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1.
Langmuir ; 38(1): 18-35, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919404

RESUMO

Ice accumulation on exposed surfaces is unavoidable as time elapses and the temperature decreases sufficiently. To mitigate icing problems, various types of icephobic substrates have been rationally designed, including superhydrophobic substrates (SHSs), aqueous lubricating layers, organic lubricating layers, organogels, polyelectrolyte brush layers, electrolyte-based hydrogels, elastic substrates, and multicrack initiator-promoted surfaces. Among these surfaces, elastic substrates show excellent enhanced surface icephobicity during dynamic processes (i.e., water-impacting and de-icing tests). Herein, we summarize recent progress in elastic icephobic substrates and discuss the reasons that surface icephobicity can be enhanced on elastic substrates in terms of enhanced water repellency and further lowering the ice adhesion strength. For enhanced water repellency, we focus on reducing the contact time of water impacting such that water droplets can be easily shed from an elastic substrate before ice occurs. Reducing the contact time of water impacting various substrates (i.e., micro/nanostructured rigid SHSs, macrotextured rigid SHSs, and elastic SHSs) is discussed, followed by exploring their mechanisms. We argue that the ice adhesion strength can be further lowered on an elastic substrate by rationally tuning the elastic modulus and surface textures (i.e., surface textured and hollow subsurface textured) and combining elastic substrate with other passive anti-icing strategies (or functioning passive icephobic substrates with an electrothermal or photothermal stimulus). In short, the introduction of an elastic substrate into a passive or active icephobicity surface opens an avenue toward designing a versatile icephobic surface, providing great potential for outdoor anti-icing applications.

2.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850204

RESUMO

The obligate hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica grows on cereal roots and presents a severe threat to global food security by causing enormous yield losses, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The rapidly increasing Striga seed bank in infested soils provides a major obstacle in controlling this weed. Striga seeds require host derived strigolactones (SLs) for germination, and corresponding antagonists could be used as germination inhibitors. Recently, we demonstrated that the common detergent Triton X-100 is a specific inhibitor of Striga seed germination by binding non-covalently to its receptor, Striga hermonthica HYPO-SENSITIVE TO LIGHT 7 (ShHTL7), without blocking the rice (Oryza sativa) SL receptor DWARF14 (OsD14). Moreover, triazole ureas, the potent covalently binding antagonists of rice SL perception with much higher activity towards OsD14, showed inhibition of Striga but were less specific. Considering that Triton X-100 is not suitable for field application and by combining structural elements of Triton and triazole urea, we developed two hybrid compounds, KK023-N1 and KK023-N2, as potential Striga-specific germination inhibitors. Both compounds blocked the hydrolysis activity of ShHTL7 but did not affect that of OsD14. Binding of KK023-N1 diminished ShHTL7 interaction with Striga hermonthica MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (ShMAX2), a major component in SL signal transduction, and increased ShHTL7 thermal specificity. Docking studies indicate that KK023-N1 binding is not covalent but is caused by hydrophobic interactions. Finally, in vitro and greenhouse tests revealed specific inhibition of Striga seed germination, which led to a 38% reduction in Striga infestation in pot experiments. These findings reveal that KK023-N1 is a potential candidate for combating Striga and a promising basis for rational design and development of further Striga-specific herbicides.

3.
Blood Adv ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861678

RESUMO

An in-frame heterozygous large deletion of exons 4-34 of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene was identified in a type 3 von Willebrand disease (VWD) index patient (IP), as the only VWF variant. The IP exhibited severe bleeding episodes despite prophylaxis treatment, with a short VWF half-life after infusion of VWF/FVIII concentrates. Transcript analysis confirmed transcription of normal VWF mRNA besides an aberrant deleted transcript. The IP endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) exhibited a defect in the VWF multimers and Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) biogenesis, although demonstrating normal VWF secretion, as compared with healthy cells. Immunostaining of IP-ECFCs revealed subcellular mislocalization of WPBs pro-inflammatory cargos angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, nuclear accumulation) and P-selectin. Besides, the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis showed upregulation of pro-inflammatory and proangiogenic genes, P-selectin, IL8, IL6, and GROα, co-packaged with VWF into WPBs. Further, whole-transcriptome RNA-seq and subsequent Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated the most enriched GO-Biological Process terms among the differentially expressed genes in IP-ECFCs were regulation of cell differentiation, cell adhesion, leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial, blood vessel morphogenesis and angiogenesis, which resemble downstream signaling pathways associated with inflammatory stimuli and Ang2 priming. Accordingly, our functional experiments exhibited an increased endothelial cell adhesiveness and interruption in endothelial cell-cell junctions of the IP-ECFCs. In conclusion, the deleted VWF has a dominant-negative impact on multimer assembly and the biogenesis of WPBs, leading to altered trafficking of their pro-inflammatory cargos uniquely, which, in turn, causes changes in cellular signaling pathways, phenotype, and function of the endothelial cells.

