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1.
Klin Onkol ; 34(1): 26-32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657816

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers with the highest mortality rate over a long period. Genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer is unusually high. In the Czech Republic, causal mutation in any ovarian cancer predisposition gene is identified in approximately 30% of the ovarian cancer patients. Therefore, according to the current guidelines, all ovarian cancer patients should be provided with genetic testing. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two major ovarian cancer predisposition genes. Nevertheless, mutations in other predisposition genes, including RAD51C and RAD51D, are associated with high ovarian cancer risk. Mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are found in 1% of ovarian cancer patients in each respective gene. Currently, identification of germline mutation in RAD51C and RAD51D is primarily of preventive importance but it potentially could make a prognostic difference. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent RAD51C and RAD51D knowledge, including the biological function, cancer risks associated with germline mutations, and recommendations for mutation carriers.

2.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322746

RESUMO

Germline alterations in many genes coding for proteins regulating DNA repair and DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA double-strand breaks (DDSB) have been recognized as pathogenic factors in hereditary cancer predisposition. The ATM-CHEK2-p53 axis has been documented as a backbone for DDR and hypothesized as a barrier against cancer initiation. However, although CHK2 kinase coded by the CHEK2 gene expedites the DDR signal, its function in activation of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest is dispensable. CHEK2 mutations rank among the most frequent germline alterations revealed by germline genetic testing for various hereditary cancer predispositions, but their interpretation is not trivial. From the perspective of interpretation of germline CHEK2 variants, we review the current knowledge related to the structure of the CHEK2 gene, the function of CHK2 kinase, and the clinical significance of CHEK2 germline mutations in patients with hereditary breast, prostate, kidney, thyroid, and colon cancers.

3.
Biomedicines ; 8(10)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050356

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest skin malignity with a rising prevalence worldwide. Patients carrying germline mutations in melanoma-susceptibility genes face an increased risk of melanoma and other cancers. To assess the spectrum of germline variants, we analyzed 264 Czech melanoma patients indicated for testing due to early melanoma (at <25 years) or the presence of multiple primary melanoma/melanoma and other cancer in their personal and/or family history. All patients were analyzed by panel next-generation sequencing targeting 217 genes in four groups: high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes, low melanoma risk genes, cancer syndrome genes, and other genes with an uncertain melanoma risk. Population frequencies were assessed in 1479 population-matched controls. Selected POT1 and CHEK2 variants were characterized by functional assays. Mutations in clinically relevant genes were significantly more frequent in melanoma patients than in controls (31/264; 11.7% vs. 58/1479; 3.9%; p = 2.0 × 10-6). A total of 9 patients (3.4%) carried mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (CDKN2A, POT1, ACD) and 22 (8.3%) patients in other cancer syndrome genes (NBN, BRCA1/2, CHEK2, ATM, WRN, RB1). Mutations in high-to-moderate melanoma risk genes (OR = 52.2; 95%CI 6.6-413.1; p = 3.2 × 10-7) and in other cancer syndrome genes (OR = 2.3; 95%CI 1.4-3.8; p = 0.003) were significantly associated with melanoma risk. We found an increased potential to carry these mutations (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 1.2-6.8) in patients with double primary melanoma, melanoma and other primary cancer, but not in patients with early age at onset. The analysis revealed affected genes in Czech melanoma patients and identified individuals who may benefit from genetic testing and future surveillance management of mutation carriers.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295079

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy with a substantial proportion of hereditary cases and a frequent association with breast cancer (BC). Genetic testing facilitates treatment and preventive strategies reducing OC mortality in mutation carriers. However, the prevalence of germline mutations varies among populations and many rarely mutated OC predisposition genes remain to be identified. We aimed to analyze 219 genes in 1333 Czech OC patients and 2278 population-matched controls using next-generation sequencing. We revealed germline mutations in 18 OC/BC predisposition genes in 32.0% of patients and in 2.5% of controls. Mutations in BRCA1/BRCA2, RAD51C/RAD51D, BARD1, and mismatch repair genes conferred high OC risk (OR > 5). Mutations in BRIP1 and NBN were associated with moderate risk (both OR = 3.5). BRCA1/2 mutations dominated in almost all clinicopathological subgroups including sporadic borderline tumors of ovary (BTO). Analysis of remaining 201 genes revealed somatic mosaics in PPM1D and germline mutations in SHPRH and NAT1 associating with a high/moderate OC risk significantly; however, further studies are warranted to delineate their contribution to OC development in other populations. Our findings demonstrate the high proportion of patients with hereditary OC in Slavic population justifying genetic testing in all patients with OC, including BTO.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

