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1.
ACS Omega ; 5(37): 23769-23777, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984696

RESUMO

Core@shell metal nanoparticles have emerged as promising photocatalysts because of their strong and tunable plasmonic properties; however, marked improvements in photocatalytic efficiency are needed if these materials are to be widely used in practical applications. Accordingly, the design of new and functional light-responsive nanostructures remains a central focus of nanomaterial research. To this end, we report the synthesis of nanorattles comprising hollow gold-silver nanoshells encapsulated within vacuous tin oxide shells of adjustable thicknesses (∼10 and ∼30 nm for the two examples prepared in this initial report). These composite nanorattles exhibited broad tunable optical extinctions ranging from ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral regions (i.e., 300-745 nm). Zeta potential measurements showed a large negative surface charge of approximately -35 mV, which afforded colloidal stability to the nanorattles in aqueous solution. We also characterized the nanorattles structurally and compositionally using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Futhermore, finite-difference time-domain simulation and photoluminescence properties of the composited nanoparticles were investigated. Collectively, these studies indicate that our tin oxide-coated hollow gold-silver nanorattles are promising candidates for use in solar-driven applications.

2.
ACS Omega ; 4(27): 22332-22344, 2019 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909316

RESUMO

New ether-substituted poly(1,4-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives were synthesized via Horner-Emmons coupling. The structures of the monomers and the resultant oligomers were confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies. The molecular weights of the oligomers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, giving the number-average and weight-average molecular weights and the corresponding polydispersity indices. Measurements of UV-vis absorption and fluorescence were used to characterize the optical properties of the oligomers. Estimation of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels and other electrochemical characteristics of the oligomers were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Dialkyl and dialkoxy PPV oligomers were also prepared and characterized following the same instrumental methods used for the ether-substituted oligomers, providing a known reference system to judge the performance of the new conjugated oligomers. Devices were fabricated to analyze the electroluminescent characteristics of the oligomers in organic light-emitting diodes.

3.
Langmuir ; 34(23): 6645-6652, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739193

RESUMO

The bidentate aromatic adsorbate, 5-(octadecyloxy)-1,3-benzenedimethanethiol (R1ArmDT), with a specific design of extended S-S distance and a geometric constraint to resist cyclic disulfide formation was synthesized. The film formation and thermal stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) derived from R1ArmDT were investigated and compared to those of SAMs derived from an analogous bidentate dithiol 2-(4-(octadecyloxy)-phenyl)propane-1,3-dithiol (R1ArDT), in which the two sulfur atoms can readily form a cyclic disulfide upon reductive elimination from the surface. Although the SAMs derived from R1ArmDT were less densely packed than those derived from R1ArDT, as judged by the data obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, the SAMs derived from R1ArmDT were markedly more thermally stable than those derived from R1ArDT. The greater thermal stability of the R1ArmDT SAMs can be rationalized on the basis of the structure of the bidentate R1ArmDT headgroup, in which the two pendant sulfur atoms cannot access each other intramolecularly to form a cyclic disulfide upon reductive elimination from the surface.

4.
Gels ; 4(2)2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674804

RESUMO

Gold nanoshells (~160 nm in diameter) were encapsulated within a shell of temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-AA)) using a surface-bound rationally-designed free radical initiator in water for the development of a photothermally-induced drug-delivery system. The morphologies of the resultant hydrogel-coated nanoshells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the temperature-responsive behavior of the nanoparticles was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The diameter of the P(NIPAM-co-AA) encapsulated nanoshells decreased as the solution temperature was increased, indicating a collapse of the hydrogel layer with increasing temperatures. In addition, the optical properties of the composite nanoshells were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of the hydrogel-coated nanoshells appeared at ~800 nm, which lies within the tissue-transparent range that is important for biomedical applications. Furthermore, the periphery of the particles was conjugated with the model protein avidin to modify the hydrogel-coated nanoshells with a fluorescent-tagged biotin, biotin-4-fluorescein (biotin-4-FITC), for colorimetric imaging/monitoring.

