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1.
Adv Virus Res ; 104: 185-224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439149

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are important zoonotic pathogens of public health importance that are found on all continents except Antarctica and are associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Despite the significant disease burden they cause, no FDA-approved specific therapeutics or vaccines exist against these lethal viruses. The lack of available interventions is largely due to an incomplete understanding of hantavirus pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of virus replication, including cellular entry. Hantavirus Gn/Gc glycoproteins are the only viral proteins exposed on the surface of virions and are necessary and sufficient to orchestrate virus attachment and entry. In vitro studies have implicated integrins (ß1-3), DAF/CD55, and gC1qR as candidate receptors that mediate viral attachment for both Old World and New World hantaviruses. Recently, protocadherin-1 (PCDH1) was demonstrated as a requirement for cellular attachment and entry of New World hantaviruses in vitro and lethal HPS in vivo, making it the first clade-specific host factor to be identified. Attachment of hantavirus particles to cellular receptors induces their internalization by clathrin-mediated, dynamin-independent, or macropinocytosis-like mechanisms, followed by particle trafficking to an endosomal compartment where the fusion of viral and endosomal membranes can occur. Following membrane fusion, which requires cholesterol and acid pH, viral nucleocapsids escape into the cytoplasm and launch genome replication. In this review, we discuss the current mechanistic understanding of hantavirus entry, highlight gaps in our existing knowledge, and suggest areas for future inquiry.

2.
Viruses ; 11(7)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337019

RESUMO

Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) are the main causative agents responsible for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. HCPS is a severe respiratory disease with a high fatality rate for which there are no approved therapeutics or vaccines available. Some vaccine approaches for HCPS have been tested in preclinical models, but none have been tested in infectious models in regard to their ability to protect against multiple species of HCPS-causing viruses. Here, we utilize recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based (VSV) vaccines for Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and assess their ability to provide cross-protection in infectious challenge models. We show that, while both rVSVΔG/ANDVGPC and rVSVΔG/SNVGPC display attenuated growth as compared to wild type VSV, each vaccine is able to induce a cross-reactive antibody response. Both vaccines protected against both homologous and heterologous challenge with ANDV and SNV and prevented HCPS in a lethal ANDV challenge model. This study provides evidence that the development of a single vaccine against HCPS-causing hantaviruses could provide protection against multiple agents.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 39-48.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629917

RESUMO

Passive administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a promising therapeutic approach for Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, all mAbs and mAb cocktails that have entered clinical development are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against outbreak-causing Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) and Sudan virus (SUDV). Here, we advance MBP134, a cocktail of two broadly neutralizing human mAbs, ADI-15878 from an EVD survivor and ADI-23774 from the same survivor but specificity-matured for SUDV GP binding affinity, as a candidate pan-ebolavirus therapeutic. MBP134 potently neutralized all ebolaviruses and demonstrated greater protective efficacy than ADI-15878 alone in EBOV-challenged guinea pigs. A second-generation cocktail, MBP134AF, engineered to effectively harness natural killer (NK) cells afforded additional improvement relative to its precursor in protective efficacy against EBOV and SUDV in guinea pigs. MBP134AF is an optimized mAb cocktail suitable for evaluation as a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic in nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Cobaias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
MBio ; 10(1)2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622188