7.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 36-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary mutations in the CHEK2 gene (which encodes CHK2 kinase) contribute to a moderately increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and other cancers. Large variations in the frequency of CHEK2 mutations and the occurrence of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) complicate estimation of cancer risk in carriers of germline CHEK2 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed mutation analysis of 1,526 high-risk Czech BC patients and 3,360 Czech controls. Functional analysis was performed for identified VUS using a model system based on a human RPE1-CHEK2-KO cell line harboring biallelic inactivation of endogenous CHEK2. RESULTS: The frequency of ten truncating CHEK2 variants differed markedly between BC patients (2.26%) and controls (0.11%; p = 4.1 × 1012). We also found 23 different missense variants in 4.5% patients and in 4.0% of controls. The most common was p.I157T, which was found in patients and controls with the same frequency. Functional analysis identified nine functionally deleterious VUS, another nine functionally neutral VUS, and four intermediate VUS (including p.I157T). We found that carriers of truncating CHEK2 mutations had a high BC risk (OR 8.19; 95% CI 4.11-17.75), and that carriers of functionally deleterious missense variants had a moderate risk (OR 4.06; 95% CI, 1.37-13.39). Carriers of these mutations developed BC at 44.4 and 50.7 years, respectively. Functionally neutral and functionally intermediate missense variants did not increase the BC risk. BC in CHEK2 mutation carriers was frequently ER-positive and of higher grade. Notably, carriers of CHEK2 mutations developed second cancers more frequently than BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2/p53 or mutation non-carriers. CONCLUSION: Hereditary CHEK2 mutations contribute to the development of hereditary BC. The associated cancer risk in mutation carriers increases with the number of affected individuals in a family. Annual follow-up with breast ultrasound, mammography, or magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for asymptomatic mutation carriers from the age of 40. Surgical prevention and specific follow-up of other tumors should be considered based on family cancer history. The work was supported by grants from the Czech Health Research Council of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic NR 15-28830A, 16-29959A, NV19-03-00279, projects of the PROGRES Q28/LF1, GAUK 762216, SVV2019 / 260367, PRIMUS/17/MED/9, UNCE/MED/016, Progress Q26, LQ1604 NPU II and project AVČR Qualitas. The analysis of a set of unselected controls was made possible by the existence and support of the scientific infrastructure of the National Center for Medical Genomics (LM2015091) and its project aimed at creating a reference database of genetic variants of the Czech Republic (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001634). The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 2. 4. 2019 Accepted: 14. 5. 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linhagem Celular , República Tcheca , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Klin Onkol ; 32(Supplementum2): 72-78, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a disease with high mortality. Approximately 1,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the Czech Republic annually. Women harboring a mutation in cancer-predisposing genes face an increased risk of tumor development. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, and Lynch syndrome genes (RAD51C, RAD51D, and STK11) are associated with a high risk of ovarian cancer, and mutations in ATM, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, and BARD1 appear to increase the risk. Our aim was to examine the frequency of mutations in cancer-predisposing genes in the Czech Republic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1,057 individuals including ovarian cancer patients and 617 non-cancer controls using CZECANCA panel next-generation sequencing on the Illumina platform. Pathogenic mutations in high-risk genes, including CNVs, were detected in 30.6% of patients. The mutation frequency reached 25.0% and 18.2% in subgroups of unselected ovarian cancer patients and patients with a negative family cancer history, respectively. The most frequently mutated genes were BRCA1 and BRCA2. The overall frequency of mutations in non-BRCA genes was comparable to that in BRCA2. The mutation frequency in ovarian cancer patients aged >70 years was three times higher than that in patients diagnosed before the age of 30. CONCLUSION: Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a high proportion of hereditary cases. The lack of efficient screening for early diagnosis emphasizes the importance of identifying carriers of mutations in ovarian cancer-predisposing genes; this is because proper follow-up and prevention strategies can reduce overall ovarian cancer-related mortality. This work was supported by grants AZV 15-27695A, SVV2019/260367, PROGRES Q28/LF1. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 7. 3. 2019 Accepted: 24. 4. 2019.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , República Tcheca , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação
9.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428676

