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1.
Pain Physician ; 24(S1): S27-S208, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is the most prevalent chronic disease with employment of multiple modes of interventional techniques including epidural interventions. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, systematic reviews, and guidelines have been published. The recent review of the utilization patterns and expenditures show that there has been a decline in utilization of epidural injections with decrease in inflation adjusted costs from 2009 to 2018. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) published guidelines for interventional techniques in 2013, and guidelines for facet joint interventions in 2020. Consequently, these guidelines have been prepared to update previously existing guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing therapeutic epidural procedures, including caudal, interlaminar in lumbar, cervical, and thoracic spinal regions, transforaminal in lumbar spine, and percutaneous adhesiolysis in the lumbar spine. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objective and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of epidural interventions was viewed with best evidence synthesis of available literature and  recommendations were provided. RESULTS: In preparation of the guidelines, extensive literature review was performed. In addition to review of multiple manuscripts in reference to utilization, expenditures, anatomical and pathophysiological considerations, pharmacological and harmful effects of drugs and procedures, for evidence synthesis we have included 47 systematic reviews and 43 RCTs covering all epidural interventions to meet the objectives.The evidence recommendations are as follows: Disc herniation: Based on relevant, high-quality fluoroscopically guided epidural injections, with or without steroids, and results of previous systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I for caudal epidural injections, lumbar interlaminar epidural injections, lumbar transforaminal epidural injections, and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in managing disc herniation based on one high-quality, placebo-controlled RCT is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement in patients nonresponsive to conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. For thoracic disc herniation, based on one relevant, high-quality RCT of thoracic epidural with fluoroscopic guidance, with or without steroids, the evidence is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.Spinal stenosis: The evidence based on one high-quality RCT in each category the evidence is Level III to II for fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation and Level II for fluoroscopically guided lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term effectiveness.The evidence for lumbar transforaminal epidural injections is Level IV to III with moderate recommendation with fluoroscopically guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections for long-term improvement. The evidence for percutaneous adhesiolysis in lumbar stenosis based on relevant, moderate to high quality RCTs, observational studies, and systematic reviews is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. Axial discogenic pain: The evidence for axial discogenic pain without facet joint pain or sacroiliac joint pain in the lumbar and cervical spine with fluoroscopically guided caudal, lumbar and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, based on one relevant high quality RCT in each category is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement, with or without steroids. Post-surgery syndrome: The evidence for lumbar and cervical post-surgery syndrome based on one relevant, high-quality RCT with fluoroscopic guidance for caudal and cervical interlaminar epidural injections, with or without steroids, is Level II with moderate to strong recommendation for long-term improvement. For percutaneous adhesiolysis, based on multiple moderate to high-quality RCTs and systematic reviews, the evidence is Level I with strong recommendation for long-term improvement after failure of conservative management and fluoroscopically guided epidural injections. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a continued paucity of high-quality studies for some techniques and various conditions including spinal stenosis, post-surgery syndrome, and discogenic pain. CONCLUSIONS: These epidural intervention guidelines including percutaneous adhesiolysis were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment and determination of level of evidence with strength of recommendations.

2.
Pain Manag ; 10(5): 331-348, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609052

RESUMO

Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common degenerative spine condition. In properly selected patients, minimally invasive lumbar decompression (mild®) may be an option to improve outcomes. This review provides an in-depth description of the mild procedure and a comprehensive examination of safety and efficacy. Two randomized controlled trials, together with 11 other controlled clinical studies, have established the efficacy of mild, which is a minimally invasive procedure that does not involve implants and has demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety. With an established safety profile equivalent to epidural steroid injections, and efficacy that has been shown to be superior to such injections, mild can reasonably be positioned early in the treatment algorithm for these patients. Based on extensive review of the literature, robust safety and efficacy through 2 years, and in accordance with minimally invasive spine treatment guidelines, mild is recommended as the first intervention after failure of conservative measures for lumbar spinal stenosis patients with neurogenic claudication and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy.