5.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 8010-8019, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214234

RESUMO

This paper highlights the relation between the shape of iron oxide (Fe3O4) particles and their magnetic sensing ability. We synthesized Fe3O4 nanocubes and nanospheres having tunable sizes via solvothermal and thermal decomposition synthesis reactions, respectively, to obtain samples in which the volumes and body diagonals/diameters were equivalent. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) data showed that the saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity of 100-225 nm cubic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were, respectively, 1.4-3.0 and 1.1-8.4 times those of spherical MNPs on a same-volume and same-body diagonal/diameter basis. The Curie temperature for the cubic Fe3O4 MNPs for each size was also higher than that of the corresponding spherical MNPs; furthermore, the cubic Fe3O4 MNPs were more crystalline than the corresponding spherical MNPs. For applications relying on both higher contact area and enhanced magnetic properties, higher-Ms Fe3O4 nanocubes offer distinct advantages over Fe3O4 nanospheres of the same-volume or same-body diagonal/diameter. We evaluated the sensing potential of our synthesized MNPs using giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensing and force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS). Preliminary data obtained by GMR sensing confirmed that the nanocubes exhibited a distinct sensitivity advantage over the nanospheres. Similarly, FIRMS data showed that when subjected to the same force at the same initial concentration, a greater number of nanocubes remained bound to the sensor surface because of higher surface contact area. Because greater binding and higher Ms translate to stronger signal and better analytical sensitivity, nanocubes are an attractive alternative to nanospheres in sensing applications.

6.
Langmuir ; 33(36): 8839-8855, 2017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562051

RESUMO

The ability to manipulate interfaces at the nanoscale via a variety of thin-film technologies offers a plethora of avenues for advancing surface applications. These include surfaces with remarkable antibiofouling properties as well as those with tunable physical and electronic properties. Molecular self-assembly is one notably attractive method used to decorate and modify surfaces. Of particular interest to surface scientists has been the thiolate-gold system, which serves as a reliable method for generating model thin-film monolayers that transform the interfacial properties of gold surfaces. Despite widespread interest, efforts to tune the interfacial properties using mixed adsorbate systems have frequently led to phase-separated domains of molecules on the surface with random sizes and shapes depending on the structure and chemical composition of the adsorbates. This feature article highlights newly emerging methods for generating mixed thin-film interfaces, not only to enhance the aforementioned properties of organic thin films, but also to give rise to interfacial compositions never before observed in nature. An example would be the development of monolayers formed from bidentate adsorbates and other unique headgroup architectures that provide the surface bonding stability necessary to allow the assembly of interfaces that expose mixtures of chains that are fundamentally different in character (i.e., either phase-incompatible or structurally dissimilar), producing compositionally "conflicted" interfaces. By also exploring the prior efforts to produce such homogeneously blended interfaces, this feature article seeks to convey the relationships between the methods of film formation and the overall properties of the resulting interfaces.

7.
Langmuir ; 33(18): 4396-4406, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383920

RESUMO

A series of 2-phenylpropane-1,3-dithiol derivatives with single (R1ArDT), double (R2ArDT), and triple (R3ArDT) octadecyloxy chains substituted at the 4-, 3,5-, and, 3,4,5-positions, respectively, on the aromatic ring were synthesized and used to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. Insight into the relationship between the surface chain and headgroup packing densities was investigated by varying the number of surface chains for the bidentate adsorbates in these monolayers. Characterization of the resulting SAMs using ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and contact angle goniometry revealed that the tailgroups become more comformationally ordered and more densely packed as the number of alkyl chains per adsorbate was increased. Conversely, the molecular packing density (i.e., number of molecules per unit area) decreased as the number of alkyl chains per adsorbate was increased. Of particular interest, the desorption profiles obtained in isooctane at 80 °C suggested that the bidentate adsorbate with the most densely packed alkyl chains, R3ArDT, was significantly more stable than the other SAMs, producing the following relative order for thermal stability for the dithiolate SAMs: R3ArDT > R2ArDT > R1ArDT.

