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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603303

RESUMO

Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have received EUAs, but many issues remain unresolved, including duration of conferred immunity and breadth of cross-protection. Adjuvants that enhance and shape adaptive immune responses that confer broad protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants will be pivotal for long-term protection as drift variants continue to emerge. We developed an intranasal, rationally designed adjuvant integrating a nanoemulsion (NE) that activates TLRs and NLRP3 with an RNA agonist of RIG-I (IVT DI). The combination adjuvant with spike protein antigen elicited robust responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mice, with markedly enhanced TH1-biased cellular responses and high virus-neutralizing antibody titers towards both homologous SARS-CoV-2 and a variant harboring the N501Y mutation shared by B1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 variants. Furthermore, passive transfer of vaccination-induced antibodies protected naive mice against heterologous viral challenge. NE/IVT DI enables mucosal vaccination, and has the potential to improve the immune profile of a variety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates to provide effective cross-protection against future drift variants.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19470, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593848

RESUMO

The germicidal potential of specific wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum is an area of growing interest. While ultra-violet (UV) based technologies have shown satisfactory virucidal potential, the photo-toxicity in humans coupled with UV associated polymer degradation limit their use in occupied spaces. Alternatively, longer wavelengths with less irradiation energy such as visible light (405 nm) have largely been explored in the context of bactericidal and fungicidal applications. Such studies indicated that 405 nm mediated inactivation is caused by the absorbance of porphyrins within the organism creating reactive oxygen species which result in free radical damage to its DNA and disruption of cellular functions. The virucidal potential of visible-light based technologies has been largely unexplored and speculated to be ineffective given the lack of porphyrins in viruses. The current study demonstrated increased susceptibility of lipid-enveloped respiratory pathogens of importance such as SARS-CoV-2 (causative agent of COVID-19) and influenza A virus to 405 nm, visible light in the absence of exogenous photosensitizers thereby indicating a potential alternative porphyrin-independent mechanism of visible light mediated viral inactivation. These results were obtained using less than expected irradiance levels which are considered safe for humans and commercially achievable. Our results support further exploration of the use of visible light technology for the application of continuous decontamination in occupied areas within hospitals and/or infectious disease laboratories, specifically for the inactivation of respiratory pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza A.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19970, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620951

RESUMO

Particulate respirators such as N95s are an essential component of personal protective equipment (PPE) for front-line workers. This study describes a rapid and effective UVC irradiation system that would facilitate the safe re-use of N95 respirators and provides supporting information for deploying UVC for decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the inactivation potential of the proposed UVC germicidal device as a function of time by using 3 M 8211-N95 particulate respirators inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. A germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose was developed and test coupons (2.5 cm2) of the 3 M-N95 respirator were inoculated with 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 and were UV irradiated. Different exposure times were tested (0-164 s) by fixing the distance between the lamp and the test coupon to 15.2 cm while providing an exposure of at least 5.43 mWcm-2. Primary measure of outcome was titration of infectious virus recovered from virus-inoculated respirator test coupons after UVC exposure. Other measures included the method validation of the irradiation protocol, using lentiviruses (biosafety level-2 agent) and establishment of the germicidal UVC exposure protocol. An average of 4.38 × 103 PFU ml-1 (SD 772.68) was recovered from untreated test coupons while 4.44 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 203.67), 4.00 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 115.47), 1.56 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) and 4.44 × 101 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) was recovered in exposures 2, 6, 18 and 54 s per side respectively. The germicidal device output and positioning was monitored and a minimum output of 5.43 mW cm-2 was maintained. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by plaque assays (minimal level of detection is 67 PFU ml-1) on N95 respirator test coupons when irradiated for 120 s per side or longer suggesting 3.5 log reduction in 240 s of irradiation, 1.3 J cm-2. A scalable germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 was developed. UVC germicidal irradiation of N95 test coupons inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 for 120 s per side resulted in 3.5 log reduction of virus. These data support the reuse of N95 particle-filtrate apparatus upon irradiation with UVC and supports use of UVC-based decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0102721, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319780

