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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246904, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345524

RESUMO

Abstract Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Resumo A hiperidricidade é um distúrbio fisiológico sério e afeta a propagação in vitro de muitas plantas e também da Salvia santolinifolia. O material doador para iniciar a cultura in vitro foi o calo retirado dos brotos in vitro produzidos em meio Murashig e Skoogs (MS) a 4,0 mg / l BA. Esse calo formou numerosos rebentos hiperídricos em cultura no meio da mesma composição. O objetivo foi avaliar sistematicamente o efeito das citocininas (Benziladnina (BA) e N6 - (- 2-isopentenil) adenina (2iP), magnitude dos vasos de cultura, solidificação do meio, fonte de nitrogênio e cloreto de cálcio para o alívio da hiperidricidade. culturas de tecidos de S. santolinifolia BA e 2iP induziram hiperidricidade severa, quando outros fatores, como magnitude dos vasos de cultura e uma concentração adequada de ágar, nitrato de amônio (NH4NO3), nitrato de potássio (KNO3) e cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2.2H2O), não foram otimizados. Após 30 dias de cultura, observamos 83,82% de brotos hiperídricos em níveis aumentados (1,5 mg / l 2iP) e 81,59% em níveis reduzidos (1,0 mg / l 2iP). Por outro lado, a porcentagem de hiperidricidade diminuiu (0,4%) e em níveis aumentados (0,8%) de ágar foram 72,37% e 39,08%, respectivamente. A modificação do meio MS com NH4NO3 (412 mg / l), KNO3 (475 mg / l) e CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg / l) foi encontrada melhor hiperidricidade média a reduzida (23,6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Brotos de Planta , Meios de Cultura
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Endossulfano/análise
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
4.
J Evol Biol ; 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357998

RESUMO

Sperm cells are exceptionally morphologically diverse across taxa. However, morphology can be quite uniform within species, particularly for species where females copulate with many males per reproductive bout. Strong sexual selection in these promiscuous species is widely hypothesized to reduce intraspecific sperm variation. Conversely, we hypothesize that intraspecific sperm size variation may be maintained by high among-female variation in the size of sperm storage organs, assuming that paternity success improves when sperm are compatible in size with the sperm storage organ. We use individual-based simulations and an analytical model to evaluate how selection on sperm size depends on promiscuity level and variation in sperm storage organ size (hereafter, female preference variation). Simulations of high promiscuity (10 mates per female) showed stabilizing selection on sperm when female preference variation was low, and disruptive selection when female preference variation was high, consistent with the analytical model results. With low promiscuity (2-3 mates per female), selection on sperm was stabilizing for all levels of female preference variation in the simulations, contrasting with the analytical model. Promiscuity level, or mate sampling, thus has a strong impact on the selection resulting from female preferences. Furthermore, when promiscuity is low, disruptive selection on male traits will occur under much more limited circumstances (i.e. only with higher among-female variation) than many previous models suggest. Variation in female sperm storage organs likely has strong implications for intraspecific sperm variation in highly promiscuous species, but likely does not explain differences in intraspecific sperm variation for less promiscuous taxa.

5.
Infection ; 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immunological phenomena are a minor criteria in the modified Duke Criteria for endocarditis. Given the changes in epidemiology and diagnostics, the added value of determining these phenomena in today's patients with suspected endocarditis is unknown. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of all patients with suspected endocarditis admitted to our hospital and discussed in our endocarditis team, we determined the proportion of patients classified as definite endocarditis because of either positive IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM RF), haematuria, or Roth's spots on ophthalmology consultation. We also determined diagnostic accuracy of each of these immunological phenomena separately and combined. RESULTS: Of 285 patients included, 138 (48%) had definite endocarditis and at least one immunological test was performed in 222 patients (78%). Elevated IgM RF was found in 22 of 126 patients tested (17%), haematuria in 78 of 196 tested (40%) and Roth's spots in six of 120 tested (5%). Eighteen of 138 patients with definite IE (13%) were classified as such because of a positive IgM RF, haematuria or Roth's spots. Haematuria had the highest sensitivity: 50.5% (95% CI 40.4-60.6) and Roth's spots the highest specificity: 98.3% (95% CI 90.8-99.9). The diagnostic accuracy results were robust in a sensitivity analysis aimed at avoiding incorporation bias. CONCLUSION: Among patients with a clinical suspicion of endocarditis, recommended systematic testing for immunological phenomena helped classify more patients as definite IE and is useful to confirm the diagnosis of endocarditis.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6870, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369265