8.
Langmuir ; 33(8): 1751-1762, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107018

RESUMO

Organic thin-films on gold were prepared from a set of new, custom-designed bidentate alkanethiols possessing a mixture of normal alkane and methoxy-terminated tri(ethylene glycol) chains. The new unsymmetrical spiroalkanedithiol adsorbates were of the form [CH3O(CH2CH2O)3(CH2)5]-[CH3(CH2)n+1]C[CH2SH]2 where n = 3 and 14; designated EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18, respectively. Their corresponding self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold were characterized and compared with monothiol SAMs derived from an analogous normal alkanethiol (C18SH) and an alkanethiol terminated with an oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moiety (i.e., EG3C7SH). Ellipsometric data revealed reduced film thicknesses for the double-chained dithiolate SAMs, which perhaps arose from the phase-incompatible merger of a hydrocarbon chain with an OEG moiety, contributing to disorder in the films and/or an increase in chain tilt. The comparable wettabilities of the SAMs derived from EG3C7SH and EG3C7-C7, using water as the contacting liquid, are consistent with exposure of the OEG moieties at both interfaces, whereas the lower wettability of the SAM derived from EG3C7-C18 is consistent with exposure of hydrocarbon chains at the interface. The data collected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the new OEG-terminated dithiolate SAMs, and also revealed them as less densely packed monolayers due in part to the large molecular cross section of the OEG moieties and to their double-chained structure with dual surface bonds. Mixed SAMs formed from pairs of monothiols having chain compositions analogous to those of the chains of the new dithiols showed that an EG3C7SH/heptanethiol-mixed SAM and the EG3C7-C7 SAM produced almost identical characterization data, revealing the favorable film formation dynamics for adsorbate structures where the alkyl chains can assemble beneath the phase-incompatible OEG termini. For the mixed SAM formed from EG3C7SH/C18SH, the data indicate that the EG3C7SH component failed to incorporate in the film, demonstrating that the blending of phase-incompatible chains is sometimes best accomplished when both chains exist on a single adsorbate structure. Furthermore, the results of solution-phase thermal desorption tests revealed that the OEG-terminated films generated from the bidentate EG3C7-C7 and EG3C7-C18 adsorbates exhibit enhanced thermal stability when compared to the film generated from monodentate EG3C7SH. In a brief study of protein adsorption, the multicomponent SAMs showed a greater ability to resist the adsorption of fibrinogen on their surfaces when compared to the SAM derived from C18SH, but not better than the monolayer derived from EG3C7SH.

9.
Analyst ; 141(18): 5246-51, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27518879

RESUMO

Magnetic sensing utilizes the detection of biomolecule-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Our new strategy offers a novel approach to magnetic sensing where in situ conversion produces a "loss of signal" in the sensing device. This report demonstrates the enzymatic conversion of Fe3O4 MNPs to a non-magnetic precipitate via reduction by l-ascorbic acid generated by the action of alkaline phosphatase.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita
10.
Langmuir ; 32(34): 8623-30, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482760

RESUMO

A custom-designed semifluorinated phosphonic acid, (9,9,10,10,11,11,12,12,13,13,14,14,15,15,16,16,16-heptadecafluorohexadecyl)phosphonic acid (F8H8PA), and a normal hexadecylphosphonic acid (H16PA) were synthesized and used to generate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on commercially available yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) tapes. In this study, we wished to evaluate the effectiveness of these monolayer films as coatings for selectively etching YBCO. Initial films formed by solution deposition and manual stamping using a non-patterned polydimethylsiloxane stamp allowed for a comparison of the film-formation characteristics. The resulting monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle goniometry, and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). To prepare line-patterned (filamentized) YBCO tapes, standard microcontact printing (µ-CP) procedures were used. The stamped patterns on the YBCO tapes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after etching to confirm the effectiveness of the patterning process on the YBCO surface and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to obtain the atomic composition of the exposed interface.

11.
Langmuir ; 32(29): 7306-15, 2016 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385466

RESUMO

A series of custom-designed alkanethioacetate ligands were synthesized to provide a facile method of attaching maleimide-terminated adsorbates to gold nanostructures via thiolate bonds. Monolayers on flat gold substrates derived from both mono- and dithioacetates, with and without oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) moieties in their alkyl spacers, were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry. For all adsorbates, the resulting monolayers revealed that a higher packing density and more homogeneous surface were generated when the film was formed in EtOH, but a higher percentage of bound thiolate was obtained in THF. A series of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with each adsorbate were prepared to explore how adsorbate structure influences aqueous colloidal stability under extreme conditions, as examined visually and spectroscopically. The AuNPs coated with adsorbates that include OEG moieties exhibited enhanced stability under high salt concentration, and AuNPs capped with dithioacetate adsorbates exhibited improved stability against ligand exchange in competition with dithiothreitol (DTT). Overall, the best results were obtained with a chelating dithioacetate adsorbate that included OEG moieties in its alkyl spacer, imparting improved stability via enhanced solubility in water and superior adsorbate attachment owing to the chelate effect.