4.
J Basic Microbiol ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893989

RESUMO

The need to increase food production and to reduce the pollution caused by synthetic chemicals has led to a search for biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. In the present study, a total of 37 chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from the rhizospheric soil of tomatoes using a chitin agar medium. In vitro bacterial isolates, that is, TD9, TD11, TD15, and TD24 showed strong antagonistic and enzymatic activities against Rhizoctonia (8%-55%), Fusarium (31%-48%), Colletotrichum (24%-49%), and Aspergillus on a dual culture plate and enzyme assay. Furthermore, these putative antagonistic bacterial isolates were identified as Pantoea agglomerans (TD9), Bacillus subtilis (TD11), Bacillus cereus (TD15 and TD24) using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Additionally, in culture filtrate in vivo assay, the isolates TD11 and TD15 inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani about 40% and Fusarium oxysporum about 80%. However, in the pot trials, these two bacterial isolates (TD11 and TD15) considerably suppressed the disease rate in tomatoes caused by Fusarium and Rhizoctonia fungal species. Moreover, it was concluded that B. subtilis (TD11) was found to be the most promising putative biocontrol agent, inhibiting the fungal diseases of tomatoes by 50% and showing versatile antagonistic potential.

5.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211058488, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894809

RESUMO

Nodular localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare form of cutaneous amyloidosis and is characterized by an extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils which are either primarily cutaneous or a manifestation of an underlying systemic amyloidosis. Biopsy of the lesion is mandatory for the diagnosis, and histopathology shows diffuse amyloid deposits with plasmacytic infiltration. Apple-green birefringence characteristic of amyloidosis is observed when stained with Congo red and viewed under polarized light. Amyloid subtyping is done with laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry. Majority of these lesions do not require any treatment but surgical excision, shave excision, laser therapy, and radiotherapy can be considered for symptomatic nodular localized primary cutaneous amyloidosis (NLPCA). We present a case of recurrent NLPCA in a 64-year-old woman who was treated with bortezomib and dexamethasone after failing several local therapies with excellent response.


Assuntos
Amiloidose Familiar , Amiloidose , Amiloidose/tratamento farmacológico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
6.
Children (Basel) ; 8(12)2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943308

RESUMO

Acute infectious gastroenteritis (AGE) is among the leading causes of mortality in children less than 5 years of age worldwide. There are many causative agents that lead to this infection, with rotavirus being the commonest pathogen in the past decade. However, this trend is now being progressively replaced by another agent, which is the norovirus. Apart from the viruses, bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli and parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica also contribute to AGE. These agents can be recognised by their respective biological markers, which are mainly the specific antigens or genes to determine the causative pathogen. In conjunction to that, omics technologies are currently providing crucial insights into the diagnosis of acute infectious gastroenteritis at the molecular level. Recent advancement in omics technologies could be an important tool to further elucidate the potential causative agents for AGE. This review will explore the current available biomarkers and antigens available for the diagnosis and management of the different causative agents of AGE. Despite the high-priced multi-omics approaches, the idea for utilization of these technologies is to allow more robust discovery of novel antigens and biomarkers related to management AGE, which eventually can be developed using easier and cheaper detection methods for future clinical setting. Thus, prediction of prognosis, virulence and drug susceptibility for active infections can be obtained. Case management, risk prediction for hospital-acquired infections, outbreak detection, and antimicrobial accountability are aimed for further improvement by integrating these capabilities into a new clinical workflow.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259801, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767601

