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1.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(11): e22897, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448514

RESUMO

Phosphine (PH3 ) is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. On the contrary, many cases of PH3 poisoning have been reported worldwide. Unfortunately, there is no specific antidote against PH3 toxicity. Disruption of mitochondrial function and energy metabolism is a well-known mechanism of PH3 cytotoxicity. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is an adenosine triphosphate supplying agent which significantly improves mitochondrial function. The current study was designed to evaluate DHA's effect on inhalational PH3 poisoning in an animal model. DHA was injected into BALB/c mice before and/or after the start of the PH3 inhalation. The cytochrome c oxidase activity was assessed in the animals' brain, heart, and liver exposed to PH3 (for 15, 30, and 60 min, with and without the antidote). The LC50 of PH3 was calculated to be 18.02 (15.42-20.55) ppm over 2 h of exposure. Pretreatment of DHA (1 or 2 g/kg) increased the LC50 of PH3 by about 1.6- or 3-fold, respectively. Posttreatment with DHA (2 g/kg) increased the LC50 of PH3 by about 1.4-fold. PH3 inhibited the activity of cytochrome c oxidase in the assessed organs. It was found that DHA treatment restored mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. These findings suggested that DHA could be an effective antidote for PH3 poisoning.

2.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(9): e22846, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250697

RESUMO

The liver is the primary organ affected by cholestasis. However, the brain, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney are also severely influenced by cholestasis/cirrhosis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of organ injury in cholestasis. The current study was designed to evaluate the mitochondrial glutathione redox state as a significant index in cell death. Moreover, tissue energy charge (EC) was calculated. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) and the brain, heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle mitochondria were assessed at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL). A significant decrease in mitochondrial glutathione redox state and EC was detected in BDL animals. Moreover, disturbed mitochondrial indices were evident in different organs of BDL rats. These data could offer new insight into the mechanisms of organ injury and the source of oxidative stress during cholestasis and might provide novel therapeutic strategies against these complications.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxirredução , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 104979, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140181

RESUMO

A series of aryl phenoxy methyl triazole conjugated with thiosemicarbazides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibitory activities in the presence of l-dopa and l-tyrosine as substrates. All the compounds showed tyrosinase inhibition in the sub-micromolar concentration. Among the derivatives, compound 9j bearing benzyl displayed exceptionally high potency against tyrosinase with IC50 value of 0.11 µM and 0.17 µM in the presence of l-tyrosine and l-dopa as substrates which is significantly lower than that of kojic acid as the positive control with an IC50 value of 9.28 µM for l-tyrosine and 9.30 µM for l-dopa. According to Lineweaver-Burk plot, 9j demonstrated an uncompetitive type of inhibition in the kinetic assay. Also, in vitro antioxidant activities determined by DPPH assay recorded an IC50 value of 68.43 µM for 9i. The melanin content of 9j was determined on B16F10 melanoma human cells which demonstrated a significant reduction of the melanin content. Moreover, the binding energies corresponding to the same ligand as well as computer-aided drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic studies were also carried out. Compound 9j also possessed metal chelation potential correlated to its high anti-TYR activity.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 603262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842567

RESUMO

Lithium (Li+) is prescribed against a wide range of neurological disorders. Besides its excellent therapeutic properties, there are several adverse effects associated with Li+. The impact of Li+ on renal function and diabetes insipidus is the most common adverse effect of this drug. On the other hand, infertility and decreased libido is another complication associated with Li+. It has been found that sperm indices of functionality, as well as libido, is significantly reduced in Li+-treated men. These adverse effects might lead to drug incompliance and the cessation of drug therapy. Hence, the main aims of the current study were to illustrate the mechanisms of adverse effects of Li+ on the testis tissue, spermatogenesis process, and hormonal changes in two experimental models. In the in vitro experiments, Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from healthy mice, cultured, and exposed to increasing concentrations of Li+ (0, 10, 50, and 100 ppm). In the in vivo section of the current study, mice were treated with Li+ (0, 10, 50, and 100 ppm, in drinking water) for five consecutive weeks. Testis and sperm samples were collected and assessed. A significant sign of cytotoxicity (LDH release and MTT assay), along with disrupted testosterone biosynthesis, impaired mitochondrial indices (ATP level and mitochondrial depolarization), and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress were detected in LCs exposed to Li+. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum and testis Li+ levels were detected in drug-treated mice. Moreover, ROS formation, LPO, protein carbonylation, and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were detected in both testis tissue and sperm specimens of Li+-treated mice. Several sperm anomalies were also detected in Li+-treated animals. On the other hand, sperm mitochondrial indices (mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity and ATP levels) were significantly decreased in drug-treated groups where mitochondrial depolarization was increased dose-dependently. Altogether, these data mention oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as pivotal mechanisms involved in Li+-induced reproductive toxicity. Therefore, based on our previous publications in this area, therapeutic options, including compounds with high antioxidant properties that target these points might find a clinical value in ameliorating Li+-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system.

