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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 149, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lassa fever (LF) is a zoonotic infectious disease of public concern in Nigeria. The infection dynamics of the disease is not well elucidated in Nigeria. This study was carried out to describe the pattern of infection, case fatality rate and spread of lassa virus (LASV) from 2017 to 2020. METHODS: Weekly epidemiological data on LF from December, 2016 to September, 2020 were obtained from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. The number of confirmed cases and deaths were computed according to months and states. Descriptive statistics was performed and case fatality rate was calculated. Distribution and spread maps of LF over the four years period was performed on ArcMap 10.7. RESULTS: A total of 2787 confirmed cases and 516 deaths were reported in Nigeria from December, 2016 to September, 2020. Increase in number of cases and deaths were observed with 298, 528, 796 and 1165 confirmed cases and 79, 125, 158 and 158 deaths in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. Over 60% of the cases were reported in two states, Edo and Ondo states. The LF cases spread from 19 states in 2017 to 32 states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in 2020. Ondo state (25.39%) had the highest of deaths rate from LF over the four years. Case fatality rate (CFR) of LF was highest in 2017 (26.5%) with CFR of 23.7, 19.6 and 13.4% in 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. The peak of infection was in the month of February for the four years. Infections increases at the onset of dry season in November and decline till April when the wet season sets-in. CONCLUSION: There is an annual increase in the number of LASV infection across the states in Nigeria. There is need to heighten control strategies through the use of integrated approach, ranging from vector control, health education and early diagnosis.

2.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ClinGen provides gene-specific guidance for interpretation of sequence variants in MYH7. We assessed laboratory and clinical impact of reclassification by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) and ClinGen recommendations in 43 MYH7 variants reported by a diagnostic laboratory between 2013 and 2017. METHODS: Fifty-two proband reports containing MYH7 variants were reinterpreted by original ACMG-AMP and ClinGen guidelines. Evidence items were compared across schemes and reasons for classification differences recorded. Laboratory impact was assessed by number of recommended report reissues, and reclassifications coded as clinically "actionable" or "equivalent." Available pedigrees were reviewed to describe projected cascade impact. RESULTS: ClinGen produced a higher proportion of diagnostic classifications (65% of variants) compared with ACMG-AMP (54%) and fewer variants of uncertain significance (30% versus 42%). ClinGen classification resulted in actionable changes in 18% of variants with equal upgrades and downgrades from original report. ClinGen's revisions to PM1 and PS4 contributed to classification differences in 21% and 19% of variants respectively. Each classification change per proband report impacted, on average, 3.1 cascade reports with a further 6.3 first- and second-degree relatives potentially available for genotyping per family. CONCLUSION: ClinGen's gene-specific criteria provide expert-informed guidance for interpretation of MYH7 sequence variants. Periodic re-evaluation improves diagnostic confidence and should be considered by clinical and laboratory teams.

3.
Cytopathology ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606303

RESUMO

Brunner's gland hamartomas (BGHs) are extremely rare benign duodenal lesions with a reported incidence of less than 0.01% 1 . BGHs may manifest as sessile or pedunculated polypoid or nodular growth and are most often found in the duodenal bulb. Clinically most BGHs are asymptomatic and incidentally detected during upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. However, when BGHs become larger they may cause gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction or hemorrhage requiring endoscopic or surgical resection.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583022

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders of glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis that cause multi-system diseases. Individuals with ALG3-CDG frequently exhibit severe neurological involvement (epilepsy, microcephaly, hypotonia), ocular anomalies, dysmorphic features, skeletal anomalies and feeding difficulties. We present ten unreported individuals diagnosed with ALG3-CDG based on molecular and biochemical testing with eleven novel variants in ALG3, bringing the total to 40 reported individuals. In addition to the typical multisystem disease seen in ALG3-CDG, we expand the symptomatology of ALG3-CDG to now include endocrine abnormalities, neural tube defects, mild aortic root dilatation, immunodeficiency and renal anomalies. N-glycan analyses of these individuals showed combined deficiencies of hybrid glycans and glycan extension beyond Man5 GlcNAc2 consistent with their truncated lipid-linked precursor oligosaccharides. This spectrum of N-glycan changes is unique to ALG3-CDG. These expanded features of ALG3-CDG facilitates diagnosis and suggests that optimal management should include baseline endocrine, renal, cardiac and immunological evaluation at the time of diagnosis and with ongoing monitoring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Genet Couns ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470033