12.
ACS Cent Sci ; 2(2): 75-9, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163031

RESUMO

Molecule-specific noncovalent bonding on cell surfaces is the foundation for cellular recognition and functioning. A major challenge in probing these bonds is to resolve the specific bonds quantitatively and efficiently from the nonspecific interactions in a complex environment. Using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS), we were able to resolve quantitatively three different interactions for magnetic beads bearing anti-CD4 antibodies with CD4(+) T cell surfaces based upon their binding forces. The binding force of the CD4 antibody-antigen bonds was determined to be 75 ± 3 pN. For comparison, the same bonds were also studied on a functionalized substrate surface, and the binding force was determined to be 90 ± 6 pN. The 15 pN difference revealed by high-resolution FIRMS illustrates the significant impact of the bonding environment. Because the force difference was unaffected by the cell number or the receptor density on the substrate, we attributed it to the possible conformational or local environmental differences of the CD4 antigens between the cell surface and substrate surface. Our results show that the high force resolution and detection efficiency afforded by FIRMS are valuable for studying protein-protein interactions on cell surfaces.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(24): 15691-9, 2016 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219525

RESUMO

Thermally stable radical initiator monolayers were prepared from uniquely designed α,ω-difunctional adsorbates with bidentate headgroups for the growth of nanoscale polymer films on metal surfaces. The length of the spacer separating the bidentate headgroups was varied to afford 4,4'-(diazene-1,2-diyl)bis(N-(16-(3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy)hexadecyl)-4-cyanopentanamide) (B16), 4,4'-(diazene-1,2-diyl)bis(N-(16-(3,5-bis(mercapto-methyl)phenoxy)decyl)-4-cyanopentanamide) (B10), and 4,4'-(diazene-1,2-diyl)bis(N-(4-(3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy)butyl)-4-cyanopentanamide) (B4). The structural features of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) derived from B16, B10, and B4 were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry, and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and compared to those derived from an analogous α,ω-difunctional adsorbate with monodentate headgroups, 4,4'-(diazene-1,2-diyl)bis(4-cyano-N-(16-mercaptohexadecyl)pentanamide (M). These studies demonstrate that the conformation (i.e., hairpin vs standing up) of the bidentate initiator adsorbates on gold surfaces was easily controlled by adjusting the concentration of the adsorbates in solution. The results of solution-phase thermal desorption tests revealed that the radical initiator monolayers generated from B16, B10, and B4 exhibit an enhanced thermal stability when compared to those generated from M. Furthermore, a study of the growth of polymer films was performed to evaluate the utility of these new bidentate adsorbate SAMs as film-development platforms for new functional materials and devices. Specifically, surface-grafted polystyrene films were successfully generated from SAMs derived from B16. In contrast, attempts to grow polystyrene films from SAMs derived from M under a variety of analogous conditions were unsuccessful.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(14): 9152-61, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973998