RESUMO

Mono-allelic germline pathogenic variants in the Partner And Localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) gene predispose to a high-risk of breast cancer development, consistent with the role of PALB2 in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Here, we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in PALB2-associated breast cancers (BCs), and whether PALB2-associated BCs display bi-allelic inactivation of PALB2 and/or genomic features of HR-deficiency (HRD). Twenty-four breast cancer patients with pathogenic PALB2 germline mutations were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES, n = 16) or targeted capture massively parallel sequencing (410 cancer genes, n = 8). Somatic genetic alterations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PALB2 wild-type allele, large-scale state transitions (LSTs) and mutational signatures were defined. PALB2-associated BCs were found to be heterogeneous at the genetic level, with PIK3CA (29%), PALB2 (21%), TP53 (21%), and NOTCH3 (17%) being the genes most frequently affected by somatic mutations. Bi-allelic PALB2 inactivation was found in 16 of the 24 cases (67%), either through LOH (n = 11) or second somatic mutations (n = 5) of the wild-type allele. High LST scores were found in all 12 PALB2-associated BCs with bi-allelic PALB2 inactivation sequenced by WES, of which eight displayed the HRD-related mutational signature 3. In addition, bi-allelic inactivation of PALB2 was significantly associated with high LST scores. Our findings suggest that the identification of bi-allelic PALB2 inactivation in PALB2-associated BCs is required for the personalization of HR-directed therapies, such as platinum salts and/or PARP inhibitors, as the vast majority of PALB2-associated BCs without PALB2 bi-allelic inactivation lack genomic features of HRD.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1782-1797, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050813

RESUMO

Germline mutations in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), a multiple cancer-predisposing gene, increase breast cancer (BC) risk; however, risk estimates differ substantially in published studies. We analyzed germline CHEK2 variants in 1,928 high-risk Czech breast/ovarian cancer (BC/OC) patients and 3,360 population-matched controls (PMCs). For a functional classification of VUS, we developed a complementation assay in human nontransformed RPE1-CHEK2-knockout cells quantifying CHK2-specific phosphorylation of endogenous protein KAP1. We identified 10 truncations in 46 (2.39%) patients and in 11 (0.33%) PMC (p = 1.1 × 10-14 ). Two types of large intragenic rearrangements (LGR) were found in 20/46 mutation carriers. Truncations significantly increased unilateral BC risk (OR = 7.94; 95%CI 3.90-17.47; p = 1.1 × 10-14 ) and were more frequent in patients with bilateral BC (4/149; 2.68%; p = 0.003), double primary BC/OC (3/79; 3.80%; p = 0.004), male BC (3/48; 6.25%; p = 8.6 × 10-4 ), but not with OC (3/354; 0.85%; p = 0.14). Additionally, we found 26 missense VUS in 88 (4.56%) patients and 131 (3.90%) PMC (p = 0.22). Using our functional assay, 11 variants identified in 15 (0.78%) patients and 6 (0.18%) PMC were scored deleterious (p = 0.002). Frequencies of functionally intermediate and neutral variants did not differ between patients and PMC. Functionally deleterious CHEK2 missense variants significantly increased BC risk (OR = 3.90; 95%CI 1.24-13.35; p = 0.009) and marginally OC risk (OR = 4.77; 95%CI 0.77-22.47; p = 0.047); however, carriers low frequency will require evaluation in larger studies. Our study highlights importance of LGR detection for CHEK2 analysis, careful consideration of ethnicity in both cases and controls for risk estimates, and demonstrates promising potential of newly developed human nontransformed cell line assay for functional CHEK2 VUS classification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , República Tcheca , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141992