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are personalized assessments of disease risk based on the cumulative effect of common low-risk genetic variants. PRS have been shown to accurately predict women's breast cancer risk and are likely to be incorporated into personalized breast cancer risk management programs. However, there are few studies investigating the individual impact of receiving a breast cancer PRS. Existing studies have not demonstrated significant changes in perceived risk or risk management behaviors after receipt of polygenic risk information. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how women with a family history of breast cancer construct breast cancer risk perceptions after receipt of a breast cancer PRS. Unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer who had not previously received genetic counseling regarding their breast cancer risk were invited to participate in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women who attended a familial cancer clinic in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. Data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach. Women's lived experience played a significant role in the construction and maintenance of their breast cancer risk perception. Women's pre-existing risk perceptions were informed by their family history and their knowledge that breast cancer is a multifactorial disease. Knowing that breast cancer is a multifactorial disease enabled most women to integrate genetic information with their pre-existing notions of risk. Women reported that the information they received was consistent with their existing notions of personal risk and screening advice. Therefore, the PRS did not lead to a change in perceived risk or risk management behaviors for most women. The results of this study provide insight into how polygenic risk information is integrated with pre-existing notions of risk, which will inform its implementation into clinical practice.

7.
J Neurol Sci ; 420: 117260, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310205

RESUMO

Currently there is no secured ongoing funding in Australia for next generation sequencing (NGS) such as exome sequencing (ES) for adult neurological disorders. Studies have focused on paediatric populations in research or highly specialised settings, utilised standard NGS pipelines focusing only on small insertions, deletions and single nucleotide variants, and not explored impacts on management in detail. This prospective multi-site study performed ES and an extended bioinformatics repeat expansion analysis pipeline, on patients with broad phenotypes (ataxia, dementia, dystonia, spastic paraparesis, motor neuron disease, Parkinson's disease and complex/not-otherwise-specified), with symptom onset between 2 and 60 years. Genomic data analysis was phenotype-driven, using virtual gene panels, reported according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. One-hundred-and-sixty patients (51% female) were included, median age 52 years (range 14-79) and median 9 years of symptoms. 34/160 (21%) patients received a genetic diagnosis. Highest diagnostic rates were in spastic paraparesis (10/25, 40%), complex/not-otherwise-specified (10/38, 26%) and ataxia (7/28, 25%) groups. Findings were considered 'possible/uncertain' in 21/160 patients. Repeat expansion detection identified an unexpected diagnosis of Huntington disease in an ataxic patient with negative ES. Impacts on management, such as more precise and tailored care, were seen in most diagnosed patients (23/34, 68%). ES and a novel bioinformatics analysis pipepline had a substantial diagnostic yield (21%) and management impacts for most diagnosed patients, in heterogeneous, complex, mainly adult-onset neurological disorders in real-world settings in Australia, providing evidence for NGS and complementary multiple, new technologies as valuable diagnostic tools.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300245

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in TP53 are associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a cancer predisposition disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern associated with high risk of malignancy, including early onset breast cancers, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and brain tumors. Intense cancer surveillance for individuals with TP53 germline pathogenic variants is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Accurate and consistent classification of germline variants across clinical and research laboratories is important to ensure appropriate cancer surveillance recommendations. Here, we describe the work performed by the Clinical Genome Resource TP53 Variant Curation Expert Panel (ClinGen TP53 VCEP) focused on specifying the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for germline variant classification to the TP53 gene. Specifications were developed for twenty ACMG/AMP criteria while nine were deemed not applicable. The original strength level for ten criteria was also adjusted due to current evidence. Use of TP53-specific guidelines and sharing of clinical data amongst experts and clinical laboratories led to a decrease in variants of uncertain significance from 28% to 12% compared with the original guidelines. The ClinGen TP53 VCEP recommends the use of these TP53-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines as the standard strategy for TP53 germline variant classification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190173