RESUMO

Firn (compressed snow) covers approximately 90[Formula: see text] of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and currently retains about half of rain and meltwater through refreezing, reducing runoff and subsequent mass loss. The loss of firn could mark a tipping point for sustained GrIS mass loss, since decades to centuries of cold summers would be required to rebuild the firn buffer. Here we estimate the warming required for GrIS firn to reach peak refreezing, using 51 climate simulations statistically downscaled to 1 km resolution, that project the long-term firn layer evolution under multiple emission scenarios (1850-2300). We predict that refreezing stabilises under low warming scenarios, whereas under extreme warming, refreezing could peak and permanently decline starting in southwest Greenland by 2100, and further expanding GrIS-wide in the early 22[Formula: see text] century. After passing this peak, the GrIS contribution to global sea level rise would increase over twenty-fold compared to the last three decades.

7.
Geophys Res Lett ; 49(18): e2022GL100585, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246739

RESUMO

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are efficient mechanisms for transporting atmospheric moisture from low latitudes to the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). While AR events occur infrequently, they can lead to extreme precipitation and surface melt events on the AIS. Here we estimate the contribution of ARs to total Antarctic precipitation, by combining precipitation from atmospheric reanalyses and a polar-specific AR detection algorithm. We show that ARs contribute substantially to Antarctic precipitation, especially in East Antarctica at elevations below 3,000 m. ARs contribute substantially to year-to-year variability in Antarctic precipitation. Our results highlight that ARs are an important component for understanding present and future Antarctic mass balance trends and variability.

8.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital myopathies are rare neuromuscular disorders presenting with a wide spectrum of clinical features, including long bone fractures (LBFs) that negatively influence functional prognosis, quality of life and survival. Systematic research on bone quality in these patients is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to summarize all evidence on bone quality and to deduce recommendations for bone quality management in congenital myopathies. METHODS: Five electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL) were searched. All studies on bone quality in congenital myopathies were included. Decreased bone quality was defined as low bone mineral density and/or (fragility) LBFs. Study selection and data extraction were performed by three independent reviewers. RESULTS: We included 244 single cases (mean: 4.1±7.6 years; median: 0 years) diagnosed with a congenital myopathy from 35 articles. Bone quality was decreased in 93 patients (37%) (mean: 2.6±6.8 years; median: 0 years). Low bone mineral density was reported in 11 patients (4.5%) (mean: 10.9±9.7; median: 11 years). Congenital LBFs were reported in 64 patients (26%). (Fragility) LBFs later at life were described in 24 patients (9.8%) (mean: 14.9±11.0; median: 14 years). Four cases (1.6%) were reported to receive vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation or diphosphonate administration. CONCLUSION: LBFs are thus frequently reported in congenital myopathies. We therefore recommend optimal bone quality management through bone mineral density assessment, vitamin D and calcium suppletion, and referral to internal medicine or pediatrics for consideration of additional therapies in order to prevent complications of low bone mineral density.

9.
Cardiol Ther ; 11(4): 559-574, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to quantify the contribution of various obstacles to timely reperfusion therapy in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to improve performance in a mixed remote rural/urban region. METHODS: From November 1, 2020 to April 23, 2021, patients with acute STEMI were prospectively monitored with the critical time intervals, treatment modalities, and outcomes registered. Selected clinical decision-makers in 11 hospitals were appointed as improvement agents and systematically provided with weekly updated information about absolute and relative performance. Suggestions for improvements were invited and shared. RESULTS: Only 29% of the 146 patients received reperfusion therapy within recommended time limits [prehospital thrombolysis, 2/48; in-hospital thrombolysis, 0/20; primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), 37/68, with median intervals from the first medical contact of 44, 49, and 133 min, respectively]. Efficiency varied considerably between health trusts: median time from the first medical contact to prehospital thrombolysis ranged from 29 to 54 min (hazard ratio 4.89). The predominant, remediable causes for delays were erroneous tactical choices and protracted electrocardiographic diagnostication, decision-making, and administration of fibrinolytic medication. During the trial, the time to pPCI was non-significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: We found several targets for system improvements in order to mitigate reperfusion delays along the entire chain of care, regardless of reperfusion modality chosen. More patients should receive prehospital thrombolysis. The most important measures will be training to ensure a more efficient on-site workflow, improved protocols and infrastructure facilitating the communication between first responders and in-hospital clinicians, and education emphasizing prehospital transport times. CLINICAL TRIALS IDENTIFIER: NCT04614805.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1010882, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211426