RESUMO

Rodent-to-human transmission of hantaviruses is associated with severe disease. Currently, no FDA-approved, specific antivirals or vaccines are available, and the requirement for high biocontainment (biosafety level 3 [BSL-3]) laboratories limits hantavirus research. To study hantavirus entry in a BSL-2 laboratory, we set out to generate replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSVs) bearing the Gn and Gc (Gn/Gc) entry glycoproteins. As previously reported, rVSVs bearing New World hantavirus Gn/Gc were readily rescued from cDNAs, but their counterparts bearing Gn/Gc from the Old World hantaviruses, Hantaan virus (HTNV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), were refractory to rescue. However, serial passage of the rescued rVSV-HTNV Gn/Gc virus markedly increased its infectivity and capacity for cell-to-cell spread. This gain in viral fitness was associated with the acquisition of two point mutations: I532K in the cytoplasmic tail of Gn and S1094L in the membrane-proximal stem of Gc. Follow-up experiments with rVSVs and single-cycle VSV pseudotypes confirmed these results. Mechanistic studies revealed that both mutations were determinative and contributed to viral infectivity in a synergistic manner. Our findings indicate that the primary mode of action of these mutations is to relocalize HTNV Gn/Gc from the Golgi complex to the cell surface, thereby affording significantly enhanced Gn/Gc incorporation into budding VSV particles. Finally, I532K/S1094L mutations in DOBV Gn/Gc permitted the rescue of rVSV-DOBV Gn/Gc, demonstrating that incorporation of cognate mutations into other hantaviral Gn/Gc proteins could afford the generation of rVSVs that are otherwise challenging to rescue. The robust replication-competent rVSVs, bearing HTNV and DOBV Gn/Gc, reported herein may also have utility as vaccines.IMPORTANCE Human hantavirus infections cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. No FDA-approved vaccines and therapeutics exist for these deadly viruses, and their development is limited by the requirement for high biocontainment. In this study, we identified and characterized key amino acid changes in the surface glycoproteins of HFRS-causing Hantaan virus that enhance their incorporation into recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) particles. The replication-competent rVSVs encoding Hantaan virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus glycoproteins described in this work provide a powerful and facile system to study hantavirus entry under lower biocontainment and may have utility as hantavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Hantavirus/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Vesiculovirus/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Linhagem Celular , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Genética Reversa , Inoculações Seriadas , Vesiculovirus/fisiologia , Liberação de Vírus , Replicação Viral
5.
Nature ; 563(7732): 559-563, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464266

RESUMO

The zoonotic transmission of hantaviruses from their rodent hosts to humans in North and South America is associated with a severe and frequently fatal respiratory disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)1,2. No specific antiviral treatments for HPS are available, and no molecular determinants of in vivo susceptibility to hantavirus infection and HPS are known. Here we identify the human asthma-associated gene protocadherin-1 (PCDH1)3-6 as an essential determinant of entry and infection in pulmonary endothelial cells by two hantaviruses that cause HPS, Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In vitro, we show that the surface glycoproteins of ANDV and SNV directly recognize the outermost extracellular repeat domain of PCDH1-a member of the cadherin superfamily7,8-to exploit PCDH1 for entry. In vivo, genetic ablation of PCDH1 renders Syrian golden hamsters highly resistant to a usually lethal ANDV challenge. Targeting PCDH1 could provide strategies to reduce infection and disease caused by New World hantaviruses.

6.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(12): 1486, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410089

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the bat species for 12 individuals were incorrectly identified in Supplementary Table 1 and 2. After resequencing the MT-CytB and MT-CO1 segments and reviewing the data, the authors have corrected the errors for these 12 animals. In the amended version of the Supplementary Information, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 have been replaced to include the corrected host species information. None of the 12 bats affected were positive for the Bombali virus, and the conclusions of the study are therefore unchanged.

7.
Nat Microbiol ; 3(10): 1084-1089, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150734

RESUMO

Here we describe the complete genome of a new ebolavirus, Bombali virus (BOMV) detected in free-tailed bats in Sierra Leone (little free-tailed (Chaerephon pumilus) and Angolan free-tailed (Mops condylurus)). The bats were found roosting inside houses, indicating the potential for human transmission. We show that the viral glycoprotein can mediate entry into human cells. However, further studies are required to investigate whether exposure has actually occurred or if BOMV is pathogenic in humans.

8.
Nature ; 562(7725): E3, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980769

RESUMO

Change history: In the HTML version of this Letter, Extended Data Fig. 4 incorrectly corresponded to Fig. 4 (the PDF version of the figure was correct). This has been corrected online.