5.
Pain Physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.Summary of Evidence and Recommendations:Non-interventional diagnosis: • The level of evidence is II in selecting patients for facet joint nerve blocks at least 3 months after onset and failure of conservative management, with strong strength of recommendation for physical examination and clinical assessment. • The level of evidence is IV for accurate diagnosis of facet joint pain with physical examination based on symptoms and signs, with weak strength of recommendation. Imaging: • The level of evidence is I with strong strength of recommendation, for mandatory fluoroscopic or computed tomography (CT) guidance for all facet joint interventions. • The level of evidence is III with weak strength of recommendation for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) . • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for scintography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) .Interventional Diagnosis:Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is I to II with moderate to strong strength of recommendation for lumbar diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies with 4 of 10 studies utilizing controlled comparative local anesthetics with concordant pain relief criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence rates ranged from 27% to 40% with false-positive rates of 27% to 47%, with ≥80% pain relief.Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Ten relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, 9 of the 10 studies with either controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks or placebo controls with concordant pain relief with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence and false-positive rates ranged from 29% to 60% and of 27% to 63%, with high variability. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation. • Three relevant diagnostic accuracy studies, with controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks, with concordant pain relief, with a criterion standard of ≥80% were included. • The prevalence varied from 34% to 48%, whereas false-positive rates varied from 42% to 58%.Therapeutic Facet Joint Interventions: Lumbar Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for lumbar radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of 11 relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 2 negative studies and 4 studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is IV with weak strength of recommendation for lumbar facet joint intraarticular injections with inclusion of 9 relevant randomized controlled trials, with majority of them showing lack of effectiveness without the use of local anesthetic. Cervical Spine: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for cervical radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with positive results and 2 observational studies with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for therapeutic cervical facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies, with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is V with weak strength of recommendation for cervical intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of 3 relevant randomized controlled trials, with 2 observational studies, the majority showing lack of effectiveness, whereas one study with 6-month follow-up, showed lack of long-term improvement. Thoracic Spine: • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation with emerging evidence for thoracic radiofrequency ablation with inclusion of one relevant randomized controlled trial and 3 observational studies. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic therapeutic facet joint nerve blocks with inclusion of 2 randomized controlled trials and one observational study with long-term improvement. • The level of evidence is III with weak to moderate strength of recommendation for thoracic intraarticular facet joint injections with inclusion of one randomized controlled trial with 6 month follow-up, with emerging evidence. Antithrombotic Therapy: • Facet joint interventions are considered as moderate to low risk procedures; consequently, antithrombotic therapy may be continued based on overall general status. Sedation: • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation to avoid opioid analgesics during the diagnosis with interventional techniques. • The level of evidence is II with moderate strength of recommendation that moderate sedation may be utilized for patient comfort and to control anxiety for therapeutic facet joint interventions. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of these guidelines include a paucity of high-quality studies in the majority of aspects of diagnosis and therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These facet joint intervention guidelines were prepared with a comprehensive review of the literature with methodologic quality assessment with determination of level of evidence and strength of recommendations. KEY WORDS: Chronic spinal pain, interventional techniques, diagnostic blocks, therapeutic interventions, facet joint nerve blocks, intraarticular injections, radiofrequency neurolysis.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Articulação Zigapofisária , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Pain physician ; 23(3S): S1-S127, May 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1129928