5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1191-1203, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527194

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a clinical complication with different etiologies. The liver is the primary organ influenced in cholestasis. Renal injury is also a severe clinical complication in cholestatic/cirrhotic patients. Several studies mentioned the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as two mechanistically interrelated events in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This molecule is involved in a distinct pathway of cell death. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of AIF in the pathophysiology of cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as an animal model of cholestasis. Serum, urine, and tissue samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL surgery). Tissues' AIF mRNA levels, as well as serum, urine, and tissue activity of AIF, were measured. Moreover, markers of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. A significant increase in liver and kidney AIF mRNA levels, in addition to increased AIF activity in the liver, kidney, serum, and urine, was detected in BDL rats. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were raised in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals, especially at the early stage of the disease. The apoptotic mode of cell death in the liver and kidney was connected to a higher AIF level. These data mention the importance of AIF in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury, especially at the early stage of this disease. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) seems to play a pathogenic role in cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. AIF release is directly connected to oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in cholestatic animals.

6.
Int J Toxicol ; 40(2): 153-160, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438493

RESUMO

Melanin is a group of natural pigments that determines the human skin color and provides fundamental protection against the harmful impacts of physical and chemical stimuli. The aim of this study was to establish the regulatory role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induced melanogenesis. In the present study, following knockdown of AhR, murine B16F10 cells were treated with α-MSH (200 nM) and tyrosinase activities, cellular melanin content, mRNA levels of several important genes involved in melanogenesis including AhR, CTNNB1, TYR2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were measured as endpoints. Exposure to α-MSH led to elevated expression of AhR, CTNNB1, MITF, and TYR in accordance with increased tyrosinase enzyme activity as well as a significant rise in the total melanin content. Our results suggest that AhR plays a regulatory role in α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis.

7.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(2): 521-533, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103380

RESUMO

The ovariectomized rat is a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal and its complications. In this study, the therapeutic effect of flaxseed oil on the ovariectomized adult rats was investigated. Our results showed that biochemical parameters including calcium, oestrogen and progesterone levels increase 8 weeks after ovariectomy in rats. Also, the amount of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly after 8 weeks compared with the OVX rat. The healing potential of flaxseed oil was proven by successfully recovering the affected tissue and preventing the unpleasant symptoms of ovariectomized rats. The biological effects of flaxseed oil may be due to high amounts of fatty acids, phytoestrogens and an array of antioxidants. The results suggest that flaxseed oil can mimic the action of oestrogen and can be a potential treatment for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

8.
Stress ; 24(2): 213-228, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510264

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication. Obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) is known as an animal model to investigate cholestasis and its associated complications. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and thiol reductant widely investigated for its cytoprotective properties. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of NAC treatment on biomarkers of oxidative stress and organ histopathological alterations in a rat model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. BDL animals were supplemented with NAC (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p, 42 consecutive days). Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, serum, and kidney tissue, as well as organ histopathological changes, were monitored. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were detected in different tissues of BDL rats. Moreover, tissue antioxidant capacity was hampered, glutathione (GSH) reservoirs were depleted, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were significantly increased in the BDL group. Significant tissue histopathological alterations were evident in cirrhotic animals. It was found that NAC treatment (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p) significantly mitigated biomarkers of oxidative stress and alleviated tissue histopathological changes in cirrhotic rats. These data represent NAC as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability in cirrhosis and its associated complications.HIGHLIGHTSCholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication that affects different organsOxidative stress plays a pivotal role in cholestasis-associated complicationsTissue antioxidant capacity is hampered in different tissues of cholestatic animalsAntioxidant therapy might play a role in the management of cholestasis-induced organ injuryNAC alleviated biomarkers of oxidative stress in cholestatic animalsNAC significantly improved tissues histopathological alterations in cholestatic rats.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Estresse Psicológico , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5487659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299871