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) prognosis in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been reported contradictorily, and the significance of variables influencing prognosis in sporadic BC is not established in BC patients with hereditary BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the effect of clinicopathological characteristics on BC prognosis (disease-free survival [DFS] and disease-specific survival [DSS]) in hereditary BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. We enrolled 234 BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers and 899 non-carriers, of whom 191 carriers and 680 non-carriers, with complete data, were available for survival analyses. We found that patients with ER-positive tumors developed disease recurrence 2.3-times more likely when they carried a BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation (23/60; 38.3% ER-positive carriers vs. 74/445; 16.6% ER-positive non-carriers; p < 0.001). ER-positive mutation carriers also had a 3.4-times higher risk of death due to BC compared with ER-positive non-carriers (13/60; 21.7% vs. 28/445; 6.3%; p < 0.001). Moreover, prognosis in ER-negative BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers was comparable with that in ER-positive non-carriers. Our study demonstrates that ER-positivity worsens BC prognosis in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers, while prognosis for carriers with ER-negative tumors (including early-onset) is significantly better and comparable with that in ER-positive, older BC non-carriers. These observations indicate that BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers with ER-positive BC represent high-risk patients.

12.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 599-609, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666157

RESUMO

Background: The principal aim of this report was to study second primary malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in long-term survivors of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with regard to the germline genetic background. Patients and methods: A total of 118 PDAC patients after a curative-intent surgery who were treated between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Of the 22 patients surviving for >5 years, six went on to develop SMNs. A genetic analysis of 219 hereditary cancer-predisposition and candidate genes was performed by targeted next-generation sequencing in germline DNA from 20 of these patients. Results: Of all the radically resected PDAC patients, six patients went on to subsequently develop SMNs, which accounted for 27% of the long-term survivors. The median time to diagnosis of SMNs, which included two cases of rectal cancer, and one case each of prostate cancer, malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and urinary bladder cancer, was 52.5 months. At the time of analysis, none of these patients had died as a result of PDAC progression. We identified four carriers of germline pathogenic mutations in 20 analyzed long-term survivors. One carrier of the CHEK2 mutation was found among four analyzed patients who developed SMNs. Of the remaining 16 long-term PDAC survivors, 3 patients (19%) carried germline mutation(s) in the MLH1+ ATM, CHEK2, and RAD51D gene, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis indicates that SMNs in PDAC survivors are an important clinical problem and may be more common than has been acknowledged to be the case. In patients with good performance status, surgical therapy should be considered, as the SMNs often have a favorable prognosis.

13.
Mult Scler Int ; 2019: 2854130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934450

RESUMO

Background: Impaired balance is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be present even in those with a mild disability level. With increasing disability, gait, and balance impairment progress, and lead to increased risk of falls. In some recent studies, interactive commercial video games were used for improving balance, but their limitation is their lack of individual training parameter settings needed for rehabilitation purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effect of balance exercise in the home setting using the rehabilitation Homebalance® system. Methods: A single-centre, controlled, single blind study with allocation to intervention group or to control group was utilised. Participants were assessed at baseline, after four weeks of home-based balance training, and follow-up after four weeks. The primary outcomes were the Berg Balance Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures included the Mini-BESTest, Timed Up, and Go Test (part of Mini-BESTest), and spatio-temporal gait parameter evaluation using the GAITRite instrument. The patient reported outcomes (PRO) included the 12-Item MS Walking Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and the Falls Efficacy Scale. Results: A total of 39 people with Multiple Sclerosis (10 men) were enrolled into the study. The mean age of participants was 40.69 ± 10.2 years, with a mean disease duration 14.76 ± 9.1 years and mean disability level 3.8 ± 1.9 EDSS (EDSS range 1.5-7). Statistically significant improvements within the home exercise group were present for the BBT and the Mini-BESTest. This improvement was more significant in the subgroup with moderate and higher disability (EDSS 4.5-7). All other gait parameters and PRO did not show any improvement. Follow-up assessment after four weeks showed that the reached improvement persisted for a short time period after finishing the regular training regimen. Conclusion: In comparison with no intervention, a short-term programme of home-based balance training using Homebalance® improved balance but not gait performance in a group of people with MS. It seems that home-based balance training tailored according to individual needs by a physiotherapist may be a future approach to consider for telerehabilitation of people with MS.

