Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 853
Filtrar
1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e240842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550279

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Chenopodium , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Hexanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e250373, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550295

RESUMO

Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1µl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by ß-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Assuntos
Mel , Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Endossulfano/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is used increasingly in the treatment of MDR bacteria. It is eliminated by renal excretion, but data regarding dosing recommendations for patients undergoing modern means of renal replacement therapies are scarce. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of fosfomycin in patients undergoing prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) to guide dosing recommendations. METHODS: Fosfomycin was given in 11 (7 female) patients with severe infections undergoing PIRRT. Plasma levels were measured at several timepoints on the first day of fosfomycin therapy, as well as 5-6 days into therapy, before and after the dialyser, to calculate its clearance. Fosfomycin was measured in the collected spent dialysate. RESULTS: The median (IQR) plasma dialyser clearance for fosfomycin was 183.4 (156.9-214.9) mL/min, eliminating a total amount of 8834 (4556-10 440) mg of fosfomycin, i.e. 73.9% (45.3%-93.5%) of the initial dose. During PIRRT, the fosfomycin half-life was 2.5 (2.2-3.4) h. Data from multiple-dose PK showed an increase in fosfomycin Cmax from 266.8 (166.3-438.1) to 926.1 (446.8-1168.0) mg/L and AUC0-14 from 2540.5 (1815.2-3644.3) to 6714 (4060.6-10612.6) mg·h/L. Dialysis intensity during the study was 1.5 L/h. T>MIC was 100% in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing PIRRT experience significant fosfomycin elimination, requiring a dose of 5 g/8 h to reach adequate plasma levels. However, drug accumulation may occur, depending on dialysis frequency and intensity.

4.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 313, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SELENON (SEPN1)-related myopathy (SELENON-RM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, early onset spine rigidity and respiratory insufficiency. A muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene (LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy, LAMA2-MD) has a similar clinical phenotype, with either a severe, early-onset due to complete Laminin subunit α2 deficiency (merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A)), or a mild, childhood- or adult-onset due to partial Laminin subunit α2 deficiency. For both muscle diseases, no curative treatment options exist, yet promising preclinical studies are ongoing. Currently, there is a paucity on natural history data and appropriate clinical and functional outcome measures are needed to reach trial readiness. METHODS: LAST STRONG is a natural history study in Dutch-speaking patients of all ages diagnosed with SELENON-RM or LAMA2-MD, starting August 2020. Patients have four visits at our hospital over a period of 1.5 year. At all visits, they undergo standardized neurological examination, hand-held dynamometry (age ≥ 5 years), functional measurements, questionnaires (patient report and/or parent proxy; age ≥ 2 years), muscle ultrasound including diaphragm, pulmonary function tests (spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, sniff nasal inspiratory pressure; age ≥ 5 years), and accelerometry for 8 days (age ≥ 2 years); at visit one and three, they undergo cardiac evaluation (electrocardiogram, echocardiography; age ≥ 2 years), spine X-ray (age ≥ 2 years), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA-)scan (age ≥ 2 years) and full body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (age ≥ 10 years). All examinations are adapted to the patient's age and functional abilities. Correlation between key parameters within and between subsequent visits will be assessed. DISCUSSION: Our study will describe the natural history of patients diagnosed with SELENON-RM or LAMA2-MD, enabling us to select relevant clinical and functional outcome measures for reaching clinical trial-readiness. Moreover, our detailed description (deep phenotyping) of the clinical features will optimize clinical management and will establish a well-characterized baseline cohort for prospective follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our natural history study is an essential step for reaching trial readiness in SELENON-RM and LAMA2-MD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been approved by medical ethical reviewing committee Region Arnhem-Nijmegen (NL64269.091.17, 2017-3911) and is registered at ClinicalTrial.gov ( NCT04478981 ).