RESUMO

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur as a systemic complication of infections with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli and is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. Hitherto, therapy has been limited to organ-supportive strategies. Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates erythropoiesis and is approved for the treatment of certain forms of anemia, but not for HUS-associated hemolytic anemia. EPO and its non-hematopoietic analog pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP) have been shown to mediate tissue protection via an innate repair receptor (IRR) that is pharmacologically distinct from the erythropoiesis-mediating receptor (EPO-R). Here, we investigated the changes in endogenous EPO levels in patients with HUS and in piglets and mice subjected to preclinical HUS models. We found that endogenous EPO was elevated in plasma of humans, piglets, and mice with HUS, regardless of species and degree of anemia, suggesting that EPO signaling plays a role in HUS pathology. Therefore, we aimed to examine the therapeutic potential of EPO and pHBSP in mice with Stx-induced HUS. Administration of EPO or pHBSP improved 7-day survival and attenuated renal oxidative stress but did not significantly reduce renal dysfunction and injury in the employed model. pHBSP, but not EPO, attenuated renal nitrosative stress and reduced tubular dedifferentiation. In conclusion, targeting the EPO-R/IRR axis reduced mortality and renal oxidative stress in murine HUS without occurrence of thromboembolic complications or other adverse side effects. We therefore suggest that repurposing EPO for the treatment of patients with hemolytic anemia in HUS should be systematically investigated in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Eritropoetina , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Animais , Subunidade beta Comum dos Receptores de Citocinas , Eritropoetina/farmacologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Oligopeptídeos , Receptores da Eritropoetina , Toxinas Shiga , Suínos
11.
J Morphol ; 283(12): 1577-1589, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260518

RESUMO

In contrast to numerous studies on spermatozoa length, relatively little work focuses on the width of spermatozoa, and particularly the width of the midpiece and flagellum. In flagellated spermatozoa, the flagellum provides forward thrust while energy may be provided via mitochondria in the midpiece and/or through glycolysis along the flagellum itself. Longer flagella may be able to provide greater thrust but may also require stronger structural features and more or larger mitochondria to supply sufficient energy. Here, we use scanning electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of spermatozoa from 55 passerine species in 26 taxonomic families in the Passerides infraorder. Our data confirm the qualitative observation that the flagellum tapers along its length, and we show that longer flagella are wider at the neck. This pattern is similar to mammals, and likely reflects the need for longer cells to be stronger against shearing forces. We further estimate the volume of the mitochondrial helix and show that it correlates well with midpiece length, supporting the use of midpiece length as a proxy for mitochondrial volume, at least in between-species studies where midpiece length is highly variable. These results provide important context for understanding the evolutionary correlations among different sperm cell components and dimensions.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Masculino , Animais , Sêmen , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura , Flagelos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mamíferos
12.
Virus Evol ; 8(2): veac078, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090771

RESUMO

The Omicron severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant led to a dramatic global epidemic wave following detection in South Africa in November 2021. The BA.1 Omicron lineage was dominant and responsible for most SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in countries around the world during December 2021-January 2022, while other Omicron lineages, including BA.2, accounted for the minority of global isolates. Here, we describe the Omicron wave in the Philippines by analysing genomic data. Our results identify the presence of both BA.1 and BA.2 lineages in the Philippines in December 2021, before cases surged in January 2022. We infer that only the BA.2 lineage underwent sustained transmission in the country, with an estimated emergence around 18 November 2021 (95 per cent highest posterior density: 6-28 November), while despite multiple introductions, BA.1 transmission remained limited. These results suggest that the Philippines was one of the earliest areas affected by BA.2 and reiterate the importance of whole genome sequencing for monitoring outbreaks.