9.
Nature ; 558(7711): 610-614, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925952

RESUMO

Viral infections continue to represent major challenges to public health, and an enhanced mechanistic understanding of the processes that contribute to viral life cycles is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies 1 . Viperin, a member of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, is an interferon-inducible protein implicated in the inhibition of replication of a broad range of RNA and DNA viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, rabies virus 2 and HIV3,4. Viperin has been suggested to elicit these broad antiviral activities through interactions with a large number of functionally unrelated host and viral proteins3,4. Here we demonstrate that viperin catalyses the conversion of cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to 3'-deoxy-3',4'-didehydro-CTP (ddhCTP), a previously undescribed biologically relevant molecule, via a SAM-dependent radical mechanism. We show that mammalian cells expressing viperin and macrophages stimulated with IFNα produce substantial quantities of ddhCTP. We also establish that ddhCTP acts as a chain terminator for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from multiple members of the Flavivirus genus, and show that ddhCTP directly inhibits replication of Zika virus in vivo. These findings suggest a partially unifying mechanism for the broad antiviral effects of viperin that is based on the intrinsic enzymatic properties of the protein and involves the generation of a naturally occurring replication-chain terminator encoded by mammalian genomes.

10.
Cell ; 169(5): 878-890.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525755

RESUMO

Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes. Only a few somatic hypermutations are required for broad antiviral activity, and germline-approximating variants display enhanced GPCL recognition, suggesting that such antibodies could be elicited more efficiently with suitably optimized GP immunogens. Our findings inform the development of both broadly effective immunotherapeutics and vaccines against filoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Células Vero
11.
Science ; 354(6310): 350-354, 2016 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27608667

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies that broadly protect against Ebola virus and other filoviruses. The conserved, essential interaction between the filovirus glycoprotein, GP, and its entry receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) provides an attractive target for such mAbs but is shielded by multiple mechanisms, including physical sequestration in late endosomes. Here, we describe a bispecific-antibody strategy to target this interaction, in which mAbs specific for NPC1 or the GP receptor-binding site are coupled to a mAb against a conserved, surface-exposed GP epitope. Bispecific antibodies, but not parent mAbs, neutralized all known ebolaviruses by coopting viral particles themselves for endosomal delivery and conferred postexposure protection against multiple ebolaviruses in mice. Such "Trojan horse" bispecific antibodies have potential as broad antifilovirus immunotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endossomos/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Internalização do Vírus
12.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 5: e321, 2016 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27219515

RESUMO

Pathogenic New World hemorrhagic fever mammarenaviruses (NWM) utilize Glycoprotein 1 (GP1) to target the apical domain of the human transferrin receptor (hTfR) for facilitating cell entry. However, the conservation between their GP1s is low. Considering this and the slow evolutionary progression of mammals compared to viruses, therapeutic targeting of hTfR provides an attractive avenue for cross-strain inhibition and diminishing the likelihood of escape mutants. Aptamers present unique advantages for the development of inhibitors to vial entry, including ease of synthesis, lack of immunogenicity, and potentially cold-chain breaking solutions to diseases endemic to South America. Here, recognizing that in vivo competition with the natural ligand, transferrin (Tf), likely drove the evolution of GP1 to recognize the apical domain, we performed competitive in vitro selections against hTfR-expressing cells with supplemented Tf. The resultant minimized aptamer, Waz, binds the apical domain of the receptor and inhibits infection of human cells by recombinant NWM in culture (EC50 ~400 nmol/l). Aptamer multimerization further enhanced inhibition >10-fold (EC50 ~30 nmol/l). Together, our results highlight the ability to use a competitor to bias the outcome of a selection and demonstrate how avidity effects can be leveraged to enhance both aptamer binding and the potency of viral inhibition.