RESUMO

Background: Treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered one of the public health priorities in the past decade. So far, probiotics have represented promising results in controlling the signs and symptoms of NAFLD. However, attempts to find the ideal probiotic strain are still ongoing. The present study is designed to find the best strain amongst suitable probiotic strains according to their ability to ameliorate histopathological and oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatic steatosis-induced rats. Methods: Initially, four probiotics species, including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus, L. casei, L. reuteri, and Bacillus coagulans, were cultured and prepared as a lyophilized powder for animals. The experiment lasted for fifty days. Initially, hepatic steatosis was induced by excessive ingestion of D-fructose in rats for eight weeks, followed by eight weeks of administering probiotics and D-fructose concurrently. Forty-two six-week-old male rats were alienated to different groups and were supplemented with different probiotics (1∗109 CFU in 500 mL drinking water). After eight weeks, blood and liver samples were taken for further evaluation, and plasma and oxidative stress markers corresponding to liver injuries were examined. Results: Administration of probiotics over eight weeks reversed hepatic and blood triglyceride concentration and blood glucose levels. Also, probiotics significantly suppressed markers of oxidative stress in the liver tissue. Conclusions: Although some of the single probiotic formulations were able to mitigate oxidative stress markers, mixtures of probiotics significantly ameliorated more symptoms in the NAFLD animals. This enhanced effect might be due to probiotics' cumulative potential to maintain oxidative stress and deliver improved lipid profiles, liver function markers, and inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus reuteri , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/microbiologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Iogurte
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 10085-10098, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363368

RESUMO

Purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a critical situation in which liver failure affects brain function. HE could result in a state of coma and death. The liver is the main organ for ammonium ion (NH4 +) metabolism. Hence, acute and/or chronic liver failure could lead to hyperammonemia. NH4 + is the most suspected neurotoxic agent in HE. Thus, finding new therapeutic options to decrease plasma and brain NH4 + levels has a significant clinical value. Mesoporous silica (MS) particles have revolutionized many aspects of pharmaceutical sciences, including drug delivery systems. Moreover, recently, MS has been applied as agents for the detoxification of chemicals (eg, drugs and poisons). Methods: First, MS particles containing amine groups (MS-NH2) were synthesized in co-condensation processes. Then, the structure was modified by succinic anhydride to have MS-SA. The MS-SA was characterized (FT-IR, XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), DLS-Zeta FESEM-EDX, and HRTEM). Then, the potential of MS-NH2 and MS-SA particles in adsorption of NH4 + was investigated in vitro and in vivo. MS-NH2 and MS-SA were incubated with increasing concentrations (0.1-10 mM) of NH4 +, and the scavenging capacity of the investigated particles was evaluated. On the other hand, different doses (1 and 5 mg/kg per day) of nanoparticles were administered to a hyperammonemia animal model. Results: It was figured out that both MS-NH2 and MS-SA significantly scavenged NH4 + in the in vitro model. However, the NH4 + scavenging capability of MS-SA was more significant. Administration of MS-NH2 and MS-SA also considerably decreased the level of ammonium in plasma and brain and improved cognitive and locomotor activity in hyperammonemic animals. The effects of MS-SA were more significant than MS-NH2 in the HE animal model. Conclusion: Collectively, our data suggest that MS particles, especially succinic acid-functionalized MS, could act as special ancillary treatment in HE as a critical clinical complication.


Assuntos
Amônia/isolamento & purificação , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Ácido Succínico/química , Adsorção , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalopatia Hepática/sangue , Encefalopatia Hepática/fisiopatologia , Íons , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Porosidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Difração de Raios X
11.
J Exp Pharmacol ; 12: 517-527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235522