RESUMO

The optimal duration of treatment in different forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is not clearly defined. This study aimed to identify predictors of slow clinical response and extended anti-TB treatment in EPTB patients. Socio-demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of EPTB patients registered for anti-TB treatment at a tertiary care hospital, were analysed for identification of predictors of extended treatment. A total of 251 patients (137 lymphadenitis, and 114 pleuritis) were included in the analysis. Treatment was extended to more than 6 months in 58/251 (23%) patients. In the multivariate regression analysis, culture-positive EPTB (p = 0.007) [OR (95% CI) = 3.81 (1.43, 10.11)], history of diabetes (p = 0.014) [OR (95% CI) = 25.18 (1.94, 325.83)], smokeless tobacco use (p = 0.002) [OR (95% CI) = 17.69 (2.80, 111.72)], and slow regression of local signs and symptoms after 2 months of treatment (p < 0.001) [OR (95% CI) = 17.09 [(5.79, 50.39)] were seen to be significantly associated with treatment extension. Identification of predictors of extended treatment can help clinical decisions regarding optimal duration of treatment. Further studies are needed to identify subgroups of EPTB patients who can benefit from a shorter or longer treatment regimen.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2048, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing was proved as an effective tool for increasing testing frequency in gay and bisexual men at high risk of infection. Questions remain about understanding why HIVST encouraged testing and how such success can be translated to programmatic implementation. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative investigation of how FORTH participants experienced and perceived HIVST. Stratified sampling was used to recruit gay and bisexual men participating in the FORTH HIVST intervention to take part in interviews, focusing on infrequent testers and those who had received inaccurate HIVST results. RESULTS: Our analysis identified several prominent themes organized into two overarching domains from the 15 interviews: (i) aspects of HIVST contributing to HIV testing frequency, and (ii) sustaining HIVST into the future. Participants also believed that their use of HIVST in the future would depend on the test kit's reliability, particularly when compared with highly reliable clinic-based testing. CONCLUSION: HIVST increases the frequency of HIV testing among gay and bisexual men due, in part, to the practical, psychological, and social benefits it offers. To capitalize fully on these benefits, however, strategies to ensure the availability of highly reliable HIVST are required to sustain benefits beyond the confines of a structured research study.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19683, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608168

RESUMO

The non-fullerene acceptors A1-A5 with diflourobenzene or quinoline core (bridge) unit, donor cyclopenta[1,2-b:3,4-b']dithiophene unit and 2-(2-methylene-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-ylidene)malononitrile as acceptor unit with additional phenyl, fulvene or thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidinyl 5-oxide groups have been designed through DFT calculations. The optimization of molecular geometries were performed with density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) level of theory. The frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energies, band gap energies and dipole moments (ground and excited state) have been calculated to probe the photovoltaic properties. The band gap (1.42-2.01 eV) and dipole moment values (5.5-18. Debye) showed that these designed acceptors are good candidates for organic solar cells. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results showed λmax (wave length at maximum absorption) value (611-837 nm), oscillator strength (f) and excitation energies (1.50-2.02 eV) in gas phase and in CHCl3 solvent (1.48-1.89 eV) using integral equation formalism variant (IEFPCM) model. The λmax in CHCl3 showed marginal red shift for all designed acceptors compared with gas phase absorption. The partial density of states (PDOS) has been plotted by using multiwfn which showed that all the designed molecules have more electronic distribution at the donor moiety and lowest at the central bridge. The reorganization energies of electron (λe) (0.0007 eV to 0.017 eV), and the hole reorganization energy values (0.0003 eV to - 0.0403 eV) were smaller which suggested that higher charged motilities. The blends of acceptors A1-A5 with donor polymer D1 provided open circuit voltage (Voc) and ∆HOMO off-set of the HOMO of donor and acceptors. These blends showed 1.04 to 1.5 eV values of Voc and 0 to 0.38 eV ∆HOMO off set values of the donor-acceptor bends which indicate improved performance of the cell. Finally, the blend of D1-A4 was used for the study of distribution of HOMO and LUMO. The HOMO were found distributed on the donor polymer (D1) while the A4 acceptor was found with LUMO distribution. Based on λmax values, and band gap energies (Eg), excitation energies (Ex), reorganization energies; the A3 and A4 will prove good acceptor molecules for the development of organic solar cells.