RESUMO

Some lytic proteins encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) suppress host interferon (IFN) signaling to facilitate viral replication. In this study, we sought to identify and characterize EBV proteins antagonizing IFN signaling. The induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by IFN-ß was effectively suppressed by EBV. A functional screen was therefore performed to identify IFN-antagonizing proteins encoded by EBV. EBV tegument protein BGLF2 was identified as a potent suppressor of JAK-STAT signaling. This activity was found to be independent of its stimulatory effect on p38 and JNK pathways. Association of BGLF2 with STAT2 resulted in more pronounced K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the latter. Mechanistically, BGLF2 promoted the recruitment of SHP1 phosphatase to STAT1 to inhibit its tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, BGLF2 associated with cullin 1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to facilitate its recruitment to STAT2. Consequently, BGLF2 suppressed ISG induction by IFN-ß. Furthermore, BGLF2 also suppressed type II and type III IFN signaling, although the suppressive effect on type II IFN response was milder. When pretreated with IFN-ß, host cells became less susceptible to primary infection of EBV. This phenotype was reversed when expression of BGLF2 was enforced. Finally, genetic disruption of BGLF2 in EBV led to more pronounced induction of ISGs. Our study unveils the roles of BGLF2 not only in the subversion of innate IFN response but also in lytic infection and reactivation of EBV. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the development of lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. EBV has to subvert interferon-mediated host antiviral response to replicate and cause diseases. It is therefore of great interest to identify and characterize interferon-antagonizing proteins produced by EBV. In this study, we perform a screen to search for EBV proteins that suppress the action of interferons. We further show that BGLF2 protein of EBV is particularly strong in this suppression. This is achieved by inhibiting two key proteins STAT1 and STAT2 that mediate the antiviral activity of interferons. BGLF2 recruits a host enzyme to remove the phosphate group from STAT1 thereby inactivating its activity. BGLF2 also redirects STAT2 for degradation. A recombinant virus in which BGLF2 gene has been disrupted can activate host interferon response more robustly. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which EBV BGLF2 protein suppresses interferon signaling.

5.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326236

RESUMO

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Lipidoses/induzido quimicamente , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , COVID-19/virologia , Cátions , Chlorocebus aethiops , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Cell ; 184(10): 2618-2632.e17, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836156

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently affecting millions of lives worldwide. Large retrospective studies indicate that an elevated level of inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors are associated with both increased disease severity and mortality. Here, using multidimensional epigenetic, transcriptional, in vitro, and in vivo analyses, we report that topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibition suppresses lethal inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2. Therapeutic treatment with two doses of topotecan (TPT), an FDA-approved TOP1 inhibitor, suppresses infection-induced inflammation in hamsters. TPT treatment as late as 4 days post-infection reduces morbidity and rescues mortality in a transgenic mouse model. These results support the potential of TOP1 inhibition as an effective host-directed therapy against severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. TPT and its derivatives are inexpensive clinical-grade inhibitors available in most countries. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of repurposing TOP1 inhibitors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia , Topotecan/farmacologia , Animais , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/patologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células THP-1 , Células Vero
8.
bioRxiv ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619480

RESUMO

Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have received EUAs, but many issues remain unresolved, including duration of conferred immunity and breadth of cross-protection. Adjuvants that enhance and shape adaptive immune responses that confer broad protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants will be pivotal for long-term protection. We developed an intranasal, rationally designed adjuvant integrating a nanoemulsion (NE) that activates TLRs and NLRP3 with an RNA agonist of RIG-I (IVT DI). The combination adjuvant with spike protein antigen elicited robust responses to SARS-CoV-2 in mice, with markedly enhanced T H 1-biased cellular responses and high virus-neutralizing antibody titers towards both homologous SARS-CoV-2 and a variant harboring the N501Y mutation shared by B1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 variants. Furthermore, passive transfer of vaccination-induced antibodies protected naive mice against heterologous viral challenge. NE/IVT DI enables mucosal vaccination, and has the potential to improve the immune profile of a variety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates to provide effective cross-protection against future drift variants.

