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1.
Lancet ; 397(10278): 985-995, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intravascular ultrasound are promising imaging modalities to identify non-obstructive plaques likely to cause coronary-related events. We aimed to assess whether combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound can identify high-risk plaques and patients that are at risk for future major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). METHODS: PROSPECT II is an investigator-sponsored, multicentre, prospective natural history study done at 14 university hospitals and two community hospitals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We recruited patients of any age with recent (within past 4 weeks) myocardial infarction. After treatment of all flow-limiting coronary lesions, three-vessel imaging was done with a combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound catheter. Untreated lesions (also known as non-culprit lesions) were identified by intravascular ultrasound and their lipid content was assessed by NIRS. The primary outcome was the covariate-adjusted rate of MACEs (the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or progressive angina) arising from untreated non-culprit lesions during follow-up. The relations between plaques with high lipid content, large plaque burden, and small lumen areas and patient-level and lesion-level events were determined. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02171065. FINDINGS: Between June 10, 2014, and Dec 20, 2017, 3629 non-culprit lesions were characterised in 898 patients (153 [17%] women, 745 [83%] men; median age 63 [IQR 55-70] years). Median follow-up was 3·7 (IQR 3·0-4·4) years. Adverse events within 4 years occurred in 112 (13·2%, 95% CI 11·0-15·6) of 898 patients, with 66 (8·0%, 95% CI 6·2-10·0) arising from 78 untreated non-culprit lesions (mean baseline angiographic diameter stenosis 46·9% [SD 15·9]). Highly lipidic lesions (851 [24%] of 3500 lesions, present in 520 [59%] of 884 patients) were an independent predictor of patient-level non-culprit lesion-related MACEs (adjusted odds ratio 2·27, 95% CI 1·25-4·13) and non-culprit lesion-specific MACEs (7·83, 4·12-14·89). Large plaque burden (787 [22%] of 3629 lesions, present in 530 [59%] of 898 patients) was also an independent predictor of non-culprit lesion-related MACEs. Lesions with both large plaque burden by intravascular ultrasound and large lipid-rich cores by NIRS had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 7·0% (95% CI 4·0-10·0). Patients in whom one or more such lesions were identified had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 13·2% (95% CI 9·4-17·6). INTERPRETATION: Combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound detects angiographically non-obstructive lesions with a high lipid content and large plaque burden that are at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes. FUNDING: Abbott Vascular, Infraredx, and The Medicines Company.

2.
Am Heart J ; 237: 13-24, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of oxygen therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in relation to sex in patients with confirmed myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction trial randomized 6,629 patients to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 hours or ambient air. In the present subgroup analysis including 5,010 patients (1,388 women and 3,622 men) with confirmed MI, we report the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure at long-term follow-up, stratified according to sex. RESULTS: Event rate for the composite endpoint was 18.1% in women allocated to oxygen, compared to 21.4% in women allocated to ambient air (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-1.05). In men, the incidence was 13.6% in patients allocated to oxygen compared to 13.3% in patients allocated to ambient air (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.23). No significant interaction in relation to sex was found (P= .16). Irrespective of allocated treatment, the composite endpoint occurred more often in women compared to men (19.7 vs 13.4%, HR 1.51; 95% CI, 1.30-1.75). After adjustment for age alone, there was no difference between the sexes (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91-1.24), which remained consistent after multivariate adjustment. CONCLUSION: Oxygen therapy in normoxemic MI patients did not significantly affect all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for MI or heart failure in women or men. The observed worse outcome in women was explained by differences in baseline characteristics, especially age.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748830

RESUMO

AIMS: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1ß can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality. CONCLUSION: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.