RESUMO

This study sought to explore the feasibility and utility of post-mortem coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring in identifying patients with ischemic heart disease as cause of sudden death. 100 deceased patients aged 18-50 years underwent post-mortem examination in the setting of sudden death. At post-mortem, fifty cases were determined to have ischemic heart disease, and fifty had death attributed to trauma or unascertained causes. The CAC score was calculated in a blinded manner from post-mortem CTs performed on all cases. CAC scores were assessable in 97 non-decomposed cases (feasibility 97%). The median CAC score was 88 Agatston units [IQR 0-286] in patients deceased from ischemic heart disease vs 0 [IQR 0-0] in patients deceased from other causes (p < 0.0001). Presence of any coronary calcification differed significantly between ischemic heart disease and non-ischemic groups (adjusted odds ratio 10.7, 95% CI 3.2-35.5). All cases with a CAC score > 100 (n = 22) had ischemic heart disease as the cause of death. Fifteen cases had a CAC score of zero but severe coronary disease at post-mortem examination. Post-mortem CAC scoring is highly feasible. An elevated CAC score in cases 18-50 years old with sudden death predicts ischemic heart disease at post-mortem examination. However, a CAC score of zero does not exclude significant coronary artery disease. Post-mortem CAC score may be considered as a further assessment tool to help predict likely cause of death when there is an objection to or unavailability of post-mortem examination.

11.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strength of evidence supporting the validity of gene-disease relationships is variable. Hereditary cancer has the additional complexity of low or moderate penetrance for some confirmed disease-associated alleles. METHODS: To promote national consistency in interpretation of hereditary cancer/tumour gene test results, we requested opinions of representatives from Australian Family Cancer Clinics regarding the clinical utility of 157 genes initially collated for a national research project. Viewpoints were sought by initial survey, face-to-face workshop and follow-up survey. Subsequent review was undertaken by the eviQ Cancer Genetics Reference Committee, a national resource providing evidence-based and consensus-driven cancer treatment protocols. RESULTS: Genes were categorised by clinical actionability as: relevant for testing on presentation of common cancer/tumour types (n=45); relevant for testing in the context of specific rare phenotypes (n=74); insufficient clinical utility (n=34) or contentious clinical utility (n=3). Opinions for several genes altered during the study time frame, due to new information. CONCLUSION: Through an iterative process, consensus was achieved on genes with clinical utility for hereditary cancer/tumour conditions in the Australian setting. This study highlighted need for regular review of gene-disease lists, a role assumed in Australia for hereditary cancer/tumour predisposition genes by the eviQ Cancer Genetics Reference Committee.

12.
J Bioeth Inq ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169269

RESUMO

If good ethics is the process of ongoing dialogical deliberation on basic normative questions for the purpose of instituting principles for action, then the COVID crisis, or any crisis, is not a good time for developing ethical precepts on the run. Given dominant ethical trends, such reactive ethics tends to lead to either individualized struggles over the right way to act or hasty sets of guidelines that leave out contextualizing questions concerning regimes of care. Good people will find themselves suggesting strange things, from setting up lifeboat scenarios to supporting structural racism. This essay argues against both these paths-crisis-ridden agonism or algorithmic resource-allocation-and turns instead to a form of ethics of care which takes its departure from older forms of ethics, while recognizing that modern and postmodern challenges no longer allow their grounding in animated relations, natural rights, or cosmological truths.

13.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199184

RESUMO

In 2019, the first multi-source registry of sudden cardiac arrest and death for patients aged 1-50 years launched in Victoria, Australia. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) affects approximately fifteen hundred younger Victorians per year. The End Unexplained Cardiac Death (EndUCD) Registry enrols SCA/D cases aged 1-50 years, providing family screening, access to psychological support through clinical sites and creating a genetic biorepository for whole-genome sequencing. The registry will support clear pathways of cardiac assessment, epidemiological profiling and routine family screening and psychological support.