10.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 14: 100214, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671752

RESUMO

Background: A wait-list randomised controlled trial in Australia (FORTH) in high-risk gay and bisexual men (GBM) showed access to free HIV self-tests (HIVSTs) doubled the frequency of HIV testing in year 1 to reach guideline recommended levels of 4 tests per year, compared to two tests per year in the standard-care arm (facility-based testing). In year 2, men in both arms had access to HIVSTs. We assessed if the effect was maintained for a further 12 months. Methods: Participants included GBM reporting condomless anal intercourse or > 5 male partners in the past 3 months. We included men who had completed at least one survey in both year 1 and 2 and calculated the mean tests per person, based on the validated self-report and clinic records. We used Poisson regression and random effects Poisson regression models to compare the overall testing frequency by study arm, year and testing modality (HIVST/facility-based test). Findings: Overall, 362 men completed at least one survey in year 1 and 343 in year 2. Among men in the intervention arm (access to HIVSTs in both years), the mean number of HIV tests in year 2 (3⋅7 overall, 2⋅3 facility-based tests, 1⋅4 HIVSTs) was lower compared to year 1 (4⋅1 overall, 1⋅7 facility-based tests, 2⋅4 HIVSTs) (RR:0⋅84, 95% CI:0⋅75-0⋅95, p=0⋅002), but higher than the standard-care arm in year 1 (2⋅0 overall, RR:1⋅71, 95% CI:1⋅48-1.97, p<0⋅001). Findings were not different when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics or recent high risk sexual history. Interpretation: In year 2, fewer HIVSTs were used on average compared to year 1, but access to free HIVSTs enabled more men to maintain higher HIV testing frequency, compared with facility-based testing only. HIV self-testing should be a key component of HIV testing and prevention strategies. Funding: This work was supported by grant 568971 from the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1222, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697384

RESUMO

The apocarotenoid zaxinone promotes growth and suppresses strigolactone biosynthesis in rice. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying its growth-promoting effect, we employed a combined omics approach integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis of rice seedlings treated with zaxinone, and determined the resulting changes at the cellular and hormonal levels. Metabolites as well as transcripts analysis demonstrate that zaxinone application increased sugar content and triggered glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and other sugar-related metabolic processes in rice roots. In addition, zaxinone treatment led to an increased root starch content and induced glycosylation of cytokinins. The transcriptomic, metabolic and hormonal changes were accompanied by striking alterations of roots at cellular level, which showed an increase in apex length, diameter, and the number of cells and cortex cell layers. Remarkably, zaxinone did not affect the metabolism of roots in a strigolactone deficient mutant, suggesting an essential role of strigolactone in the zaxinone growth-promoting activity. Taken together, our results unravel zaxinone as a global regulator of the transcriptome and metabolome, as well as of hormonal and cellular composition of rice roots. Moreover, they suggest that zaxinone promotes rice growth most likely by increasing sugar uptake and metabolism, and reinforce the potential of this compound in increasing rice performance.