13.
MBio ; 7(1): e01857-15, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861015

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Ebola virus (EBOV) makes extensive and intricate use of host factors in the cellular endosomal/lysosomal pathway to release its genome into the cytoplasm and initiate infection. Following viral internalization into endosomes, host cysteine proteases cleave the EBOV fusion glycoprotein (GP) to unmask the binding site for its intracellular receptor, the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). GP-NPC1 interaction is required for viral entry. Despite these and other recent discoveries, late events in EBOV entry following GP-NPC1 binding and culminating in GP-catalyzed fusion between viral and cellular lipid bilayers remain enigmatic. A mechanistic understanding of EBOV membrane fusion has been hampered by the failure of previous efforts to reconstitute fusion in vitro or at the cell surface. This report describes an assay to monitor initial steps directly in EBOV membrane fusion-triggering of GP and virus-cell lipid mixing-by single virions in live cells. Fusogenic triggering of GP occurs predominantly in Rab7-positive (Rab7(+)) endosomes, absolutely requires interaction between proteolytically primed GP and NPC1, and is blocked by key GP-specific neutralizing antibodies with therapeutic potential. Unexpectedly, cysteine protease inhibitors do not inhibit lipid mixing by virions bearing precleaved GP, even though they completely block cytoplasmic entry by these viruses, as shown previously. These results point to distinct cellular requirements for different steps in EBOV membrane fusion and suggest a model in which host cysteine proteases are dispensable for GP fusion triggering after NPC1 binding but are required for the formation of fusion pores that permit genome delivery. IMPORTANCE: Ebola virus (EBOV) causes outbreaks of highly lethal disease for which no approved vaccines or treatments exist. Recent work has elucidated key molecular features of the complex EBOV entry process, including stepwise interactions with multiple host factors. However, there is a critical gap in our understanding of events that surround the final membrane fusion step which persists due to the paucity of direct and extensive investigation of EBOV fusion. Here, we report a real-time assay for EBOV glycoprotein fusion triggering and use it to define its cellular location and requirements. We also uncover an unexpected requirement for host proteases at a step after fusion triggering that may reflect their role in formation of fusion pores for genome delivery.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Endossomos/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Virologia/métodos
14.
Elife ; 42015 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698106

RESUMO

Biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. While filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are refractory to EBOV infection. This could be explained by a single amino acid change in the filovirus receptor, NPC1, which greatly reduces the affinity of EBOV-NPC1 interaction. We found signatures of positive selection in bat NPC1 concentrated at the virus-receptor interface, with the strongest signal at the same residue that controls EBOV infection in Eidolon helvum cells. Our work identifies NPC1 as a genetic determinant of filovirus susceptibility in bats, and suggests that some NPC1 variations reflect host adaptations to reduce filovirus replication and virulence. A single viral mutation afforded escape from receptor control, revealing a pathway for compensatory viral evolution and a potential avenue for expansion of filovirus host range in nature.


Assuntos
Filoviridae/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Ligação Viral , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Quirópteros
15.
MBio ; 6(4): e00801, 2015 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26126854

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and a highly fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the New World. No vaccines or antiviral therapies are currently available to prevent or treat hantavirus disease, and gaps in our understanding of how hantaviruses enter cells challenge the search for therapeutics. We performed a haploid genetic screen in human cells to identify host factors required for entry by Andes virus, a highly virulent New World hantavirus. We found that multiple genes involved in cholesterol sensing, regulation, and biosynthesis, including key components of the sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway, are critical for Andes virus entry. Genetic or pharmacological disruption of the membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase/site-1 protease (MBTPS1/S1P), an SREBP control element, dramatically reduced infection by virulent hantaviruses of both the Old World and New World clades but not by rhabdoviruses or alphaviruses, indicating that this pathway is broadly, but selectively, required by hantaviruses. These results could be fully explained as arising from the modest depletion of cellular membrane cholesterol that accompanied S1P disruption. Mechanistic studies of cells and with protein-free liposomes suggested that high levels of cholesterol are specifically needed for hantavirus membrane fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the profound dependence on target membrane cholesterol is a fundamental, and unusual, biophysical property of hantavirus glycoprotein-membrane interactions during entry. IMPORTANCE: Although hantaviruses cause important human diseases worldwide, no specific antiviral treatments are available. One of the major obstacles to the development of new therapies is a lack of understanding of how hantaviruses hijack our own host factors to enter cells. Here, we identified multiple cellular genes that control the levels of cholesterol in cellular membranes to be important for hantavirus entry. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of cholesterol in cellular membranes are required at a specific step in the entry process-fusion between viral and cellular membranes-that allows escape of the hantavirus genome into the host cell cytoplasm to initiate infection. Our findings uncover a fundamental feature of the hantavirus infection mechanism and point to cholesterol-lowering drugs as a potential new treatment of hantaviral infections.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Hantavirus/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Cercopithecus aethiops , Testes Genéticos , Células HEK293 , Haploidia , Humanos , Células Vero
16.
Virology ; 468-470: 637-646, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310500

