a causative status. At-risk relatives of uncertain SUD cases should be evaluated for phenotypic evidence of both ion channel disorders and cardiomyopathies.

15.
Intern Med J ; 48(10): 1269-1272, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288903

RESUMO

Federal funding for germline genetic testing in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) was recently introduced. Germline testing for HBOC under Medicare Benefits Schedule items 73296/73297 can be requested by any specialist, whereas the previous state- and territory-funded testing was limited to those operating within a familial cancer service. The impact of this decentralisation of HBOC testing on health and economic outcomes is uncertain, primarily as it has potential to significantly disrupt the clinical framework that generated the evidence used to justify clinical implementation of the Medicare Benefits Schedules.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1764-1773, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240537

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline variants in TP53 predispose carriers to the multi-cancer Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Widespread multigene panel testing is identifying TP53 pathogenic variants in breast cancer patients outside the strict clinical criteria recommended for LFS testing. We aimed to assess frequency and clinical implications of TP53 pathogenic variants in breast cancer cohorts ascertained outside LFS. Classification of TP53 germline variants reported in 59 breast cancer studies, and publicly available population control sets was reviewed and identified evidence for misclassification of variants. TP53 pathogenic variant frequency was determined for: breast cancer studies grouped by ascertainment characteristics; breast cancer cohorts undergoing panel testing; and population controls. Early age of breast cancer onset, regardless of family history or BRCA1/BRCA2 previous testing, had the highest pick-up rate for TP53 carriers. Patients at risk of hereditary breast cancer unselected for features of LFS carried TP53 pathogenic variants at a frequency comparable to that of other non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposing genes, and ∼threefold more than reported in population controls. These results have implications for the implementation of TP53 testing in broader clinical settings, and suggest urgent need to investigate cancer risks associated with TP53 pathogenic variants in individuals outside the LFS spectrum.

17.
Fam Cancer ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251170

RESUMO

The inclusion of polygenic risk scores in breast cancer risk prediction models provides a more personalised and accurate prediction of breast cancer risk for women with and without breast cancer, who would otherwise receive negative results from traditional testing of moderate- and high-risk genes. This study aimed to develop, and pilot test a leaflet with a sample of women participating in a large prospective cohort study. The leaflet aimed to provide information about polygenic risk to assist women to decide whether or not to learn results from genomic testing for common risk variants associated with breast cancer risk. A prototype of the leaflet was developed based on published literature and with the expertise from a multidisciplinary team. The acceptability of the leaflet was assessed by self-report questionnaire among 29 women participating in the prospective cohort study. More than 80% participants stated that the leaflet was clear, informative and easy to understand and increased their understanding of polygenic risk information. While low to moderate levels of distress/worry were reported around implications of the test results for the next generation, 71% felt reassured and agreed that the information provided in the leaflet had helped them cope. Pilot-test results indicate the leaflet is acceptable to the participants and the revised leaflet can be used as an information tool for women undergoing genomic testing. This educational leaflet will become a useful information source to meet the information needs of women undergoing genomic testing.

18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The identification of carriers of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) gene variants through family cancer history alone is suboptimal, and most population-based genetic testing studies have been limited to founder mutations in high-risk populations. Here, we determine the clinical utility of identifying actionable variants in a healthy cohort of women. METHODS: Germline DNA from a subset of healthy Australian women participating in the lifepool project was screened using an 11-gene custom sequencing panel. Women with clinically actionable results were invited to attend a familial cancer clinic (FCC) for post-test genetic counseling and confirmatory testing. Outcomes measured included the prevalence of pathogenic variants, and the uptake rate of genetic counseling, risk reduction surgery, and cascade testing. RESULTS: Thirty-eight of 5908 women (0.64%) carried a clinically actionable pathogenic variant. Forty-two percent of pathogenic variant carriers did not have a first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer and 89% pursued referral to an FCC. Forty-six percent (6/13) of eligible women pursued risk reduction surgery, and the uptake rate of cascade testing averaged 3.3 family members per index case. CONCLUSION: Within our cohort, HBOC genetic testing was well accepted, and the majority of high-risk gene carriers identified would not meet eligibility criteria for genetic testing based on their existing family history.

20.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a potentially life-threatening genetic cardiomyopathy with a spectrum of clinical presentations including sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: Clinical and genetic data of 44 probands referred to a cardiac genetics clinic (2007-2017) who met 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) for ARVC diagnosis were included. RESULTS: Thirty-three (75%) male, 20 (45%) were referred by the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine. Presentation that lead to diagnosis included ARVC-related SCD (n=19), SCD due to alternate cause of death (n=1), aborted cardiac arrest (n=6), stable symptomatic ventricular tachycardia (n=14), palpitations (n=3) and presyncope (n=1). Left ventricular involvement (50%) was more common in the SCD subgroup (84% vs 21%, p<0.001). Genetic testing (n=39) revealed a pathogenic mutation in 16 (commonest: plakophillin-2 (n=9)), a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in 15, with no abnormality in eight. In the SCD subgroup, median age at death was 44.7 years and 74% were male. Genetic testing (n=16) in this subgroup revealed a pathogenic mutation in six patients (commonest: desmoplakin (n=4)). Comparison of the two commonest mutations (PKP2 and desmoplakin [DSP]) showed DSP mutation was more frequently associated with SCD (p<0.01) and LV involvement (p<0.001). Screening of 117 relatives has lead to ARVC diagnosis in 29 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has a heterogeneous and often severe clinical presentation. Sudden cardiac death and aborted cardiac arrest (ACA) are common, demonstrating electrical abnormalities appear early in the ARVC phenotype. Left ventricular involvement was common and may reflect a worse prognosis. Genetic testing is essential in family screening and may be helpful in risk assessment. Desmoplakin mutation is associated with LV involvement and may be indicative of worse prognosis and increased risk of SCD. Genetic screening of proband family members in a specialised multidisciplinary clinic is essential in early diagnosis of affected family members.

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