14.
J Pain Res ; 11: 3195-3203, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588071

RESUMO

Background: Infrared thermography can be used to obtain more complete information about a patient's condition. The method can be used in various medical applications for monitoring acute and chronic orofacial pain syndrome. With this diagnostic method, thermal differences in the examined region are usually compared to the same reference region on the opposite side of the body. Methods: Infrared quantitative thermography is a non-invasive method for contactless monitoring of dynamic thermal fields on a surface, or in this case, the human body. This method is based on detection of infrared radiation, which is naturally emitted from the surface of the body. In a pilot project with a patient having orofacial pain, changes before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation treatment were assessed. Results: First-day measurements found significantly higher maximum, minimum, and average temperatures, before and after therapy, in the area where the patient subjectively reported pain. The fifth and final measurements, before and after therapy, found only a slight elevation of the maximum temperature of the assessed regions, relative to the same regions on the opposite side of the face. Conclusion: During the measurements on the fifth day, a thermal difference greater than 0.4°C was only observed relative to the minimum temperatures associated with the regions of self-reported pain before and after therapy. For validation of the effects, this method will need to be tested using a randomized, double-blind study with a larger number of patients.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Idade de Início , Proteína BRCA1/química , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/química , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
16.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195761, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29649263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carriers of mutations in hereditary cancer predisposition genes represent a small but clinically important subgroup of oncology patients. The identification of causal germline mutations determines follow-up management, treatment options and genetic counselling in patients' families. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based analyses using cancer-specific panels in high-risk individuals have been rapidly adopted by diagnostic laboratories. While the use of diagnosis-specific panels is straightforward in typical cases, individuals with unusual phenotypes from families with overlapping criteria require multiple panel testing. Moreover, narrow gene panels are limited by our currently incomplete knowledge about possible genetic dispositions. METHODS: We have designed a multi-gene panel called CZECANCA (CZEch CAncer paNel for Clinical Application) for a sequencing analysis of 219 cancer-susceptibility and candidate predisposition genes associated with frequent hereditary cancers. RESULTS: The bioanalytical and bioinformatics pipeline was validated on a set of internal and commercially available DNA controls showing high coverage uniformity, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The panel demonstrates a reliable detection of both single nucleotide and copy number variants. Inter-laboratory, intra- and inter-run replicates confirmed the robustness of our approach. CONCLUSION: The objective of CZECANCA is a nationwide consolidation of cancer-predisposition genetic testing across various clinical indications with savings in costs, human labor and turnaround time. Moreover, the unified diagnostics will enable the integration and analysis of genotypes with associated phenotypes in a national database improving the clinical interpretation of variants.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Gene ; 637: 41-49, 2017 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919163

RESUMO

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing increases transcriptome plasticity by forming naturally-occurring alternative splicing variants (ASVs). Alterations of splicing processes, caused by DNA mutations, result in aberrant splicing and the formation of aberrant mRNA isoforms. Analyses of hereditary cancer predisposition genes reveal many DNA variants with unknown clinical significance (VUS) that potentially affect pre-mRNA splicing. Therefore, a comprehensive description of ASVs is an essential prerequisite for the interpretation of germline VUS in high-risk individuals. To identify ASVs in a gene of interest, we have proposed an approach based on multiplex PCR (mPCR) amplification of all theoretically possible exon-exon junctions and subsequent characterization of size-selected and pooled mPCR products by next-generation sequencing (NGS). The efficiency of this method is illustrated by a comprehensive analysis of BRCA1 ASVs in human leukocytes, normal mammary, and adipose tissues and stable cell lines. We revealed 94 BRCA1 ASVs, including 29 variants present in all tested samples. While differences in the qualitative expression of BRCA1 ASVs among the analyzed human tissues were minor, larger differences were detected between tissue and cell line samples. Compared with other ASV analysis methods, this approach represents a highly sensitive and rapid alternative for the identification of ASVs in any gene of interest.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Mutação , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Isoformas de RNA
18.
Gene ; 587(2): 169-72, 2016 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27150568