13.
Int J Adv Manuf Technol ; : 1-36, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465936

RESUMO

Cutting fluid has cooling and lubricating properties and is an important part of the field of metal machining. Owing to harmful additives, base oils with poor biodegradability, defects in processing methods, and unreasonable emissions of waste cutting fluids, cutting fluids have serious pollution problems, which pose challenges to global carbon emissions laws and regulations. However, the current research on cutting fluid and its circulating purification technique lacks systematic review papers to provide scientific technical guidance for actual production. In this study, the key scientific issues in the research achievements of eco-friendly cutting fluid and waste fluid treatment are clarified. First, the preparation and mechanism of organic additives are summarized, and the influence of the physical and chemical properties of vegetable base oils on lubricating properties is analyzed. Then, the process characteristics of cutting fluid reduction supply methods are systematically evaluated. Second, the treatment of oil mist and miscellaneous oil, the removal mechanism and approach of microorganisms, and the design principles of integrated recycling equipment are outlined. The conclusion is concluded that the synergistic effect of organic additives, biodegradable vegetable base oils and recycling purification effectively reduces the environmental pollution of cutting fluids. Finally, in view of the limitations of the cutting fluid and its circulating purification technique, the prospects of amino acid additive development, self-adapting jet parameter supply system, matching mechanism between processing conditions and cutting fluid are put forward, which provides the basis and support for the engineering application and development of cutting fluid and its circulating purification.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049673, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where HIV burden is highest, access to testing, a key entry point for prevention and treatment, remains low for adolescents (aged 10-19). Access may be hampered by policies requiring parental consent for adolescents to receive HIV testing services (HTS). In 2013, the WHO recommended countries to review HTS age of consent policies. Here, we investigate country progress and policies on age of consent for HIV testing. DESIGN: Comprehensive policy review. DATA SOURCES: Policies addressing HTS were obtained through searching WHO repositories and governmental and non-governmental websites and consulting country and regional experts. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: HTS policies published by SSA governments before 2019 that included age of consent. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted on HTS age of consent including exceptions based on risk and maturity. Descriptive analyses of included policies were disaggregated by Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) and Western and Central Africa (WCA) subregions. RESULTS: Thirty-nine policies were reviewed, 38 were eligible; 19/38 (50%) permitted HTS for adolescents ≤16 years old without parental consent. Of these, six allowed HTS at ≥12 years old, two at ≥13, two at ≥14, five at ≥15 and four at ≥16. In ESA, 71% (n=15/21) allowed those of ≤16 years old to access HTS, while only 24% (n=6/25) of WCA countries allowed the same. Maturity exceptions including marriage, sexual activity, pregnancy or key population were identified in 18 policies. In 2019, 63% (n=19/30) of policies with clear age-based criteria allowed adolescents of 12-16 years old to access HIV testing without parental consent, an increase from 37% (n=14/38) in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: While many countries in SSA have revised their HTS policies, many do not specify age of consent. Revision of SSA consent to HTS policies, particularly in WCA, remains a priority to achieve the 2025 goal of 95% of people with HIV knowing their status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Casamento , Políticas , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual
15.
Int J Phytoremediation ; : 1-14, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410841

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impact of individual as well as combined application of Lysinibacillus macroides and Bacillus safensis in phytoremediation potential of Brassica napus grown in soil contaminated by industrial effluents. In response to five metals; copper, chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium, results revealed that germination percentage, fresh and dry weights, and photosynthetic pigments of B. napus decreased under contaminated soil. On the other hand, electrolyte leakage due to cellular injury, metabolites (proline and glycine betaine), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase), accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and metals in plant's roots, shoots and leaves increased. Inoculation significantly reduced these effects as proved by the enhancement of germination percentage, fresh and dry biomass, and photosynthetic pigments. Simultaneously, the antioxidant enzymes, metabolites contents (proline and glycine betaine) and metal concentrations in plant's roots, shoots and leaves decreased. Combined application of both Bacilli strains was found more effective as compared to individual inoculation. It was concluded that metal resistant Bacillus species in combination had growth effects on B. napus and enhanced its phytoremediation efficiency in contaminated soil.Novelty statementBrassica napus; a hyper-accumulator of metals, loses phytoremediation potential with the passage of growth. Two Bacillus species (Lysinibacillus macroides and Bacillus safensis) having known bioremediation abilities were employed individually as well as in combination under metals contaminated soil to increase phytoremediation efficiency of B. napus. The metals containing soil used is a unique aspect in this study because selected soil, contaminated by industrial effluents, has not been evaluated or reported earlier. Combined application of Bacilli improved phytoremediation potential of B. napus more as compared to application of individual Bacillus strain which is yet another unique aspect of this investigation.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16117, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373521

RESUMO

The present work used fractional model of Casson fluid by utilizing a generalized Fourier's Law to construct Caputo Fractional model. A porous medium containing nanofluid flowing in a channel is considered with free convection and electrical conduction. A novel transformation is applied for energy equation and then solved by using integral transforms, combinedly, the Fourier and Laplace transformations. The results are shown in form of Mittag-Leffler function. The influence of physical parameters have been presented in graphs and values in tables are discussed in this work. The results reveal that heat transfer increases with increasing values of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, while the velocity of the nanofluid decreases with the increasing values of volume fraction of these particles.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e1018-e1028, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to identify which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing (HIVST) distribution strategies are most effective. METHODS: We abstracted data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies published between 4 June 2006 and 4 June 2019. RESULTS: We included 33 studies, yielding 6 HIVST distribution strategies. All distribution strategies increased testing uptake compared to standard testing: in sub-Saharan Africa, partner HIVST distribution ranked highest (78% probability); in North America, Asia, and the Pacific regions, web-based distribution ranked highest (93% probability), and facility based distribution ranked second in all settings. Across HIVST distribution strategies HIV positivity and linkage was similar to standard testing. CONCLUSIONS: A range of HIVST distribution strategies are effective in increasing HIV testing. HIVST distribution by sexual partners, web-based distribution, as well as health facility distribution strategies should be considered for implementation to expand the reach of HIV testing services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Autoteste , HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Metanálise em Rede , Parceiros Sexuais
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 100991, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278282