13.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146874

RESUMO

Allo-HSCT with CCR5Δ32/Δ32 donor cells is the only curative HIV-1 intervention. We investigated the impact of allo-HSCT on the viral reservoir in PBMCs and post-mortem tissue in two patients. IciS-05 and IciS-11 both received a CCR5Δ32/Δ32 allo-HSCT. Before allo-HSCT, ultrasensitive HIV-1 RNA quantification; HIV-1-DNA quantification; co-receptor tropism analysis; deep-sequencing and viral characterization in PBMCs and bone marrow; and post-allo-HSCT, ultrasensitive RNA and HIV-1-DNA quantification were performed. Proviral quantification, deep sequencing, and viral characterization were done in post-mortem tissue samples. Both patients harbored subtype B CCR5-tropic HIV-1 as determined genotypically and functionally by virus culture. Pre-allo-HSCT, HIV-1-DNA could be detected in both patients in bone marrow, PBMCs, and T-cell subsets. Chimerism correlated with detectable HIV-1-DNA LTR copies in cells and tissues. Post-mortem analysis of IciS-05 revealed proviral DNA in all tissue biopsies, but not in PBMCs. In patient IciS-11, who was transplanted twice, no HIV-1-DNA could be detected in PBMCs at the time of death, whereas HIV-1-DNA was detectable in the lymph node. In conclusion, shortly after CCR5Δ32/Δ32, allo-HSCT HIV-1-DNA became undetectable in PBMCs. However, HIV-1-DNA variants identical to those present before transplantation persisted in post-mortem-obtained tissues, indicating that these tissues play an important role as viral reservoirs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Autopsia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , RNA
14.
Zootaxa ; 5150(4): 451-486, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095651

RESUMO

A list of all known bird type specimens in the collection of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway is presented. The specimens originate from northern Australia, eastern Indonesia or Tristan da Cunha, and have either been collected and described by personnel associated with the museum or sent from other museums in exchange for other specimens. The catalogue is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the treated taxa, and consequently no taxonomic revisions are made, but the type status of some specimens formerly considered to be types is refuted. The collection holds name-bearing types of 11 taxa, comprising one holotype and 26 syntypes; two paratypes from the same type series as the holotype; and one paralectotype of a twelfth taxon. The catalogue also includes two specimens of one taxon here refuted as being type specimens.


Assuntos
Museus , História Natural , Animais , Aves , Noruega
15.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2022: 1-6, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176118

RESUMO

Following stroke, a significant portion of individuals suffer from upper limb impairments and struggle with activities of daily living. Dedicated assistive technology (AT), such as robotic hand orthoses (RHO), can help facilitate upper limb usage and allow users to regain independence in their daily lives. Often, users' needs and requirements are neglected in AT design, thereby contributing to poor technology acceptance. In this work, we propose and apply a mixed-method focus group combining qualitative and quantitative components to gather user expectations in view of a user-centred redesign of a RHO. Three main themes emerged from a thematic analysis of two focus groups (n=5): Experience after stroke, desired design features, and reflections and realisations. Participants listed device features they would look for in AT and ranked them relative to what they deem important and necessary for a satisfactory device. Participants primarily looked for AT that is effective, intuitive and easy to use. These insights complement traditional technical design requirements for RHO by considering user desires, aspects unfortunately often neglected in the early design process. This work provides guidelines allowing for the optimization of AT design to better match the needs of persons after stroke and improve technology acceptance.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Assistiva , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Extremidade Superior
16.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2022: 1-6, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176133

RESUMO

With the increasing range of functionalities of advanced assistive technologies (AAT), reliable control and initiation of the desired actions become increasingly challenging for users. In this work, we present an analysis of current practices, user preferences, and usability of AAT intention detection strategies based on a survey among participants with disabilities at the CYBATHLON 2020 Global Edition. We collected data from 35 respondents, using devices in various disciplines and levels of technology maturity. We found that conventional, direct inputs such as buttons and joysticks are used by the majority of AAT (71.4%) due to their simplicity and learnability. However, 22 respondents (62.8%) reported a desire for more natural control using muscle or non-invasive brain signals, and 37.1% even reported an openness to invasive strategies for potentially improved control. The usability of the used strategies in terms of the explored attributes (reliability, mental effort, required learning) was mainly perceived positively, whereas no significant difference was observed across intention detection strategies and device types. It can be assumed that the strategies used during the CYBATHLON realistically represent options to control an AAT in a dynamic, physically and mentally demanding environment. Thus, this work underlines the need for carefully considering user needs and preferences for the selection of intention detection strategies in a context of use outside the laboratory.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Tecnologia Assistiva , Humanos , Intenção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(9): e740-e741, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984075
19.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(8): e0745, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975141