4.
EuroIntervention ; 16(14): 1177-1186, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416050

RESUMO

The rearrangement of healthcare services required to face the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a drastic reduction in elective cardiac invasive procedures. We are already facing a "second wave" of infections and we might be dealing during the next months with a "third wave" and subsequently new waves. Therefore, during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic we have to face the problems of how to perform elective cardiac invasive procedures in non-COVID patients and which patients/procedures should be prioritised. In this context, the interplay between the pandemic stage, the availability of healthcare resources and the priority of specific cardiac disorders is crucial. Clear pathways for "hot" or presumed "hot" patients and "cold" patients are mandatory in each hospital. Depending on the local testing capacity and intensity of transmission in the area, healthcare facilities may test patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection before the interventional procedure, regardless of risk assessment for COVID-19. Pre-hospital testing should always be conducted in the presence of symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 positive patients, full personal protective equipment using FFP 2/N95 masks, eye protection, gowning and gloves is indicated during cardiac interventions for healthcare workers. When patients have tested negative for COVID-19, medical masks may be sufficient. Indeed, individual patients should themselves wear medical masks during cardiac interventions and outpatient visits.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Pandemias , Humanos , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
5.
Eur Heart J ; 42(10): 1038-1046, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515031

RESUMO

Dual antiplatelet therapy has long been the standard of care in preventing coronary and cerebrovascular thrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but choosing the optimal treatment duration and composition has become a major challenge. Numerous studies have shown that certain patients benefit from either shortened or extended treatment duration. Furthermore, trials evaluating novel antithrombotic strategies, such as P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, low-dose factor Xa inhibitors on top of antiplatelet therapy, and platelet function- or genotype-guided (de-)escalation of treatment, have shown promising results. Current guidelines recommend risk stratification for tailoring treatment duration and composition. Although several risk stratification methods evaluating ischaemic and bleeding risk are available to clinicians, such as the use of risk scores, platelet function testing , and genotyping, risk stratification has not been broadly adopted in clinical practice. Multiple risk scores have been developed to determine the optimal treatment duration, but external validation studies have yielded conflicting results in terms of calibration and discrimination and there is limited evidence that their adoption improves clinical outcomes. Likewise, platelet function testing and genotyping can provide useful prognostic insights, but trials evaluating treatment strategies guided by these stratification methods have produced mixed results. This review critically appraises the currently available antithrombotic strategies and provides a viewpoint on the use of different risk stratification methods alongside clinical judgement in current clinical practice.

6.
Heart ; 106(23): 1812-1818, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most reports on the declining incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during the COVID-19 have either been anecdotal, survey results or geographically limited to areas with lockdowns. We examined the incidence of MI during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, which has remained an open society with a different public health approach fighting COVID-19. METHODS: We assessed the incidence rate (IR) as well as the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of all MI referred for coronary angiography in Sweden using the nationwide Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR), during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden (1 March 2020-7 May 2020) in relation to the same days 2015-2019. RESULTS: A total of 2443 MIs were referred for coronary angiography during the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in an IR 36 MIs/day (204 MIs/100 000 per year) compared with 15 213 MIs during the reference period with an IR of 45 MIs/day (254 MIs/100 000 per year) resulting in IRR of 0.80, 95% CI (0.74 to 0.86), p<0.001. Results were consistent in all investigated patient subgroups, indicating no change in patient category seeking cardiac care. Kaplan-Meier event rates for 7-day case fatality were 439 (2.3%) compared with 37 (2.9%) (HR: 0.81, 95% CI (0.58 to 1.13), p=0.21). Time to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was shorter during the pandemic and PCI was equally performed, indicating no change in quality of care during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the incidence of MI referred for invasive treatment strategy. No differences in overall short-term case fatality or quality of care indicators were observed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Angiografia Coronária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Tempo para o Tratamento
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2289-2301, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndromes most commonly arise from thrombosis of lipid-rich coronary atheromas that have large plaque burden despite angiographically appearing mild. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of non-flow-limiting vulnerable plaques. METHODS: Three-vessel imaging was performed with a combination intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) catheter after successful PCI of all flow-limiting coronary lesions in 898 patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with an angiographically nonobstructive stenosis not intended for PCI but with IVUS plaque burden of ≥65% were randomized to treatment of the lesion with a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) plus guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) versus GDMT alone. The primary powered effectiveness endpoint was the IVUS-derived minimum lumen area (MLA) at protocol-driven 25-month follow-up. The primary (nonpowered) safety endpoint was randomized target lesion failure (cardiac death, target vessel-related MI, or clinically driven target lesion revascularization) at 24 months. The secondary (nonpowered) clinical effectiveness endpoint was randomized lesion-related major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, MI, unstable angina, or progressive angina) at latest follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were randomized (93 BVS, 89 GDMT alone) at 15 centers. The median angiographic diameter stenosis of the randomized lesions was 41.6%; by near-infrared spectroscopy-IVUS, the median plaque burden was 73.7%, the median MLA was 2.9 mm2, and the median maximum lipid plaque content was 33.4%. Angiographic follow-up at 25 months was completed in 167 patients (91.8%), and the median clinical follow-up was 4.1 years. The follow-up MLA in BVS-treated lesions was 6.9 ± 2.6 mm2 compared with 3.0 ± 1.0 mm2 in GDMT alone-treated lesions (least square means difference: 3.9 mm2; 95% confidence interval: 3.3 to 4.5; p < 0.0001). Target lesion failure at 24 months occurred in similar rates of BVS-treated and GDMT alone-treated patients (4.3% vs. 4.5%; p = 0.96). Randomized lesion-related major adverse cardiac events occurred in 4.3% of BVS-treated patients versus 10.7% of GDMT alone-treated patients (odds ratio: 0.38; 95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 1.28; p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: PCI of angiographically mild lesions with large plaque burden was safe, substantially enlarged the follow-up MLA, and was associated with favorable long-term clinical outcomes, warranting the performance of an adequately powered randomized trial. (PROSPECT ABSORB [Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree II Combined with a Randomized, Controlled, Intervention Trial]; NCT02171065).