RESUMO

Lloviu virus (LLOV), a phylogenetically divergent filovirus, is the proposed etiologic agent of die-offs of Schreibers's long-fingered bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) in western Europe. Studies of LLOV remain limited because the infectious agent has not yet been isolated. Here, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the LLOV spike glycoprotein (GP) and used it to show that LLOV GP resembles other filovirus GP proteins in structure and function. LLOV GP must be cleaved by endosomal cysteine proteases during entry, but is much more protease-sensitive than EBOV GP. The EBOV/MARV receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), is also required for LLOV entry, and its second luminal domain is recognized with high affinity by a cleaved form of LLOV GP, suggesting that receptor binding would not impose a barrier to LLOV infection of humans and non-human primates. The use of NPC1 as an intracellular entry receptor may be a universal property of filoviruses.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Filoviridae/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Endossomos/enzimologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Receptores Virais , Células Vero
17.
J Virol ; 86(13): 7372-83, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22532678

RESUMO

MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) facilitates hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by recruiting an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-like complex containing argonaute 2 (Ago2) to the 5' end of the HCV genome, thereby stabilizing the viral RNA. This requires base pairing between the miR-122 "seed sequence" (nucleotides [nt] 2 to 8) and two sequences near the 5' end of the HCV RNA: S1 (nt 22 to 28) and S2 (nt 38 to 43). However, recent reports suggest that additional base pair interactions occur between HCV RNA and miR-122. We searched 606 sequences from a public database (genotypes 1 to 6) and identified two conserved, putatively single-stranded RNA segments, upstream of S1 (nt 2 and 3) and S2 (nt 30 to 34), with potential for base pairing to miR-122 (nt 15 and 16 and nt 13 to 16, respectively). Mutagenesis and genetic complementation experiments confirmed that HCV nt 2 and 3 pair with nt 15 and 16 of miR-122 bound to S1, while HCV nt 30 to 33 pair with nt 13 to 16 of miR-122 at S2. In genotype 1 and 6 HCV, nt 4 also base pairs with nt 14 of miR-122. These 3' supplementary base pair interactions of miR-122 are functionally important and are required for Ago2 recruitment to HCV RNA by miR-122, miR-122-mediated stabilization of HCV RNA, and production of infectious virus. However, while complementary mutations at HCV nt 30 and 31 efficiently rescued the activity of a 15C,16C miR-122 mutant targeting S2, similar mutations at nt 2 and 3 failed to rescue Ago2 recruitment at S1. These data add to the current understanding of miR-122 interactions with HCV RNA but indicate that base pairing between miR-122 and the 5' 43 nt of the HCV genome is more complex than suggested by existing models.