14.
Psychol Health ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genomic testing for early-onset dementia is becoming more accessible, along with predictive testing for at-risk relatives; however, complex counselling issues are important to address. The topic of suicide often has stigma associated, and thoughts or experiences may not be volunteered without prompting. Little has been published with consideration to suicide rates in the context of family experiences and their significance in genetic counselling for relatives of people with Huntington disease and frontotemporal dementia. DESIGN: This study included pedigree information for 267 symptomatic individuals with frontotemporal dementia or Huntington disease, provided via genetic counselling clinics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics and suicide rate calculations based on family reported pedigree data. RESULTS: The suicide rate was 2996 per 100,000 compared with the population rate of 10 per 100,000. Approximately one in 15 families reported suicide of an affected family member, and file notes indicated that one in five families had experienced suicide, suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts in one or more affected, unaffected or pre-symptomatic relative. CONCLUSION: Health professional awareness of family experiences, including suicide of a relative, is vital in facilitating client decisions about genetic testing, and in providing adequate psychosocial support during the process of genetic testing and adaption to results.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 592353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193259

RESUMO

A novel transketolase has been reconstituted from two separate polypeptide chains encoded by a 'split-gene' identified in the genome of the hyperthermophilic bacterium, Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. The reconstituted active α2ß2 tetrameric enzyme has been biochemically characterized and its activity has been determined using a range of aldehydes including glycolaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde and cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde as the ketol acceptor and hydroxypyruvate as the donor. This reaction proceeds to near 100% completion due to the release of the product carbon dioxide and can be used for the synthesis of a range of sugars of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. This novel reconstituted transketolase is thermally stable with no loss of activity after incubation for 1 h at 70°C and is stable after 1 h incubation with 50% of the organic solvents methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, DMSO, acetonitrile and acetone. The X-ray structure of the holo reconstituted α2ß2 tetrameric transketolase has been determined to 1.4 Å resolution. In addition, the structure of an inactive tetrameric ß4 protein has been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of the active reconstituted α2ß2 enzyme has been compared to the structures of related enzymes; the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, in an attempt to rationalize differences in structure and substrate specificity between these enzymes. This is the first example of a reconstituted 'split-gene' transketolase to be biochemically and structurally characterized allowing its potential for industrial biocatalysis to be evaluated.

16.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed ; : 1-23, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091329

RESUMO

This paper reports on the hybrid process we have used for producing hierarchical scaffolds made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), analyzes their internal structures via scanning electron microscopy, and presents the results of our in vitro proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for 0 and 21 days. These scaffolds were produced by combining additive manufacturing (AM) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) techniques. Slow cooling at a rate of 1.5 °C/min during the TIPS process was used to enable a uniform temperature throughout the scaffolds, and therefore, a relatively uniform pore size range. We produced ten different scaffold compositions and topologies in this study. These scaffolds had macrochannels with diameters of ∼300 µm, ∼380 µm, and ∼460 µm, generated by the extraction of embedded porous 3D-plotted polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrices. The other experimental factors included different TIPS temperatures (-20 °C, -10 °C, and 0 °C), as well as varying PLGA concentrations (8%, 10%, and 12% w/v) and nHA content (0%, 10%, and 20% w/w). Our results indicated that almost all these macro/microporous scaffolds supported cell growth over the period of 21 days. Nevertheless, significant differences were observed among some scaffolds in terms of their support of cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper presents the results of our in vitro cell culture for 0 and 21 days. Our optimal scaffold with a porosity of ∼90%, a modulus of ∼5.2 MPa, and a nHA content of 20% showed a cell adhesion of ∼29% on day 0 and maintained cell proliferation and ALP activity over the 21-day in vitro culture. Hence, the use of additive manufacturing and designed experiments to optimize the scaffold fabrication parameters resulted in superior mechanical properties that most other studies using TIPS.

17.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A double aortic arch (DAA) is increasingly identified before birth; however, there are no published data describing the postnatal outcome of a large prenatal cohort. OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations, symptoms and impact of prenatally diagnosed DAA. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive cases seen at two fetal cardiology units from 2014 to 2019. Clinical records including symptoms and assessment of tracheobronchial compression using flexible bronchoscopy were reviewed. Moderate-severe tracheal compression was defined as >75% occlusion of the lumen. RESULTS: There were 50 cases identified prenatally and 48 with postnatal follow-up. Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) was abnormal in 2/50 (4%), aCGH was normal in 33/50 (66%) and of those reviewed after birth, 13 were phenotypically normal. After birth, there was a complete DAA with patency of both arches in 8/48 (17%) and in 40/48 (83%) there was a segment of the left arch which was a non-patent, ligamentous connection.Stridor was present in 6/48 (13%) on the day of birth. Tracheo-oesophageal compressive symptoms/signs were present in 31/48 (65%) patients at median age of 59 days (IQR 9-182 days). Tracheal/carinal compression was present in 40/45 (88%) cases. Seven of 17 (41%) asymptomatic cases demonstrated moderate-severe tracheal compression. All morphologies of DAA caused symptoms and morphology type was not predictive of significant tracheal compression (p=0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic testing should be offered following detection of double aortic arch. Early signs of tracheal compression are common and therefore delivery where onsite neonatal support is available is recommended. Significant tracheal compression may be present even in the absence of symptoms.