8.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016880

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the real-world clinical performance of a sirolimus-eluting ultrathin-strut drug-eluting stent (DES) [Orsiro, Biotronik AG] in a large nationwide cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry, the 2-year outcomes of 4,561 patients implanted with Orsiro (Orsiro group) and 69,570 receiving other newer generation DES (n-DES group) were analyzed. The rate of definite stent thrombosis was low in both groups (0.67% and 0.83% for Orsiro and n-DES, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.46, p-value 0.66). Restenosis was also infrequent (1.5% versus 2.0% with Orsiro and n-DES, adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.03, p-value=0.09). The risk of target lesion revascularization by PCI was lower in the Orsiro group (1.6% versus 2.3%, adjusted HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.94, p-value=0.013). All-cause mortality and myocardial infarction did not show a statistically significant difference between the two groups (mortality of 7.5% in both groups, adjusted HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.72-1.35, p-value=0.94; 6.0% versus 5.2% for myocardial infarction, adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.43, p-value=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide scenario, the use of a sirolimus-eluting ultrathin-strut DES portended favorable clinical outcomes.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1468-1483, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943165

RESUMO

Investigating the balance of risk for thrombotic and bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is especially relevant for patients at high bleeding risk (HBR). The Academic Research Consortium for HBR recently proposed a consensus definition in an effort to standardize the patient population included in HBR trials. The aim of this consensus-based document, the second initiative from the Academic Research Consortium for HBR, is to propose recommendations to guide the design of clinical trials of devices and drugs in HBR patients undergoing PCI. The authors discuss the designs of trials in HBR patients undergoing PCI and various aspects of trial design specific to HBR patients, including target populations, intervention and control groups, primary and secondary outcomes, and timing of endpoint reporting.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(17): e016360, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809893