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048890, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight into experiences of patients with a neuromuscular disease and chronic fatigue and their healthcare professionals regarding content and delivery of a multidisciplinary outpatient self-management group programme to improve social participation. This will inform future implementation. DESIGN: A mixed method study alongside a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: University hospital, rehabilitation centre and community health centre. PARTICIPANTS: 29 patients with a neuromuscular disease and chronic fatigue and 13 healthcare professionals participated in this mixed methods study. INTERVENTION: Multidisciplinary group programme, called Energetic, consisted of a 4 months intervention with weekly meetings and covered four modules: (1) individually tailored aerobic exercise training; (2) education about aerobic exercise; (3) self-management training in applying energy conservation strategies and (4) implementation and relapse prevention in daily life. MAIN MEASURES: Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire measuring patients' (n=25, all completed the programme) satisfaction with the perceived results, content and delivery of the programme. Qualitative data were collected by individual and focus group interviews to gain insight in the experiences of patients (n=18), next of kin (n=2) and healthcare professionals (n=13) with facilitators and barriers to programme implementation. RESULTS: Patients were satisfied with the number and length of the sessions, the different modules and the therapists. Analysis of the interviews led to five themes: (1) the combination of modules makes a complete picture, (2) the programme is physically and mentally intensive, (3) the group setting is valuable, (4) small variations in delivery occur in different settings, (5) therapists are coaches. Suggestions for programme improvement include a combination of face to face and e-health, enhancement of therapists' skills in guiding group interventions and inclusion of more booster sessions to evaluate and maintain self-management competencies. CONCLUSIONS: The Energetic programme could be implemented in different healthcare settings and group settings, and a combination of modules proved to be a facilitator for improving self-management. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02208687.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Doenças Neuromusculares , Autogestão , Humanos , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Participação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431032

RESUMO

The sensory hairs of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) detect mechanical stimuli imparted by their prey and fire bursts of electrical signals called action potentials (APs). APs are elicited when the hairs are sufficiently stimulated and two consecutive APs can trigger closure of the trap. Earlier experiments have identified thresholds for the relevant stimulus parameters, namely the angular displacement [Formula: see text] and angular velocity [Formula: see text]. However, these experiments could not trace the deformation of the trigger hair's sensory cells, which are known to transduce the mechanical stimulus. To understand the kinematics at the cellular level, we investigate the role of two relevant mechanical phenomena: viscoelasticity and intercellular fluid transport using a multi-scale numerical model of the sensory hair. We hypothesize that the combined influence of these two phenomena and [Formula: see text] contribute to the flytrap's rate-dependent response to stimuli. In this study, we firstly perform sustained deflection tests on the hair to estimate the viscoelastic material properties of the tissue. Thereafter, through simulations of hair deflection tests at different loading rates, we were able to establish a multi-scale kinematic link between [Formula: see text] and the cell wall stretch [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we find that the rate at which [Formula: see text] evolves during a stimulus is also proportional to [Formula: see text]. This suggests that mechanosensitive ion channels, expected to be stretch-activated and localized in the plasma membrane of the sensory cells, could be additionally sensitive to the rate at which stretch is applied.

7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(10): 2404-2415, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) spellers that make use of code-modulated Visual Evoked Potentials (cVEP) may provide a fast and more accurate alternative to existing visual BCI spellers for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). However, so far the cVEP speller has only been tested on healthy participants. METHODS: We assess the brain responses, BCI performance and user experience of the cVEP speller in 20 healthy participants and 10 ALS patients. All participants performed a cued and free spelling task, and a free selection of Yes/No answers. RESULTS: 27 out of 30 participants could perform the cued spelling task with an average accuracy of 79% for ALS patients, 88% for healthy older participants and 94% for healthy young participants. All 30 participants could answer Yes/No questions freely, with an average accuracy of around 90%. CONCLUSIONS: With ALS patients typing on average 10 characters per minute, the cVEP speller presented in this paper outperforms other visual BCI spellers. SIGNIFICANCE: These results support a general usability of cVEP signals for ALS patients, which may extend far beyond the tested speller to control e.g. an alarm, automatic door, or TV within a smart home.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is in 10% to 20% of cases complicated by infective endocarditis (SA-IE). Clinical prediction scores may select SAB patients at highest risk for endocarditis, improving the diagnostic process of endocarditis. We compared the accuracy of the POSITIVE, PREDICT and VIRSTA scores for classifying the likelihood of endocarditis in SAB patients. METHODS: Between August 2017 and September 2019 we enrolled consecutive adult patients with SAB in a prospective cohort study in seven hospitals in the Netherlands. Using the modified Duke Criteria for definite endocarditis as reference standard, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive (NPV) and positive predictive values (PPV) were determined for the POSITIVE, PREDICT and VIRSTA scores. A NPV of at least 98% was considered safe for excluding endocarditis. RESULTS: Of 477 SAB patients enrolled, 33% had community-acquired SAB, 8% had a prosthetic valve and 11% a cardiac implantable electronic device. Echocardiography was performed in 87% of patients, and 42% received a TEE. 87 (18.2%) had definite endocarditis. Sensitivity was 77.6% (65.8 - 86.9), 85.1% (75.8 - 91.8) and 98.9% (95.7 - 100) for the POSITIVE (n=362), PREDICT and VIRSTA scores, respectively. NPVs were 92.5% (87.9 - 95.8), 94.5% (90.7 - 97.0), and 99.3% (94.9 - 100).) For the POSITIVE, PREDICT and VIRSTA scores, 44.5%, 50.7% and 70.9% of SAB patients, respectively were classified as high-risk for endocarditis. CONCLUSIONS: Only the VIRSTA score had a NPV of at least 98%, but at the expense of a high number of patients classified as high risk and thus requiring TEE.