18.
Psychooncology ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tamoxifen has been demonstrated to reduce breast cancer risk in high-risk, premenopausal women. Yet, very few young women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in Australia use tamoxifen, despite this being a less-invasive option compared to risk-reducing mastectomy. This study aims to examine young women's decision-making about and experience of taking tamoxifen to reduce their breast cancer risk. METHODS: Young women with a BRCA1/2 mutation participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, recruited mainly from a metropolitan clinical genetics service. Data were analysed using an inductive, team-based approach to thematic analysis. RESULTS: Forty interviews with women aged 20-40 years with a BRCA1/2 mutation were conducted. Eleven women could not recall discussing tamoxifen with their healthcare provider or were too young to commence cancer risk management. Twenty-three women chose not to use tamoxifen because it is contraindicated for pregnancy or because it did not offer immediate and great enough risk reduction compared to bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy. Six women who were definite about not wanting to have children during the following 5-year period chose to use tamoxifen, and most experienced none or transient side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Decision-making about tamoxifen was nuanced and informed by considerations characteristic of young adulthood, especially childbearing. Therefore, clinical discussions about tamoxifen with young women with a BRCA1/2 mutation must include consideration of their reproductive plans.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006973

RESUMO

Resource-deprived coastal peri-urban settlements in Southern Ghana are characterized by indiscriminate solid waste disposal and open defecation practices. Persons engaged in waste handling in such communities perform their activities with little or no personal protective equipment. They are thus confronted with the risk of faecal pollution of the hands and other bodily parts. A mixed method approach was used to investigate 280 waste handlers performing different activities to estimate recent faecal pollution of their hands and to observe the utilization of personal protective equipment and sanitation/hygiene facilities during work. The log concentration of E. coli on hands of waste handlers after work (8.60 ± 4.20 CFU/hand, mean ± standard deviation) was significantly higher compared with the E. coli log concentration before work (2.95 ± 1.89 CFU/hand, mean ± standard deviation) (p<0.001). The odds of faecal pollution was significantly higher (aOR 4.2; 95% CI: 1.9-9.1) for workers aged 35 years and above compared with those less than 35 years; and for workers at public toilet facilities (aOR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.0-8.4) compared with those who worked for private waste handling companies. Female workers were, however, 60% less likely (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.8) to experience faecal pollution of their hands compared with males. The workers had limited access to water and sanitation and hygiene facilities, and about one-fifth (n = 59; 21.1%) did not use personal protective equipment during work. Waste handlers should be provided and instructed in proper use of personal protective equipment, have access to sanitation facilities and adopt improved hygiene behaviour to avoid the risk of faecal pollution and associated disease risk.


Assuntos
Fezes , Exposição Ocupacional , Eliminação de Resíduos , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Defecação , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Toaletes , População Urbana
20.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964118

RESUMO

Germline genetic variation has been suggested to influence the survival of breast cancer patients independently of tumor pathology. We have studied survival associations of genetic variants in two etiologically unique groups of breast cancer patients, the carriers of germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. We found that rs57025206 was significantly associated with the overall survival, predicting higher mortality of BRCA1 carrier patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, with a hazard ratio 4.37 (95% confidence interval 3.03-6.30, P = 3.1 × 10-9). Multivariable analysis adjusted for tumor characteristics suggested that rs57025206 was an independent survival marker. In addition, our exploratory analyses suggest that the associations between genetic variants and breast cancer patient survival may depend on tumor biological subgroup and clinical patient characteristics.

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