RESUMO

Background The cysteine protease legumain is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, but its causal role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of legumain with clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results Serum levels of legumain were analyzed in 4883 patients with acute coronary syndrome from a substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Levels were analyzed at admission and after 1 month follow-up. Associations between legumain and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and its individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. At baseline, a 50% increase in legumain level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21), P=0.0018, for the primary composite end point, adjusted for randomized treatment. The association remained significant after adjustment for important clinical and demographic variables (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19; P=0.013) but not in the fully adjusted model. Legumain levels at 1 month were not associated with the composite end point but were negatively associated with stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88; P=0.0069), including in the fully adjusted model (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88; P=0.0114). Conclusions Baseline legumain was associated with the primary outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but not in the fully adjusted model. The association between high levels of legumain at 1 month and decreased occurrence of stroke could be of interest from a mechanistic point of view, illustrating the potential dual role of legumain during atherogenesis and acute coronary syndrome. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(2): 162-171, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognostic impact of post-discharge bleeding in the unique population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between post-discharge bleeding and subsequent mortality after ACS according to index strategy (PCI or no PCI) and to contrast with the association between post-discharge myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent mortality. METHODS: In a harmonized dataset of 4 multicenter randomized trials (APPRAISE-2 [Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic Events-2], PLATO [Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes], TRACER [Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome], and TRILOGY ACS [Platelet Inhibition to Clarify the Optimal Strategy to Medically Manage Acute Coronary Syndromes]), the association between post-discharge noncoronary artery bypass graft-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) moderate, severe, or life-threatening bleeding (landmark 7 days post-ACS) and subsequent all-cause mortality was evaluated in a time-updated Cox proportional hazards analysis. Interaction with index treatment strategy was assessed. Results were contrasted with risk for mortality following post-discharge MI. RESULTS: Among 45,011 participants, 1,133 experienced post-discharge bleeding events (2.6 per 100 patient-years), and 2,149 died during follow-up. The risk for mortality was significantly higher <30 days (adjusted hazard ratio: 15.7; 95% confidence interval: 12.3 to 20.0) and 30 days to 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.1 to 3.4) after bleeding, and this association was consistent in participants treated with or without PCI for their index ACS (p for interaction = 0.240). The time-related association between post-discharge bleeding and mortality was similar to the association between MI and subsequent mortality in participants treated with and without PCI (p for interaction = 0.696). CONCLUSIONS: Post-discharge bleeding after ACS is associated with a similar increase in subsequent all-cause mortality in participants treated with or without PCI and has an equivalent prognostic impact as post-discharge MI.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432651

RESUMO

Importance: Recently, the Complete vs Culprit-Only Revascularization to Treat Multivessel Disease After Early PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) for STEMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [MI]) (COMPLETE) trial showed that angiography-guided PCI of the nonculprit lesion with the goal of complete revascularization reduced cardiovascular (CV) death or new MI compared with PCI of the culprit lesion only in STEMI. Whether complete revascularization also reduces CV mortality is uncertain. Moreover, whether the association of complete revascularization with hard clinical outcomes is consistent when fractional flow reserve (FFR)- and angiography-guided strategies are used is unknown. Objective: To determine through a systematic review and meta-analysis (1) whether complete revascularization is associated with decreased CV mortality and (2) whether heterogeneity in the association occurs when FFR- and angiography-guided PCI strategies for nonculprit lesions are performed. Data Sources: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from database inception to September 30, 2019, was performed. Conference proceedings were also reviewed from January 1, 2002, to September 30, 2019. Study Selection: English-language randomized clinical trials comparing complete revascularization vs culprit-lesion-only PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The combined odds ratio (OR) was calculated with the random-effects model using the Mantel-Haenszel method (sensitivity with fixed-effects model). Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistic. Publication bias was evaluated using the inverted funnel plot approach. Data were analyzed from October 2019 to January 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular death and the composite of CV death or new MI. Results: Ten randomized clinical trials involving 7030 unique patients were included. The weighted mean follow-up time was 29.5 months. Complete revascularization was associated with reduced CV death compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI (80 of 3191 [2.5%] vs 106 of 3406 [3.1%]; OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.48-0.99]; P = .05; fixed-effects model OR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.55-0.99]; P = .04). All-cause mortality occurred in 153 of 3426 patients (4.5%) in the complete revascularization group vs 177 of 3604 (4.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only group (OR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.67-1.05]; P = .13; I2 = 0%). Complete revascularization was associated with a reduced composite of CV death or new MI (192 of 2616 [7.3%] vs 266 of 2586 [10.3%]; OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.55-0.87]; P = .001; fixed-effects model OR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.57-0.84]; P < .001), with no heterogeneity in this outcome when complete revascularization was performed using an FFR-guided strategy (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.43-1.44]) or an angiography-guided strategy (OR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.97]; P = .52 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization was associated with a reduction in CV mortality compared with culprit-lesion-only PCI. There was no differential association with treatment between FFR- and angiography-guided strategies on major CV outcomes.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014383, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067596