RESUMO

Purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is described as impaired brain function induced by liver failure. Ammonia is the most suspected chemical involved in brain injury during HE. Although the precise mechanism of HE is not clear, several studies mentioned the role of oxidative stress in ammonia neurotoxicity. In animal models, the use of some compounds with antioxidant properties was reported to reduce the neurotoxic effects of ammonia, improve energy metabolism, and ameliorate the HE symptoms. Citicoline is a principal intermediate in the biosynthesis pathway of phosphatidylcholine that acts as neurovascular protection and repair effects. Various studies mentioned the neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of citicoline in the central nervous system. This study aims to investigate the potential protective effects of citicoline therapeutic in an animal model of HE. Materials and Methods: Mice received acetaminophen (APAP,1g/kg, i. p.) and then treated with citicoline (500 mg/kg, i.p) one and two hours after APAP. Animals were monitored for locomotor activity and blood and brain ammonia levels. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress were assessed in the brain tissue. Results: The result of the study revealed that plasma and brain ammonia and the liver injury markers increased, and locomotor activity impaired in the APAP-treated animals. Besides, an increase in markers of oxidative stress was evident in the brain of the APAP-treated mice. It was found that citicoline supplementation enhanced the animal's locomotor activity and improved brain tissue markers of oxidative stress. Conclusion: These data propose citicoline as a potential protective agent in HE. The effects of citicoline on oxidative stress markers could play a fundamental role in its neuroprotective properties during HE.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110973, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781346

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) exerts a wide range of adverse effects on biological systems, including the reproductive organs in males and females. However, the mechanisms of As-induced reproductive toxicity are mostly obscure. Recently, we showed that autophagy is an essential route for As2O3-induced reprotoxicity through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-sperm (HPG-S) axis in pubertal and matured F1-male mice. However, the role of autophagy in As2O3- induced ovarian toxicity is mostly unknown. Hence, this study aimed to elucidate the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, and autophagic processes in the ovary of As-exposed female mice. For this purpose, mature female mice were challenged with 0, low (0.2), medium (2), and high (20 ppm) As2O3 from 35-days before mating till weaning their pups, and the F1- females from weaning until maturity. Then, all the mice were sacrificed, and oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial indices, electron microscopic evaluation of the ovaries, expression of autophagic-related genes and proteins, and autophagosome formation were assessed. It was shown that medium and high As2O3 doses were a potent inducer of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy in the ovary of F1-generation. A dose-dependent increment in the gene expression of PDK1, PI3K, TSC2, AMPK, ULK1, ATG13, Beclin1, ATG12, ATG5, LC3, P62, ATG3, ATG7, and p62, as well as protein expression of Beclin1, and LC3- I, II, was evident in the ovaries of the As-treated animals. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of mTOR and Bcl-2 genes, and mTOR protein was detected with increasing doses of As, suggesting that As treatment-induced autophagy. Along with a dose-dependent increase in the number of MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles, transmission electron microscopy also confirmed more autophagosomes and injured mitochondria in medium and high As2O3 doses groups. As2O3 also negatively affected the mean body weight, litter size, organ coefficient, and stereological indices in female mice. Finally, in physiological conditions, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) leads to an increased level of autophagy in the oocyte when many oocytes were being lost. These findings indicated that an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system, mitochondrial impairment, and the autophagic process, through inhibition of mTOR, dependent and independent pathways, and Bcl-2, as well as activation of AMPK/PI3K/Beclin1/LC3 routes, could play a pivotal role in As-induced reproductive toxicity through ovarian dysfunction in females.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 195(1): 125-134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313246

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (AS) causes abnormalities in the reproductive system; however, the precise cellular pathway of AS toxicity on steroidogenesis in developing F1-male mice has not been clearly defined. In this study, paternal mice were treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3; 0, 0.2, 2, and 20 ppm in drinking water) from 5 weeks before mating until weaning and continued for male offspring from weaning until maturity (in vivo). Additionally, Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from the testes of sacrificed F1-intact mature male mice and incubated with As2O3 (0, 1, 10, and 100 µM) for 48 h (in vitro). Biomarkers of mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and several steroidogenic genes, including the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleaving enzyme (P450scc; Cyp11a), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD), were evaluated. High doses of As2O3 interrupted testosterone (T) biosynthesis and T-related gene expression in these experimental models. Altogether, overconsumption of As2O3 can cause testicular and LC toxicity through mitochondrial-related pathways and oxidative stress indices as well as downregulation of androgenic-related genes in mice and isolated LCs. These results could lead to the development of preventive/therapeutic procedures against As2O3-induced reproductive toxicity. Graphical Abstract Mohammad Mehdi Ommati and Reza Heidari contributed equally to this study.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo
14.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 591558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392285