RESUMO

Background: We updated a 2017 systematic review and compared the effects of HIV self-testing (HIVST) to standard HIV testing services to understand effective service delivery models among the general population. Methods: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing testing outcomes with HIVST to standard testing in the general population and published between January 1, 2006 and June 4, 2019. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted and pooled risk ratios (RRs) were reported. The certainty of evidence was determined using the GRADE methodology. Findings: We identified 14 eligible RCTs, 13 of which were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Support provided to self-testers ranged from no/basic support to one-on-one in-person support. HIVST increased testing uptake overall (RR:2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.69-2.58; p < 0.0001;13 RCTs; moderate certainty evidence) and by service delivery model including facility-based distribution, HIVST use at facilities, secondary distribution to partners, and community-based distribution. The number of persons diagnosed HIV-positive among those tested (RR:0.81, 0.45-1.47; p = 0.50; 8 RCTs; moderate certainty evidence) and number linked to HIV care/treatment among those diagnosed (RR:0.95, 0.79-1.13; p = 0.52; 6 RCTs; moderate certainty evidence) were similar between HIVST and standard testing. Reported harms/adverse events with HIVST were rare and appeared similar to standard testing (RR:2.52: 0.52-12.13; p = 0.25; 4 RCTs; very low certainty evidence). Interpretation: HIVST appears to be safe and effective among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa with a range of delivery models. It identified and linked additional people with HIV to care. These findings support the wider availability of HIVST to reach those who may not otherwise access testing.

19.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aromatase Inhibitor induced Arthralgia (AIA) can cause noncompliance leading to decreased breast-cancer survival. Effective interventions for AIA are limited. Tart cherry (TC) showed beneficial effect on musculoskeletal pain. 48 patients (Pts) randomized to TC versus placebo over 6 weeks, TC (23pts) had 34.7% mean pain decrease versus 1.4% in Placebo (25pts). TC can improve AIA in nonmetastatic breast-cancer patients. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Eligible patients with NMHPBC on AI for at least 4 weeks were randomized to TC concentrate [50 tart cherries] vs. placebo (P) [syrup] in 1:1 model. Patients instructed to consume 1 Oz of concentrate in 8 Oz water daily for 6 weeks, and document their pain intensity at baseline, weekly and at study completion in a diary using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with 0 mm indicating no pain, and 100 mm indicating highest pain. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled. Two patients did not complete the study due to diarrhea, and 10 patients were noncompliant. Forty-eight patients were included in the final analysis. TC group (23 pts) had 34.7% mean decrease in pain compared to 1.4% in P group (25 pts). This difference was statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U Test, P = .034). CONCLUSIONS: Tart cherry can significantly improve AIA in nonmetastatic breast cancer patient.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203623

RESUMO

To increase the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), molecular studies have been performed to identify the best predictive biomarkers for selecting the most suitable germ cells for fertilization and the best embryo for intra-uterine transfer. However, across different studies, no universal markers have been found. In this study, we addressed this issue by generating gene expression and CpG methylation profiles of outer cumulus cells obtained during intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We also studied the association of the generated genomic data with the clinical parameters (spindle presence, zona pellucida birefringence, pronuclear pattern, estrogen level, endometrium size and lead follicle size) and the pregnancy result. Our data highlighted the presence of several parameters that affect analysis, such as inter-individual differences, inter-treatment differences, and, above all, specific treatment protocol differences. When comparing the pregnancy outcome following the long protocol (GnRH agonist) of ovarian stimulation, we identified the single gene markers (NME6 and ASAP1, FDR < 5%) which were also correlated with endometrium size, upstream regulators (e.g., EIF2AK3, FSH, ATF4, MKNK1, and TP53) and several bio-functions related to cell death (apoptosis) and cellular growth and proliferation. In conclusion, our study highlighted the need to stratify samples that are very heterogeneous and to use pathway analysis as a more reliable and universal method for identifying markers that can predict oocyte development potential.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Oócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Gravidez , Doadores de Tecidos
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