RESUMO

Background Coexistence of cancer and cardiovascular disease is increasingly frequent, but nationwide data covering cancer patients with myocardial infarction (MI) are scarce. We sought to investigate the prevalence of cancer in patients with first MI, and its impact on cardiovascular and bleeding outcome. Methods and Results Using nationwide Swedish quality registries, all patients admitted for first MI between 2001 and 2014 were identified. Data on comorbidity, cancer, and outcome were obtained from the national cancer and patient registries. Stratification was performed according to cancer during the 5 years before MI. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and invasive treatment assessed the association of cancer with outcome. In total, 175 146 patients with first MI were registered, of whom 9.3% (16 237) had received care for cancer in the 5 years before admission. The cancer rate increased from 6.7% in the years 2001-2002 to 10.7% in 2013-2014, independent of sex and cancer type. The presence of a new cancer diagnosis within 5 years increased from 4.9% to 6.2%. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, cancer was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.40-1.47), recurrent MI (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12), heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.13), and major bleeding (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.34-1.57). Risk for adverse events varied strongly according to cancer extent, timing, and type. Conclusions Cancer as a comorbid disorder is increasing and is strongly associated with mortality, severe bleeding, and adverse cardiovascular outcome after first MI.

16.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(3): 412-422, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975352

RESUMO

Hypofibrinolysis is a key abnormality in diabetes but the role of impaired clot lysis in predicting vascular events and mortality in this population is yet to be determined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between fibrin clot properties and clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma samples were collected at hospital discharge from 974 ACS patients with diabetes randomised to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in the PLATO trial. A validated turbidimetric assay was employed to study fibrin clot lysis and maximum turbidity. One-year rates of cardiovascular (CV) death, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) and PLATO-defined major bleeding events were assessed after sample collection. Hazard ratios (HRs) were determined using Cox proportional analysis. After adjusting for CV risk factors, each 50% increase in lysis time was associated with increased risk of CV death/MI (HR 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.44; p = 0.026) and CV death alone (HR 1.38; 1.08-1.76; p = 0.01). Similarly, each 50% increase in maximum turbidity was associated with increased risk of CV death/MI (HR 1.25; 1.02-1.53; p = 0.031) and CV death alone (HR 1.49; 1.08-2.04; p = 0.014). The relationship between lysis time and the combined outcome of CV death and MI remained significant after adjusting for multiple prognostic vascular biomarkers (p = 0.034). Neither lysis time nor maximum turbidity was associated with major bleeding events. Impaired fibrin clot lysis predicts 1-year CV death and MI in diabetes patients following ACS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT00391872.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(33): 3132-3140, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994703

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of selatogrel, a novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist for subcutaneous administration, in patients with chronic coronary syndromes (CCS). METHODS AND RESULTS: In this double-blind, randomized study of 345 patients with CCS on background oral antiplatelet therapy, subcutaneous selatogrel (8 mg, n = 114; or 16 mg, n = 115) was compared with placebo (n = 116) (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03384966). Platelet aggregation was assessed over 24 h (VerifyNow assay) and 8 h (light transmittance aggregometry; LTA). Pharmacodynamic responders were defined as patients having P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) <100 at 30 min post-dose and lasting ≥3 h. At 30 min post-dose, 89% of patients were responders to selatogrel 8 mg, 90% to selatogrel 16 mg, and 16% to placebo (P < 0.0001). PRU values (mean ± standard deviation) were 10 ± 25 (8 mg), 4 ± 10 (16 mg), and 163 ± 73 (placebo) at 15 min and remained <100 up to 8 h for both doses, returning to pre-dose or near pre-dose levels by 24 h post-dose. LTA data showed similarly rapid and potent inhibition of platelet aggregation. Selatogrel plasma concentrations peaked ∼30 min post-dose. Selatogrel was safe and well-tolerated with transient dyspnoea occurring overall in 7% (16/229) of patients (95% confidence interval: 4-11%). CONCLUSIONS: Selatogrel was rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration in CCS patients, providing prompt, potent, and consistent platelet P2Y12 inhibition sustained for ≥8 h and reversible within 24 h. Further studies of subcutaneous selatogrel are warranted in clinical scenarios where rapid platelet inhibition is desirable.