RESUMO

Carbon-based nanomaterials possess a remarkably high potential for biomedical applications due to their physical properties; however, their detrimental effects on reproduction are also concerned. Several reports indicate the toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNT); nevertheless, their impact on intracellular organelles in the male reproductive organs has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we report on the reprotoxicity of single-walled (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCN) on several intracellular events and histological criteria in pubertal male BALB/c mice orally treated with 0, 10, and 50 mg/kg/day doses for 5 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial functionality, histopathological alterations, and epididymal sperm characteristics were determined. Oral administration of CNTs at 10 and 50 mg/kg evoked a significant decrement in weight coefficient, sperm viability and motility, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, sperm count, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, ATP content, total antioxidant capacity, and GSH/GSSH ratio in the testis and epididymal spermatozoa. On the other hand, percent abnormal sperm, testicular and sperm TBARS contents, protein carbonylation, ROS formation, oxidized glutathione level, and sperm mitochondrial depolarization were considerably increased. Significant histopathological and stereological alterations in the testis occurred in the groups challenged with CNTs. The current findings indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment might substantially impact CNTs-induced reproductive system injury and sperm toxicity. The results can also be used to establish environmental standards for CNT consumption by mammals, produce new chemicals for controlling the rodent populations, and develop therapeutic approaches against CNTs-associated reproductive anomalies in the males exposed daily to these nanoparticles.

15.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 69(10): 523-527, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499543

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban as a small molecule is able to directly and reversibly inhibit the factor Xa. This study was designed to figure out the evaluation effect of rivaroxaban on mitochondria obtained from rat kidneys. We isolated mitochondria from rat kidneys using gradient centrifugation. Then, the toxicity parameters including succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and cytochrome c release were measured in kidneys mitochondria following the exposure to rivaroxaban. The results showed that rivaroxaban (1.4 and 2.8 mM) raised the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, swelling in the mitochondria, collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria isolated from kidneys. While, rivaroxaban at a higher concentration of 5.6 mM showed the opposite effect compared to other lower concentrations. The results indicate that rivaroxaban may have antioxidant effects at high concentrations. The results suggest that rivaroxaban (5.6 mM) has protective effects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Rim/citologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rivaroxabana/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
16.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 5(2): 109-117, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501786

RESUMO

Aim of the study: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome ensuing from liver failure. The liver is the major site of ammonia detoxification in the human body. Hence, acute and chronic liver dysfunction can lead to hyperammonemia. Manganese (Mn) is a trace element incorporated in several physiological processes in the human body. Mn is excreted through bile. It has been found that cirrhosis is associated with hyperammonemia as well as body Mn accumulation. The brain is the primary target organ for both ammonia and Mn toxicity. On the other hand, brain mitochondria impairment is involved in the mechanism of Mn and ammonia neurotoxicity. Material and methods: The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of Mn and ammonia and their combination on mitochondrial indices of functionality in isolated brain mitochondria. Isolated brain mitochondria were exposed to increasing concentrations of ammonia and Mn alone and/or in combination and several mitochondrial indices were assessed. Results: The collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial permeabilization, reactive oxygen species formation, and a significant decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and ATP content were evident in Mn-exposed (0.005-1 mM) brain mitochondria. On the other hand, ammonia (0.005-0.5 mM) caused no significant changes in brain mitochondrial function. It was found that co-exposure of the brain mitochondria to Mn and ammonia causes more evident mitochondrial impairment in comparison with Mn and/or ammonia alone. Conclusions: These data indicate additive toxicity of ammonia and Mn in isolated brain mitochondria exposed to these neurotoxins.