RESUMO

Chronic axial spinal pain is one of the major causes of significant disability and health care costs, with facet joints as one of the proven causes of pain. To provide evidence-based guidance in performing diagnostic and therapeutic facet joint interventions. The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions with utilization of trustworthy standards. The literature pertaining to all aspects of facet joint interventions, was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of available literature and utilizing grading for recommendations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Dor nas Costas/terapia , Denervação/métodos , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Injeções Intra-Articulares
7.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 26(4): 403-415, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain is a prevalent condition which has a significant effect on the lives of those it impacts. High-frequency 10 kHz spinal cord stimulation (10 kHz SCS) has been shown to provide paresthesia-free pain relief for a wide variety of pain indications. This article summarizes the current and emerging data as they relate to the clinical use of the therapy in various pain syndromes. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed electronic database using keywords related to 10 kHz SCS. The database was queried from 2013 to May 2019. Articles reporting clinical studies that included human subjects permanently treated with 10 kHz SCS (Senza® system) were included in the review. Recent and relevant conference proceedings known to the authors were also included. RESULTS: The selected literature demonstrated significant evidence for the efficacy of 10 kHz SCS in treating chronic back and leg pain (CBLP), including a randomized, controlled trial as well as prospective and retrospective studies. One-year follow-up responder rates (pain relief ≥50%) ranged from 60% to 80%. Other studies and case series showed promising outcomes in specific conditions, including nonsurgical refractory back pain, neuropathic limb pain, complex regional pain syndrome, chronic widespread pain, chronic pelvic pain, and intractable headache. Subgroup analyses also pointed toward the potential of 10 kHz SCS being successful when low-frequency SCS has failed. The vast majority of these studies reported improved quality of life (QOL) metrics and/or reduced opioid consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Level I evidence already exists for the efficacy of 10 kHz SCS in treating CBLP, supported by real-world clinical experience. Other studies demonstrate the potential of the therapy across a range of chronic pain etiologies, although larger confirmatory studies are recommended. Overall, the literature suggests that the therapy is associated with improved QOL as well as reduced opioid consumption.

8.
Pain Med ; 20(Suppl 2): S9-S13, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postlaminectomy syndrome diagnoses secondary to adjacent segment degeneration are a substantial and rising cause of morbidity in the United States. Emerging spinal cord neuromodulation technologies have produced successful outcomes for postlaminectomy neuropathic pain but are less effective in treating neurogenic claudication secondary to recurrent lumbar stenosis. Percutaneous interspinous process decompression systems can be used as a salvage treatment modality for persistent structural neurogenic claudication in postlaminectomy syndrome or after spinal cord stimulator implantation. METHODS: This paper is a review of emerging evidence for efficacious utilization of percutaneous interspinous process decompression. RESULTS: A recent pragmatic trial of subjects who underwent percutaneous interspinous process decompression for lumbar stenosis with intermittent neurogenic claudication reported that 63% (26/41) maintained minimal clinically important improvement in visual analog scale (VAS) leg pain, 61% (25/41) in VAS back pain, 78% (32/41) in function objective values, and 88% (36/41) reported satisfaction with treatment at 12 months postop. All subjects in a small case series of seven individuals with postlaminectomy adjacent-segment disease reported postoperative satisfaction scores of 3 or 4 on a 0-4 scale and were also able to decrease or wean completely off controlled pain medications. In another study, there was a significant decrease in average leg pain (60% improvement, P < 0.0001, N = 25) and axial low back pain (58% improvement, P < 0.0001, N = 25) in patients who underwent one- or two-level percutaneous interspinous process decompression as a rescue treatment for reemerging neurogenic claudication after spinal cord stimulator implantation. CONCLUSIONS: The spine often is a focus of progressive disease. Furthermore, mechanical changes associated with spinal instrumentation can lead to additional disease at adjacent levels. Many individuals will present with symptomatic neurogenic claudication recalcitrant to multimodal management strategies, including even the most sophisticated neuromodulation technologies. Implementation of salvage percutaneous interspinus process decompression implantation in cases of adjacent segment degeneration or incomplete spinal cord stimulation can decompress structural causes of neurogenic claudication while sparing the patient from more invasive surgical reoperation techniques.