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the sixth most frequent cancer type in the Czech Republic with a poor prognosis that could be improved by an early detection and subsequent surgical treatment combined with chemotherapy. Genetic factors play an important role in PDAC risk. We previously identified one PDAC patient harboring the Slavic founder deleterious mutation c.657del5 in the NBN gene, using a panel next-generation sequencing (NGS). A subsequent analysis of 241 unselected PDAC patients revealed other mutation carriers. The overall frequency of c.657del5 in unselected PDAC patients (5/241; 2.07%) significantly differed from that in non-cancer controls (2/915; 0.2%; P=0.006). The result indicates that the NBN c.657del5 variant represents a novel PDAC-susceptibility allele increasing PDAC risk (OR=9.7; 95% CI: 1.9 to 50.2). The increased risk of PDAC in follow-up recommendations for NBN mutation carriers should be considered if other studies also confirm an increased frequency of c.657del5 carriers in PDAC patients from other populations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Tchecoslováquia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
19.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0127711, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057125

RESUMO

Recent studies have conferred that the RAD51C and RAD51D genes, which code for the essential proteins involved in homologous recombination, are ovarian cancer (OC) susceptibility genes that may explain genetic risks in high-risk patients. We performed a mutation analysis in 171 high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative OC patients, to evaluate the frequency of hereditary RAD51C and RAD51D variants in Czech population. The analysis involved direct sequencing, high resolution melting and multiple ligation-dependent probe analysis. We identified two (1.2%) and three (1.8%) inactivating germline mutations in both respective genes, two of which (c.379_380insG, p.P127Rfs*28 in RAD51C and c.879delG, p.C294Vfs*16 in RAD51D) were novel. Interestingly, an indicative family cancer history was not present in four carriers. Moreover, the ages at the OC diagnoses in identified mutation carriers were substantially lower than those reported in previous studies (four carriers were younger than 45 years). Further, we also described rare missense variants, two in RAD51C and one in RAD51D whose clinical significance needs to be verified. Truncating mutations and rare missense variants ascertained in OC patients were not detected in 1226 control samples. Although the cumulative frequency of RAD51C and RAD51D truncating mutations in our patients was lower than that of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, it may explain OC susceptibility in approximately 3% of high-risk OC patients. Therefore, an RAD51C and RAD51D analysis should be implemented into the comprehensive multi-gene testing for high-risk OC patients, including early-onset OC patients without a family cancer history.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes Neoplásicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Sequência de Bases , República Tcheca , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Complementar/genética , Éxons/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 22(12): 2323-32, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24136930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several reports indicate that inherited mutations in the PALB2 gene predispose to breast cancer. However, there is little agreement about the clinical relevance and usefulness of mutation screening in this gene. We analyzed the prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in PALB2 to estimate their contribution to hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The entire PALB2 coding region was sequenced in 409 breast/ovarian cancer patients negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Testing for large genomic rearrangements (LGR) was performed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. RESULTS: We have identified 13 different pathogenic alterations including 10 truncating mutations and three LGRs in 16 of 409 patients (3.9%), whereas one truncating mutation was found in a group of 1,226 controls (0.08%; P = 2.6 × 10(-9)). Three novel LGRs included deletions involving exons 7-8 and 9-10, respectively, and a duplication spanning exons 9-11. Five frameshift and two nonsense mutations were novel, whereas three truncating mutations were described previously. The only recurrent mutation was the c.172_175delTTGT detected in four unrelated breast cancer individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses demonstrated the significant role of the PALB2 gene in breast cancer susceptibility. The highest frequency of PALB2 mutations (comparable with that previously reported for BRCA2) was found in a subgroup of patients with hereditary breast cancer (HBC) (13/235; 5.5%). IMPACT: Our results show that mutation analysis of the PALB2 gene, including the analysis of LGRs, is primarily indicated in patients with HBC in case of their BRCA1 and BRCA2 negativity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Linhagem , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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