17.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 60-72, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520699

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a significant decrease in bile flow. The liver is the primary organ affected by cholestasis. Chronic cholestasis could entail to tissue fibrotic changes and liver cirrhosis. Other organs, including heart, kidneys, nervous system, skeletal muscles, as well as the reproductive system, might also be affected during cholestasis. Although the cholestasis-associated pathological and biochemical alterations in organs such as liver have been widely investigated, there is little information about complications such as cholestasis-induced reproductive toxicity. The current study aimed to evaluate the pathologic effects of cholestasis on reproductive organs in both male and female animals. Rats underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) surgery. Markers of reproductive toxicity, including serum hormonal changes, tissue histopathological alterations, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and markers of mitochondrial impairment, were evaluated. Increased serum markers of liver injury and elevated level of cytotoxic molecules such as bile acids and bilirubin were evident in BDL animals. On the other hand, the serum level of hormones such as testosterone was suppressed in BDL rats. Significant histopathological alterations were also evident in the testis and ovary of BDL animals. A significant increase in oxidative stress markers, including ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and depleted glutathione and antioxidant reservoirs were also detected in BDL rats. Moreover, mitochondrial depolarization decreased dehydrogenases activity, and depleted ATP content was detected in sperm isolated from the BDL group. These data indicate that cholestasis-associated reproductive toxicity in male and female rats is restrictedly coupled with severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Reprodução , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ligadura , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Carbonilação Proteica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medição de Risco , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 187(1): 151-162, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767280

RESUMO

Lead (Pb)-induced reproductive toxicity is a well-characterized adverse effect associated with this heavy metal. It has been found that Pb exposure is associated with altered spermatogenesis, increased testicular degeneration, and pathological sperm alterations. On the other hand, it has been reported that Pb-induced reproductive toxicity is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and diminished antioxidant capacity in the reproductive system. Hence, administration of antioxidants as protective agents might be of value against Pb-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to investigate whether carnosine (CAR) and histidine (HIS) supplementation would mitigate the Pb-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Animals received Pb (20 mg/kg/day, oral, 14 consecutive days) alone or in combination with CAR (250 and 500 mg/kg/day, oral, 14 consecutive days) or HIS (250 and 500 mg/kg/day, oral, 14 consecutive days). Pb toxicity was evident in the reproductive system by a significant increase in tissue markers of oxidative stress along with severe histopathological changes, seminal tubule damage, tubular desquamation, low spermatogenesis index, poor sperm parameters, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function. It was found that CAR and HIS supplementation blunted the Pb-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat reproductive system. Thereby, antioxidative and mitochondria-protective properties serve as primary mechanisms for CAR and HIS against Pb-induced reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Carnosina/farmacologia , Histidina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Histidina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 30(1): 91-101, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205645

RESUMO

Background Proline is a proteinogenic amino acid with multiple biological functions. Several investigations have been supposed that cellular proline accumulation is a stress response mechanism. This amino acid acts as an osmoregulator, scavenges free radical species, boosts cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, protects mitochondria, and promotes energy production. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of proline treatment on the liver in bile duct ligated (BDL) rats as an animal model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. Methods BDL rats were supplemented with proline-containing drinking water (0.25% and 0.5% w:v), and samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after BDL surgery). Results Drastic elevation in the serum level of liver injury biomarkers and significant tissue histopathological changes were evident in BDL rats. Markers of oxidative stress were also higher in the liver of BDL animals. It was found that proline supplementation attenuated BDL-induced alteration in serum biomarkers of liver injury, mitigated liver histopathological changes, and alleviated markers of oxidative stress at the early stage of BDL operation (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL surgery). Conclusions The hepatoprotection provided by proline in BDL animals might be associated with its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and its consequences.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Hepática Aguda/prevenção & controle , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ductos Biliares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Prolina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 32(11): e22216, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152904

RESUMO

Brain tissue manganese (Mn) accumulation is a cirrhosis-associated complication. Cellular mitochondria are among the potential targets for Mn-induced cytotoxicity. Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids with high concentrations in human brain tissue. Several pharmacological properties including regulation of mitochondrial function are attributed to taurine. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of taurine on Mn-induced mitochondrial impairment in isolated mice brain mitochondria. The brain mitochondria were exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn (0.1-10 mM). Taurine (0.1, 1, and 10 mM) was added as the protective agent. The severe collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, mitochondrial swelling, and depleted mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were evident in Mn-exposed mitochondria. It was found that taurine administration preserved mitochondrial ATP, prevented mitochondrial depolarization and swelling, and increased mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity. These data suggest mitochondrial protection as an underlying mechanism for the protective effects of taurine against Mn toxicity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Manganês/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Dilatação Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/agonistas , Trifosfato de Adenosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatia Hepática/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Cinética , Masculino , Manganês/efeitos adversos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/química , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/agonistas , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxirredutases/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/uso terapêutico
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