Assuntos
Pareamento de Bases , Instabilidade Genômica , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Sequência de Bases , Teste de Complementação Genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese , RNA Viral/genética
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(3): 941-6, 2012 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22215596

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate eukaryotic gene expression by binding to regions of imperfect complementarity in mRNAs, typically in the 3' UTR, recruiting an Argonaute (Ago) protein complex that usually results in translational repression or destabilization of the target RNA. The translation and decay of mRNAs are closely linked, competing processes, and whether the miRNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) acts primarily to reduce translation or stability of the mRNA remains controversial. miR-122 is an abundant, liver-specific miRNA that is an unusual host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important cause of liver disease in humans. Prior studies show that it binds the 5' UTR of the messenger-sense HCV RNA genome, stimulating translation and promoting genome replication by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that miR-122 binds HCV RNA in association with Ago2 and that this slows decay of the viral genome in infected cells. The stabilizing action of miR-122 does not require the viral RNA to be translationally active nor engaged in replication, and can be functionally substituted by a nonmethylated 5' cap. Our data demonstrate that a RISC-like complex mediates the stability of HCV RNA and suggest that Ago2 and miR-122 act coordinately to protect the viral genome from 5' exonuclease activity of the host mRNA decay machinery. miR-122 thus acts in an unconventional fashion to stabilize HCV RNA and slow its decay, expanding the repertoire of mechanisms by which miRNAs modulate gene expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Genoma Viral/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metilação , MicroRNAs/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo
19.
Hepatology ; 54(5): 1506-17, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22045669

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The interferon-stimulated gene, viperin, has been shown to have antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the context of the HCV replicon, although the molecular mechanisms responsible are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that viperin plays an integral part in the ability of interferon to limit the replication of cell-culture-derived HCV (JFH-1) that accurately reflects the complete viral life cycle. Using confocal microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis, we demonstrate that viperin localizes and interacts with HCV nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) at the lipid-droplet (LD) interface. In addition, viperin also associates with NS5A and the proviral cellular factor, human vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein subtype A (VAP-A), at the HCV replication complex. The ability of viperin to limit HCV replication was dependent on residues within the C-terminus, as well as an N-terminal amphipathic helix. Removal of the amphipathic helix-redirected viperin from the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum and the LD to a homogenous cytoplasmic distribution, coinciding with a loss of antiviral effect. C-terminal viperin mutants still localized to the LD interface and replication complexes, but did not interact with NS5A proteins, as determined by FRET analysis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we propose that viperin interacts with NS5A and the host factor, VAP-A, to limit HCV replication at the replication complex. This highlights the complexity of the host control of viral replication by interferon-stimulated gene expression.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hepacivirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mutagênese/fisiologia , Proteínas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
20.
Antiviral Res ; 88(1): 95-106, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20705106

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common cause of chronic liver disease and a serious threat to human health. The HCV NS3/4A serine protease is necessary for viral replication and innate immune evasion, and represents a well-validated target for specific antiviral therapy. We previously reported the isolation of single-chain antibodies (scFvs) that inhibit NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Expressed intracellularly (intrabodies), these scFvs blocked NS3-mediated proliferation of NS3-transfected cells. Here we show that anti-NS3 scFvs suppress HCV RNA replication when expressed intracellularly in Huh7 hepatoma cells bearing either subgenomic or genome-length HCV RNA replicons. The expression of intrabodies directed against NS3 inhibited the autonomous amplification of HCV replicons resistant to small-molecule inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease, and replicons derived from different HCV genotypes. The combination of intrabodies and interferon-α had an additive inhibitory effect on RNA replication in the replicon model. Intrabody expression also inhibited production of infectious HCV in a cell culture system. The NS3 protease activity was inhibited by the intrabodies in NS3-expressing cells. In contrast, cell-free synthesis of HCV RNA by preformed replicase complexes was not inhibited by intrabodies, suggesting that the major mode of inhibition of viral replication is inhibition of NS3/4A protease activity and subsequent suppression of viral polyprotein processing.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/uso terapêutico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunofluorescência , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Plasmídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Poliproteínas/metabolismo , RNA Replicase , RNA Viral/genética , Replicon/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética
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