RESUMO

Gold-silver nanoshells (GS-NSs) having a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were employed to facilitate charge separation of photoexcited carriers in the photocalytic production of hydrogen from water. Zinc indium sulfide (ZnIn2S4; ZIS), a visible-light-active photocatalyst, where the band gap varies with the [Zn]/[In] ratio, was used as a model ZIS system (E(g) = 2.25 eV) to investigate the mechanisms of plasmonic enhancement associated with the nanoshells. Three types of GS-NS cores with intense absorptions centered roughly at 500, 700, and 900 nm were used as seeds for preparing GS-NS@ZIS core-shell structures via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction, yielding core-shell particles with composite diameters of ∼200 nm. Notably, an interlayer of dielectric silica (SiO2) between the GS-NSs and the ZIS photocatalyst provided another parameter to enhance the production of hydrogen and to distinguish the charge-transfer mechanisms. In particular, the direct transfer of hot electrons from the GS-NSs to the ZIS photocatalyst was blocked by this layer. Of the 10 particle samples examined in this study, the greatest hydrogen gas evolution rate was observed for GS-NSs having a SiO2 interlayer thickness of ∼17 nm and an SPR absorption centered at ∼700 nm, yielding a rate 2.6 times higher than that of the ZIS without GS-NSs. The apparent quantum efficiencies for these core-shell particles were recorded and compared to the absorption spectra. Analyses of the charge-transfer mechanisms were evaluated and are discussed based on the experimental findings.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(8): 5586-94, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841087

RESUMO

A new bromoisobutyrate-terminated alkanethiol, 16-(3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy)hexadecyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (BMTBM), was designed as a bidentate adsorbate to form thermally stable bromoisobutyrate-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on flat gold surfaces to conduct atom-transfer radical polymerizations (ATRPs). The monolayers derived from BMTBM were characterized by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and compared to the monolayers formed from 16-mercaptohexadecyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (MBM), 16-(3-(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy)hexadecyl 2-bromo-2-methyl-propanoate (MTBM), and octadecanethiol (C18SH). In this study, although the monolayer derived from BMTBM was less densely packed than those derived from MBM and MTBM, the bidentate adsorbates demonstrated much higher thermal stability in solution-phase thermal desorption tests, owing to the "chelate effect". The enhanced stability of the BMTBM SAMs ensured the development of thick brushes of poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene at elevated temperatures (60, 90, 105, and 120 °C). In contrast, SAMs derived from MBM and MTBM failed to grow polymer brushes at temperatures above 100 °C.

16.
ACS Omega ; 1(3): 456-463, 2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457139

RESUMO

This article reports the preparation of silver-free Au nanocages from cubic palladium templates. Pd nanocubes were subjected to galvanic replacement with Au3+ to produce Pd@Au nanocages having tunable dimensions (i.e., edge length, gold layer thickness, and hollow pore size), which allowed selectable positioning of the optical extinction maxima from the visible to the near infrared. These new nanocages circumvent the problems associated with previous Ag-derived gold alloy nanocages, which suffer from the toxicity of residual silver and the possible fragmentation of such alloyed nanostructures, thereby limiting their potential applications. In contrast, the present materials represent stable, nontoxic, tunable, and hollow plasmonic nanostructures.

17.
Acc Chem Res ; 48(12): 3007-15, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26579883

RESUMO

Surface dipoles arise from differences in the distribution of electron density of interfacial molecular structures as expressed by charge separation. The direction and magnitude of the associated dipole moments directly impact a variety of interfacial phenomena. For example, the wettability of thin film-coated solid surfaces toward polar contacting liquids can be systematically adjusted by reorienting the direction of an array of interfacial dipoles, while the vector sum total of all of the dipole moments associated with such thin films can be used to tune the work function of a metal. One method of producing such dipole arrays is by coating a surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which is a thin organic film of amphiphilic adsorbates that spontaneously assemble on a surface. The interfacial properties of SAMs can be menu-selected by choice of adsorbate structure using ω-terminated thiols on gold surfaces as a convenient system for studying and utilizing these properties. In this Account, we describe the impact of an array of oriented surface dipoles upon the interfacial energy of the thin film bearing such an array. Our analysis of these films divides the subject of surface dipole arrays into three types: (1) those directing a well-defined electronegative pole toward the interface, (2) those incorporating an invertable polar group, and (3) those directing a well-defined electropositive pole toward the interface. With regard to the first category, we analyze the impact of permanent dipoles on the wettability of alkanethiolate SAMs generated from adsorbates possessing well-defined transitions between terminal fluorocarbon and underlying hydrocarbon chain segments. The second category covers recent reports of light-responsive SAMs formed from azobenzene-based adsorbates. Finally, the third category explores a unique example of a dipole array that exposes the positive ends of the interfacial dipoles formed from CH3-terminated fluorocarbon tailgroups. Our analysis of the SAMs formed from these carefully crafted adsorbates encompassing several series of fluorocarbon-containing thiols provides support for a conclusion that oriented surface dipoles exert a significant influence on interfacial energetics and wettability. In contrast to the limited distance from the interface that a surface dipole array will have upon contacting liquids, the work function of a thin film reflects the influence of all the polar groups within the film. Therefore, we also explore the change in the substrate work function for n-alkanethiol-modified gold surfaces as a function of molecular length and for other adsorbates as a function of their chemical composition.

