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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444526


Patient-controlled epidural analgesia is widely used to control postoperative pain following major intra-abdominal surgeries. However, determining the optimal infusion dose that can produce effective analgesia while reducing side effects remains a task to be solved. Postoperative pain and adverse effects between variable-rate feedback infusion (VFIM group, n = 36) and conventional fixed-rate basal infusion (CFIM group, n = 36) of fentanyl/ropivacaine-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia were evaluated. In the CFIM group, the basal infusion rate was fixed (5 mL/h), whereas, in the VFIM group, the basal infusion rate was increased by 0.5 mL/h each time a bolus dose was administered and decreased by 0.3 mL/h when a bolus dose was not administered for 2 h. Patients in the VFIM group experienced significantly less pain at one to six hours after surgery than those in the CFIM group. Further, the number of patients who suffered from postoperative nausea was significantly lower in the VFIM group than in the CFIM group until six hours after surgery. The variable-rate feedback infusion mode of patient-controlled epidural analgesia may provide better analgesia accompanied with significantly less nausea in the early postoperative period than the conventional fixed-rate basal infusion mode following open gastrectomy.

Analgesia Epidural , Amidas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais , Retroalimentação , Fentanila , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Ropivacaina
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e24571, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011020


INTRODUCTION: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among obstetric and gynecologic patients. This systematic review aimed to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of commonly used intravenous (IV) iron formulations, ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), and iron sucrose (IS) in the treatment of IDA in obstetric and gynecologic patients. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV iron replacement using FCM and IS up to October 2019. The primary outcome was to compare the efficacy of FCM and IS, assessed by measuring serum hemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels before and after iron replacement. The secondary outcome was to compare the safety of FCM and IS, assessed by the incidence of adverse events during iron replacement. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: We identified 9 RCTs with 910 patients (FCM group, n = 456; IS group, n = 454). Before iron replacement, FCM and IS group patients had similar baseline Hb (mean difference [MD], 0.04 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.07 to 015; I2 = 0%; P = 0.48) and ferritin levels (MD, -0.42 ng/mL; 95% CI, -1.61 to 0.78; I2 = 45%; P = 0.49). Following iron replacement, patients who received FCM had higher Hb (MD, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.25-1.08; I2 = 92%; P = 0.002) and ferritin levels (MD, 24.41; 95% CI, 12.06-36.76; I2 = 75%; P = 0.0001) than patients who received IS. FCM group showed a lower incidence of adverse events following iron replacement than IS group (risk ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.35-0.80; I2 = 0%; P = 0.003). Serious adverse events were not reported in any group. CONCLUSION: FCM group showed better efficacy in increasing Hb and ferritin levels and a favorable safety profile with fewer adverse events compared with IS group for IDA treatment among obstetric and gynecologic patients. However, this meta-analysis was limited by the small number of RCTs and high heterogeneity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was prospectively registered with the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews (, registration number CRD42019148905).

Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Ferro Sacarado/administração & dosagem , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/efeitos adversos , Óxido de Ferro Sacarado/efeitos adversos , Ferritinas/sangue , Hematínicos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Maltose/administração & dosagem , Maltose/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
J Int Med Res ; 49(3): 3000605211004035, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788644


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat sustained pain that is intractable despite various types of treatment. However, conventional tonic waveform SCS has not shown promising outcomes for spinal cord injury (SCI) or postamputation pain. The pain signal mechanisms of burst waveforms are different to those of conventional tonic waveforms, but few reports have presented the therapeutic potential of burst waveforms for the abovementioned indications. This current case report describes two patients with refractory upper limb pain after SCI and upper limb amputation that were treated with burst waveform SCS. While the patients could not obtain sufficient therapeutic effect with conventional tonic waveforms, the burst waveforms provided better pain reduction with less discomfort. However, further studies are necessary to better clarify the mechanisms and efficacy of burst waveform SCS in patients with intractable pain.

Estimulação da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Dor , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Medula Espinal , Extremidade Superior
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 49, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102676


BACKGROUND: Phase lag entropy (PLE) is a novel anesthetic depth indicator that uses four-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the temporal pattern diversity in the phase relationship of frequency signals in the brain. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic depth monitoring using PLE and to evaluate the correlation between PLE and bispectral index (BIS) values during propofol anesthesia. METHODS: In thirty-five adult patients undergoing elective surgery, anesthesia was induced with propofol using target-controlled infusion (the Schneider model). We recorded the PLE value, raw EEG, BIS value, and hemodynamic data when the target effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol reached 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 µg/ml before intubation and 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 µg/ml after intubation and injection of muscle relaxant. We analyzed whether PLE and raw EEG data from the PLE monitor reflected the anesthetic depth as the Ce of propofol changed, and whether PLE values were comparable to BIS values. RESULTS: PLE values were inversely correlated to changes in propofol Ce (propofol Ce from 0 to 6.0 µg/ml, r2 = - 0.83; propofol Ce from 6.0 to 2.0 µg/ml, r2 = - 0.46). In the spectral analysis of EEG acquired from the PLE monitor, the persistence spectrogram revealed a wide distribution of power at loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC), with a narrow distribution during unconsciousness. The power spectrogram showed the typical pattern seen in propofol anesthesia with slow alpha frequency band oscillation. The PLE value demonstrated a strong correlation with the BIS value during the change in propofol Ce from 0 to 6.0 µg/ml (r2 = 0.84). PLE and BIS values were similar at LOC (62.3 vs. 61.8) (P > 0.05), but PLE values were smaller than BIS values at ROC (64.4 vs 75.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PLE value is a useful anesthetic depth indicator, similar to the BIS value, during propofol anesthesia. Spectral analysis of EEG acquired from the PLE monitor demonstrated the typical patterns seen in propofol anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was retrospectively registered at at October 2017 (NCT03299621).

Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitores de Consciência , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Propofol/farmacologia , Adulto , Entropia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184649, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953949


BACKGROUND: Tramadol, a 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine, has a unique action in that it has a central opioidergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic analgesic, and peripheral local anesthetic (LA) effect. Many studies have reported contradictory findings regarding the peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to LA in brachial plexus block (BPB). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol as an adjunct to LA in BPB during shoulder or upper extremity surgery. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, KoreaMed databases, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared BPB with LA alone and BPB with LA and tramadol. Primary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia. Secondary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on time to onset of sensory block and motor block and on adverse effects. We performed the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3 software. RESULTS: We identified 16 RCTs with 751 patients. BPB with tramadol prolonged the duration of sensory block (mean difference [MD], -61.5 min; 95% CI, -95.5 to -27.6; P = 0.0004), motor block (MD, -65.6 min; 95% CI, -101.5 to -29.7; P = 0.0003), and analgesia (MD, -125.5 min; 95% CI, -175.8 to -75.3; P < 0.0001) compared with BPB without tramadol. Tramadol also shortened the time to onset of sensory block (MD, 2.1 min; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1; P < 0.0001) and motor block (MD, 1.2 min; 95% CI, 0.2 to 2.1; P = 0.010). In subgroup analysis, the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia was prolonged for BPB with tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.05) but not for BPB with tramadol 50 mg. The quality of evidence was high for duration of analgesia according to the GRADE system. Adverse effects were comparable between the studies. CONCLUSIONS: In upper extremity surgery performed under BPB, use of tramadol 100 mg as an adjuvant to LA appears to prolong the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia, and shorten the time to onset of sensory and motor blocks without altering adverse effects.

Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Tramadol/farmacologia , Humanos