11.
Br J Haematol ; 194(2): 453-462, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109608

RESUMO

The short half-life of coagulation factor IX (FIX) for haemophilia B (HB) therapy has been prolonged through fusion with human serum albumin (HSA), which drives the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling of the chimera. However, patients would greatly benefit from further FIX-HSA half-life extension. In the present study, we designed a FIX-HSA variant through the engineering of both fusion partners. First, we developed a novel cleavable linker combining the two FIX activation sites, which resulted in improved HSA release. Second, insertion of the FIX R338L (Padua) substitution conferred hyperactive features (sevenfold higher specific activity) as for FIX Padua alone. Furthermore, we exploited an engineered HSA (QMP), which conferred enhanced human (h)FcRn binding [dissociation constant (KD ) 0·5 nM] over wild-type FIX-HSA (KD 164·4 nM). In hFcRn transgenic mice, Padua-QMP displayed a significantly prolonged half-life (2·7 days, P < 0·0001) versus FIX-HSA (1 day). Overall, we developed a novel FIX-HSA protein with improved activity and extended half-life. These combined properties may result in a prolonged functional profile above the therapeutic threshold, and thus in a potentially widened therapeutic window able to improve HB therapy. This rational engineering of both partners may pave the way for new fusion strategies for the design of engineered biotherapeutics.

12.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073133

RESUMO

Sperm swimming performance affects male fertilization success, particularly in species with high sperm competition. Understanding how sperm morphology impacts swimming performance is therefore important. Sperm swimming speed is hypothesized to increase with total sperm length, relative flagellum length (with the flagellum generating forward thrust), and relative midpiece length (as the midpiece contains the mitochondria). We tested these hypotheses and tested for divergence in sperm traits in five island populations of Canary Islands chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis). We confirmed incipient mitochondrial DNA differentiation between Gran Canaria and the other islands. Sperm swimming speed correlated negatively with total sperm length, did not correlate with relative flagellum length, and correlated negatively with relative midpiece length (for Gran Canaria only). The proportion of motile cells increased with relative flagellum length on Gran Canaria only. Sperm morphology was similar across islands. We thus add to a growing number of studies on passerine birds that do not support sperm morphology-swimming speed hypotheses. We suggest that the swimming mechanics of passerine sperm are sufficiently different from mammalian sperm that predictions from mammalian hydrodynamic models should no longer be applied for this taxon. While both sperm morphology and sperm swimming speed are likely under selection in passerines, the relationship between them requires further elucidation.

14.
Innate Immun ; 27(4): 286-293, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940970

RESUMO

Fatigue is common in all chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A conceptual model for understanding the biological basis of fatigue describes it as being a part of the sickness behaviour response generated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators. We hypothesised that the pro-inflammatory high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a fatigue-inducing molecule and that auto-Abs against HMGB1 reduce fatigue. We measured Abs against disulphide (ds) HMGB1 and fully reduced (fr) HMGB1 in plasma from 57 patients with Crohn's disease. Fatigue was rated using the fatigue visual analogue scale (fVAS) and disease activity with faecal calprotectin, C-reactive protein and the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's disease. Multivariable regression models identified anti-dsHMGB1 and anti-frHMGB1 Abs as the strongest contributing factors for fVAS scores (B = -29.10 (P = 0.01), R2 = 0.17, and B = -17.77 (P = 0.01), R2 = 0.17, respectively). Results indicate that anti-HMGB1 auto-Abs alleviate fatigue possibly by down-regulating HMGB1-induced sickness behaviour.