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is a rare cause of hepatitis that can lead to acute liver failure (ALF) and often death. The earlier the initiation of acyclovir treatment the better the survival. With regard to ALF, controlled randomized data support the use of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) both as bridge to recovery or transplantation-possibly by modulating the systemic inflammatory response and by replacing coagulation factors. Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter (Seraph; Ex Thera Medical, Martinez, CA), a novel extracorporeal adsorption device, removes living pathogens by binding to a heparin-coated surface was shown to efficiently clear HSV-2 particles in vitro. Here, we tested the combination of Seraph with TPE to reduce a massive HSV-2 viral load to reach a situation in that liver transplantation would be feasible. DESIGN: Explorative study. SETTING: Academic tertiary care transplant center. PATIENT: Single patient with HSV-2-induced ALF. INTERVENTIONS: TPE + Seraph 100 Microbind Affinity Blood Filter. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We report Seraph clearance data of HSV-2 and of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vivo as well as total viral elimination by TPE. Genome copies/mL of HSV-2 and EBV in EDTA plasma were measured by polymerase chain reaction every 60 minutes over 6 hours after starting Seraph both systemically and post adsorber. Also, HSV-2 and EBV were quantified before and after TPE and in the removed apheresis plasma. We found a total elimination of 1.81 × e11 HSV-2 copies and 2.11 × e6 EBV copies with a single TPE (exchange volume of 5L; 1.5× calculated plasma volume). Whole blood clearance of HSV-2 in the first 6 hours of treatment was 6.64 mL/min (4.98-12.92 mL/min). Despite much lower baseline viremia, clearance of EBV was higher 36.62 mL/min (22.67-53.48 mL/min). CONCLUSIONS: TPE was able to remove circulating HSV-2 copies by 25% and EBV copies by 40% from the blood. On the other hand, clearance of HSV-2 by Seraph was clinically irrelevant, but Seraph seemed to be far more effective of removing EBV, implicating a possible use in EBV-associated pathologies, but this requires further study.

20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 100, 2022 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant appetitive traits including eating rate, satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, and enjoyment of food predict weight gain in infancy and early childhood. Although studies show a strong genetic influence on infant appetitive traits, the association of parent and infant appetite is understudied. Furthermore, little research examines the influence of maternal pregnancy dietary intake, weight indicators, and feeding mode on infant appetite. The present study investigated relations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits. METHODS: Mothers in the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (458 mothers enrolled, 367 retained through delivery) completed self-report measures of reward-related eating, and principal component analysis yielded two components: (1) food preoccupation and responsiveness and (2) reinforcing value of food. Mothers completed 24-h dietary recalls across pregnancy, and the standardized NOVA (not an acronym) system categorized recalled foods based on processing level. Maternal anthropometrics were measured across pregnancy. At infant age 6 months, mothers reported on feeding mode and infant appetitive traits. Linear regressions were conducted predicting infant appetitive traits from household income-poverty ratio (step 1); maternal reward-related eating components (step 2); pregnancy ultra-processed food intake (% of energy intake), early pregnancy body mass index, and gestational weight gain (step 3); and exclusive breastfeeding duration (step 4). RESULTS: A 1-SD greater maternal food preoccupation and responsiveness was associated with 0.20-SD greater infant satiety responsiveness (p = .005). A 1-SD greater % energy intake from ultra-processed foods during pregnancy was associated with 0.16-SD lower infant satiety responsiveness (p = .031). A 1-SD longer exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with 0.18-SD less infant food responsiveness (p = .014). Other associations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal early-life environmental factors including maternal pregnancy dietary intake and feeding mode may facilitate or protect against obesogenic infant appetitive traits, whereas infant appetite may not parallel maternal reward-related eating. Further investigation into the etiology of appetitive traits early in development, particularly during solid food introduction, may elucidate additional modifiable risk factors for child obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Recompensa , Saciação , Inquéritos e Questionários
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