18.
Atherosclerosis ; 293: 35-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15). RESULTS: The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80-116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00-1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16-1.82] p = 0.0012). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): 502-513, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental oxygen in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure related to baseline oxygen saturation. A secondary objective was to investigate outcomes in patients developing hypoxemia. BACKGROUND: In the DETO2X-AMI (Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 l/min for 6 to 12 h or ambient air. METHODS: The study population of 5,010 patients with confirmed MI was divided by baseline oxygen saturation into a low-normal (90% to 94%) and a high-normal (95% to 100%) cohort. Outcomes are reported within 1 year. To increase power, all follow-up time (between 1 and 4 years) was included post hoc, and interaction analyses were performed with oxygen saturation as a continuous covariate. RESULTS: The composite endpoint of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure occurred significantly more often in patients in the low-normal cohort (17.3%) compared with those in the high-normal cohort (9.5%) (p < 0.001), and most often in patients developing hypoxemia (23.6%). Oxygen therapy compared with ambient air was not associated with improved outcomes regardless of baseline oxygen saturation (interaction p values: composite endpoint, p = 0.79; all-cause death, p = 0.33; rehospitalization with MI, p = 0.86; hospitalization for heart failure, p = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of oxygen saturation at baseline, we found no clinically relevant beneficial effect of routine oxygen therapy in normoxemic patients with MI regarding cardiovascular outcomes. Low-normal baseline oxygen saturation or development of hypoxemia was identified as an independent marker of poor prognosis. (An Efficacy and Outcome Study of Supplemental Oxygen Treatment in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction; NCT01787110).


Assuntos
Hipóxia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Oxigenoterapia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Oxigenoterapia/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Heart ; 106(11): 838-844, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare effectiveness of warfarin and antiplatelet exposure regarding both thrombotic and bleeding events, following surgical aortic valve replacement with a biological prosthesis(bioSAVR). METHODS: The study included all patients in Sweden undergoing a bioSAVR during 2008-2014 who were alive at discharge from the index hospital stay. Exposure was analysed and defined as postdischarge dispension of any antithrombotic pharmaceutical, updated at each following dispensions and categorised as single antiplatelet (SAPT), warfarin, warfarin combined with SAPT, dual antiplatelet (DAPT) or no antithrombotic treatment. Exposure to SAPT was used as comparator. Outcome events were all-cause mortality, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, any thromboembolism and major bleedings. We continuously updated adjustments for comorbidities with any indication for antithrombotic treatment by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We identified 9539 patients with bioSAVR (36.8% women) at median age of 73 years with a mean follow-up of 3.13 years. As compared with SAPT, warfarin alone was associated with a lower incidence of ischaemic stroke (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70) and any thromboembolism (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.94) but with no difference in mortality (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13). The incidence of haemorrhagic stroke (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.51) and major bleeding (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.15) was higher during warfarin exposure. As compared with SAPT, DAPT was not associated with any difference in ischaemic stroke or any thromboembolism. Risk-benefit analyses demonstrated that 2.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 11.9) of the ischaemic stroke cases could potentially be avoided per every haemorrhagic stroke caused by warfarin exposure instead of SAPT during the first year. CONCLUSION: In patients discharged after bioSAVR, warfarin exposure as compared with SAPT exposure was associated with lower long-term risk of ischaemic stroke and thromboembolic events, and with a higher incidence of bleeding events but with similar mortality.

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