15.
J Neurol ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promising genetic therapies are being investigated in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). However, the current cost of illness is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at determining the socioeconomic burden of FSHD. METHODS: Adult patients with FSHD from the Dutch FSHD registry were invited to complete a questionnaire on medical consumption, work productivity and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) using the EQ-5D-5L. Associated costs were calculated from a societal perspective. A generalized linear model was fitted to the data to investigate whether level of mobility was related to annual costs of illness. RESULTS: 172 patients with FSHD completed the questionnaire (response rate 65%). The per-patient annual direct medical costs of FSHD were estimated at €12,077, direct non-medical costs at €9179 and indirect costs at €5066, adding up to a total cost of illness of €26,322 per patient per year. The direct costs of illness were €21,256, approximately five times higher than the mean per-capita health expenditures in the Netherlands. Major cost-driving factors were formal home care and informal care. A decreased level of mobility was associated with higher direct costs of illness. HR-QoL was significantly reduced in patients with FSHD with a median health utility value of 0.63. CONCLUSIONS: We show that FSHD is associated with substantial direct and indirect socioeconomic costs as well as a reduction in HR-QoL. These findings are important for health care decision makers and aids in allocation of research funds and evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of novel therapies.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2583, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972516

RESUMO

Quantitative micromechanical characterization of single cells and multicellular tissues or organisms is of fundamental importance to the study of cellular growth, morphogenesis, and cell-cell interactions. However, due to limited manipulation capabilities at the microscale, systems used for mechanical characterizations struggle to provide complete three-dimensional coverage of individual specimens. Here, we combine an acoustically driven manipulation device with a micro-force sensor to freely rotate biological samples and quantify mechanical properties at multiple regions of interest within a specimen. The versatility of this tool is demonstrated through the analysis of single Lilium longiflorum pollen grains, in combination with numerical simulations, and individual Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. It reveals local variations in apparent stiffness for single specimens, providing previously inaccessible information and datasets on mechanical properties that serve as the basis for biophysical modelling and allow deeper insights into the biomechanics of these living systems.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Micromanipulação/instrumentação , Micromanipulação/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Acústica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Lilium/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Morfogênese , Células Vegetais , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/ultraestrutura
17.
Syst Biol ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983440

RESUMO

The tree of life is the fundamental biological roadmap for navigating the evolution and properties of life on Earth, and yet remains largely unknown. Even angiosperms (flowering plants) are fraught with data gaps, despite their critical role in sustaining terrestrial life. Today, high-throughput sequencing promises to significantly deepen our understanding of evolutionary relationships. Here, we describe a comprehensive phylogenomic platform for exploring the angiosperm tree of life, comprising a set of open tools and data based on the 353 nuclear genes targeted by the universal Angiosperms353 sequence capture probes. The primary goals of this paper are to (i) document our methods, (ii) describe our first data release and (iii) present a novel open data portal, the Kew Tree of Life Explorer (https://treeoflife.kew.org  ). We aim to generate novel target sequence capture data for all genera of flowering plants, exploiting natural history collections such as herbarium specimens, and augment it with mined public data. Our first data release, described here, is the most extensive nuclear phylogenomic dataset for angiosperms to date, comprising 3,099 samples validated by DNA barcode and phylogenetic tests, representing all 64 orders, 404 families (96%) and 2,333 genera (17%). A "first pass" angiosperm tree of life was inferred from the data, which totalled 824,878 sequences, 489,086,049 base pairs, and 532,260 alignment columns, for interactive presentation in the Kew Tree of Life Explorer. This species tree was generated using methods that were rigorous, yet tractable at our scale of operation. Despite limitations pertaining to taxon and gene sampling, gene recovery, models of sequence evolution and paralogy, the tree strongly supports existing taxonomy, while challenging numerous hypothesized relationships among orders and placing many genera for the first time. The validated dataset, species tree and all intermediates are openly accessible via the Kew Tree of Life Explorer and will be updated as further data become available. This major milestone towards a complete tree of life for all flowering plant species opens doors to a highly integrated future for angiosperm phylogenomics through the systematic sequencing of standardised nuclear markers. Our approach has the potential to serve as a much-needed bridge between the growing movement to sequence the genomes of all life on Earth and the vast phylogenomic potential of the world's natural history collections.