Assuntos
Descompressão Cirúrgica , Claudicação Intermitente/cirurgia , Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Estenose Espinal/cirurgia , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estenose Espinal/complicações
9.
BMC Emerg Med ; 19(1): 9, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision-making concerning the limitation of potentially life-prolonging treatments is often challenging, particularly in the Emergency Department (ED). Current literature in this area of Emergency Medicine is limited and heterogeneous. We seek to determine the factors that influence ceiling of treatment institution in the ED. METHODS: We conducted a phenomenological qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews. Emergency Medicine Consultants were recruited via a sample of convenience from 5 hospitals in the West of Scotland. Data saturation was achieved after 15 interviews. Interviews were recorded, anonymised, transcribed, coded, and an iterative thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: A model was created to illustrate the identified themes. Patient wishes are central to decision-making. Acute clinical factors and patient-specific factors lay the foundations of ceiling of treatment decisions. This is heavily contextualised by family input, collateral information, anticipated outcome, and whether the patient is accepted for higher care. This decision-making process flows through a 'filter' of cultural and environmental factors. The overarching nature of patient benefit was found to be of key importance, framing all aspects of ceiling of treatment institution. Ultimately, all ceiling of treatment decisions result in one of three common patient pathways: full escalation, limited escalation, and maintenance of current care with the option of palliative care initiation. CONCLUSIONS: We present a conceptual model composed of 10 major thematic factors that influence Consultant ceiling of treatment decision-making in the ED. Clinicians should be cognizant of influential factors and associated biases when making these important and challenging decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Assistência ao Paciente , Preferência do Paciente , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
10.
Pain Med ; 18(2): 239-251, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204730

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the effectiveness and risks of fluoroscopically guided lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injections. Design: Systematic review of the literature with comprehensive analysis of the published data. Interventions: Three reviewers with formal training in evidence-based medicine searched the literature on fluoroscopically guided lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injections. A larger team consisting of five reviewers independently assessed the methodology of studies found and appraised the quality of the evidence presented. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome assessed was pain relief. Other outcomes such as functional improvement, reduction in surgery rate, decreased use of opioids/medications, and complications were noted, if reported. The evidence on each outcome was appraised in accordance with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evaluating evidence. Results: The search yielded 71 primary publications addressing fluoroscopically guided lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injections. There were no explanatory studies and all pragmatic studies identified were of low quality, yielding evidence comparable to observational studies. Conclusions: The body of evidence regarding effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided interlaminar epidural steroid injection is of low quality according to GRADE. Studies suggest a lack of effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injections in treating primarily axial pain regardless of etiology. Most studies on radicular pain due to lumbar disc herniation and stenosis do, however, report statistically significant short-term improvement in pain.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Fluoroscopia , Humanos
11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 442(1-2): 99-104, 2013 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24246676

RESUMO

Degradation of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) drives invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that tetraspanin CD9 expression upregulates pro-MMP-9 expression and release and promotes cellular invasion in a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080). These events were dependent upon the highly functional second extracellular loop of CD9. We report here that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase expression and activity are involved in the CD9-mediated increase in pro-MMP-9 release and cellular invasion. Pro-MMP-9 expression was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner using first a broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and multiple specific EGFR inhibitors in CD9-HT1080 cells. Furthermore, gefitinib treatment of CD9-HT1080 cells reduced invasion through matrigel. EGFR knockdown using short interfering RNA resulted in decreased pro-MMP-9 expression and release into the media and subsequent cellular invasion without affecting CD9 expression or localization. Conclusively, this study points to EGFR as a key mediator between CD9-mediated pro-MMP-9 release and cellular invasion of HT1080 cells.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/biossíntese , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tetraspanina 29/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Gefitinibe , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
12.
J Health Commun ; 8(6): 563-81, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14690889

RESUMO

This paper explores the contrast between the longstanding, intractable conflict between two anesthesia providers and the cooperation of many individual nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologists working side-by-side to provide safe, effective anesthesia. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that communication among anesthesia nurses and anesthesiologists may enact or transcend the conflict. This article proposes recommendations for improving communication between anesthesiologists and certified registered nurse anesthetists in particular and de-escalating intractable conflict in general. It also contributes to communication theory in intractable conflict by examining how individual, interpersonal conflict management interactions lead to either transcendence or enactment of the larger group conflict.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/psicologia , Relações Médico-Enfermeiro , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Negociação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Autonomia Profissional , Estados Unidos
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