18.
Langmuir ; 31(22): 6154-63, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961498

RESUMO

Surfaces modified with poly(L-lysine) can be used to immobilize selected biomolecules electrostatically. This report describes the preparation of a set of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) from three different azide-terminated adsorbates as platforms for performing controlled surface attachments and as a means of determining the parameters that afford stable poly(L-lysine)-modified SAM surfaces having controlled packing densities. A maleimide-terminated alkyne linker was "clicked" to the azide-terminated surfaces via a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction to produce the attachment sites for the polypeptides. A thiol-Michael addition was then used to immobilize cysteine-terminated poly(L-lysine) moieties on the gold surface, avoiding adsorbate self-reactions with this two-step procedure. Each step in this process was analyzed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, and contact angle goniometry to determine which adsorbate structure most effectively produced the targeted polypeptide interface. Additionally, a series of mixed SAMs using an azidoalkanethiol in combination with a normal alkanethiol having an equivalent alkyl chain were prepared to provide data to determine how dilution of the azide reactive site on the SAM surface influences the initial click reaction. Overall, the collected data demonstrate the advantages of an appropriately designed bidentate absorbate and its potential to form effective platforms for biomolecule surface attachment via click reactions.


Assuntos
Química Click , Polilisina/química , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Adsorção , Estrutura Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície , Tolueno/química
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(4): 7535-50, 2015 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25854425

RESUMO

We report the first in vitro enzymatic synthesis of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic nanoparticles toward magnetic ELISA reporting. With our procedure, alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of l-ascorbic-2-phosphate, which then serves as a reducing agent for salts of iron, gadolinium, and holmium, forming magnetic precipitates of Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5. The nanoparticles were found to be paramagnetic at 300 K and antiferromagnetic under 25 K. Although weakly magnetic at 300 K, the room-temperature magnetization of the nanoparticles found here is considerably greater than that of analogous chemically-synthesized LnxFeyOz (Ln = Gd, Ho) samples reported previously. At 5 K, the nanoparticles showed a significantly higher saturation magnetization of 45 and 30 emu/g for Fe45±14Gd5±2O50±15 and Fe42±4Ho6±4O52±5, respectively. Our approach of enzymatically synthesizing magnetic labels reduces the cost and avoids diffusional mass-transfer limitations associated with pre-synthesized magnetic reporter particles, while retaining the advantages of magnetic sensing.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análogos & derivados , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Gadolínio/química , Hólmio/química , Ferro/química
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(7): 3981-93, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25611157

RESUMO

Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are associated with the formation of pathogenic biofilms on the surfaces of silicone catheters, which are ubiquitous in medicine. These biofilms provide protection against antimicrobial agents and facilitate the development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The application of photothermal agents on catheter surfaces is an innovative approach to overcoming biofilm-generated CRIs. Gold nanoshells (AuNSs) represent a promising photothermal tool, because they can be used to generate heat upon exposure to near-infrared (NIR) radiation, are biologically inert at physiological temperatures, and can be engineered for the photothermal ablation of cells and tissue. In this study, AuNSs functionalized with carboxylate-terminated organosulfur ligands were attached to model catheter surfaces and tested for their effectiveness at killing adhered Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) bacteria. The morphology of the AuNSs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the elemental composition was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, optical and photothermal properties were acquired by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and thermographic imaging with an infrared camera, respectively. Bacterial survival studies on AuNS-modified surfaces irradiated with and without NIR light were evaluated using a colony-formation assay. These studies demonstrated that AuNS-modified surfaces, when illuminated with NIR light, can effectively kill E. faecalis on silicone surfaces.


Assuntos
Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos da radiação , Ouro/química , Nanoconchas/química , Silicones/química , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Temperatura
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