18.
Infection ; 49(4): 725-737, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has stressed health systems worldwide. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) seem to be more prone to a severe course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to comorbidities and an altered immune system. The study's aim was to identify factors predicting mortality among SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with CKD. METHODS: We analyzed 2817 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients enrolled in the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients and identified 426 patients with pre-existing CKD. Group comparisons were performed via Chi-squared test. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression, predictive factors for mortality were identified. RESULTS: Comparative analyses to patients without CKD revealed a higher mortality (140/426, 32.9% versus 354/2391, 14.8%). Higher age could be confirmed as a demographic predictor for mortality in CKD patients (> 85 years compared to 15-65 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.49, 95% CI 1.27-33.20, p = 0.025). We further identified markedly elevated lactate dehydrogenase (> 2 × upper limit of normal, aOR 23.21, 95% CI 3.66-147.11, p < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (< 120,000/µl, aOR 11.66, 95% CI 2.49-54.70, p = 0.002), anemia (Hb < 10 g/dl, aOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.17-8.82, p = 0.024), and C-reactive protein (≥ 30 mg/l, aOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.13-10.45, p = 0.029) as predictors, while renal replacement therapy was not related to mortality (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 0.68-1.93, p = 0.611). CONCLUSION: The identified predictors include routinely measured and universally available parameters. Their assessment might facilitate risk stratification in this highly vulnerable cohort as early as at initial medical evaluation for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1948): 20210216, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823669

RESUMO

Nervous systems across Animalia not only share a common blueprint at the biophysical and molecular level, but even between diverse groups of animals the structure and neuronal organization of several brain regions are strikingly conserved. Despite variation in the morphology and complexity of eyes across malacostracan crustaceans, many studies have shown that the organization of malacostracan optic lobes is highly conserved. Here, we report results of divergent evolution to this 'neural ground pattern' discovered in hyperiid amphipods, a relatively small group of holopelagic malacostracan crustaceans that possess an unusually wide diversity of compound eyes. We show that the structure and organization of hyperiid optic lobes has not only diverged from the malacostracan ground pattern, but is also highly variable between closely related genera. Our findings demonstrate a variety of trade-offs between sensory systems of hyperiids and even within the visual system alone, thus providing evidence that selection has modified individual components of the central nervous system to generate distinct combinations of visual centres in the hyperiid optic lobes. Our results provide new insights into the patterns of brain evolution among animals that live under extreme conditions.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Lobo Óptico de Animais não Mamíferos , Animais , Encéfalo , Olho , Neurônios
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9231, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927222

RESUMO

Gelatinous zooplankton are increasingly acknowledged to contribute significantly to the carbon cycle worldwide, yet many taxa within this diverse group remain poorly studied. Here, we investigate the pelagic tunicate Pyrosoma atlanticum in the waters surrounding the Cabo Verde Archipelago. By using a combination of pelagic and benthic in situ observations, sampling, and molecular genetic analyses (barcoding, eDNA), we reveal that: P. atlanticum abundance is most likely driven by local island-induced productivity, that it substantially contributes to the organic carbon export flux and is part of a diverse range of biological interactions. Downward migrating pyrosomes actively transported an estimated 13% of their fecal pellets below the mixed layer, equaling a carbon flux of 1.96-64.55 mg C m-2 day-1. We show that analysis of eDNA can detect pyrosome material beyond their migration range, suggesting that pyrosomes have ecological impacts below the upper water column. Moribund P. atlanticum colonies contributed an average of 15.09 ± 17.89 (s.d.) mg C m-2 to the carbon flux reaching the island benthic slopes. Our pelagic in situ observations further show that P. atlanticum formed an abundant substrate in the water column (reaching up to 0.28 m2 substrate area per m2), with animals using pyrosomes for settlement, as a shelter and/or a food source. In total, twelve taxa from four phyla were observed to interact with pyrosomes in the midwater and on the benthos.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...