9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9467-9473, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464672

RESUMO

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality because of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Here we describe an amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile. It is water-soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and reduction in systemic inflammation. The adjuvanticity of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL was validated in a licensed vaccine setting (quadrivalent influenza vaccine) and an experimental trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine, showing robust IgG2a and IgG1 antibody titers in mice that could neutralize viral infection in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/imunologia , Colesterol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/agonistas
10.
Science ; 371(6532): 926-931, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495306

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins interact with the eukaryotic translation machinery, and inhibitors of translation have potent antiviral effects. We found that the drug plitidepsin (aplidin), which has limited clinical approval, possesses antiviral activity (90% inhibitory concentration = 0.88 nM) that is more potent than remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro by a factor of 27.5, with limited toxicity in cell culture. Through the use of a drug-resistant mutant, we show that the antiviral activity of plitidepsin against SARS-CoV-2 is mediated through inhibition of the known target eEF1A (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A). We demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of plitidepsin treatment in two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a reduction of viral replication in the lungs by two orders of magnitude using prophylactic treatment. Our results indicate that plitidepsin is a promising therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/biossíntese , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/genética , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas/biossíntese , Fosfoproteínas/genética , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106810

RESUMO

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality as a result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Several vaccine candidates are currently being tested in the clinic. Inactivated virus and recombinant protein vaccines can be safe options but may require adjuvants to induce robust immune responses efficiently. In this work we describe the use of a novel amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile). This amphiphile is water soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration, likely through binding to albumin. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL is used to induce a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after single vaccination with trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the BALB/c mouse model. Inclusion of amphiphilic IMDQ-PEG-CHOL in the SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine formulation resulted in enhanced immune cell recruitment and activation in the draining lymph node. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL has a better safety profile compared to native soluble IMDQ as the former induces a more localized immune response upon local injection, preventing systemic inflammation. Moreover, IMDQ-PEG-CHOL adjuvanted vaccine induced enhanced ELISA and in vitro microneutralization titers, and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 response. To correlate vaccine responses with control of virus replication in vivo, vaccinated mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 virus after being sensitized by intranasal adenovirus-mediated expression of the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene. Animals vaccinated with trimeric recombinant spike protein vaccine without adjuvant had lung virus titers comparable to non-vaccinated control mice, whereas animals vaccinated with IMDQ-PEG-CHOL-adjuvanted vaccine controlled viral replication and infectious viruses could not be recovered from their lungs at day 4 post infection. In order to test whether IMDQ-PEG-CHOL could also be used to adjuvant vaccines currently licensed for use in humans, proof of concept was also provided by using the same IMDQ-PEG-CHOL to adjuvant human quadrivalent inactivated influenza virus split vaccine, which resulted in enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titers and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 antibody response. Enhanced influenza vaccine responses correlated with better virus control when mice were given a lethal influenza virus challenge. Our results underscore the potential use of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL as an adjuvant to achieve protection after single immunization with recombinant protein and inactivated virus vaccines against respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052360

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Particulate respirators such as N95 masks are an essential component of personal protective equipment (PPE) for front-line workers. This study describes a rapid and effective UVC irradiation system that would facilitate the safe re-use of N95 respirators and provides supporting information for deploying UVC for decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess the inactivation potential of the proposed UVC germicidal device as a function of time by using 3M 8211 - N95 particulate respirators inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: A germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose was developed and snippets (2.5cm2) of the 3M-N95 respirator were inoculated with 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 and were UV irradiated. Different exposure times were tested (0-164 seconds) by fixing the distance between the lamp (10 cm) and the mask while providing an exposure of at least 5.43 mWcm-2. SETTING: The current work is broadly applicable for healthcare-settings, particularly during a pandemic such as COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Primary measure of outcome was titration of infectious virus recovered from virus-inoculated respirator pieces after UVC exposure. Other measures included the method validation of the irradiation protocol, using lentiviruses (biosafety level-2 agent) and establishment of the germicidal UVC exposure protocol. RESULTS: An average of 4.38x103 PFUml-1(SD 772.68) was recovered from untreated masks while 4.44x102 PFUml-1(SD 203.67), 4.00x102 PFUml-1(SD 115.47), 1.56x102 PFUml-1(SD 76.98) and 4.44x101 PFUml-1(SD 76.98) was recovered in exposures 2s,6s,18s and 54 seconds per side respectively. The germicidal device output and positioning was monitored and a minimum output of 5.43 mWcm-2 was maintained. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by plaque assays (minimal level of detection is 67 PFUml-1) on N95 respirator snippets when irradiated for 120s per side or longer suggesting 3.5 log reduction in 240 seconds of irradiation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A scalable germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 was developed. UVC germicidal irradiation of N95 snippets inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 for 120s per side resulted in 100% (3.5 log in total) reduction of virus. These data support the reuse of N95 particle-filtrate apparatus upon irradiation with UVC and supports use of UVC-based decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID19 pandemic.

13.
Microorganisms ; 7(6)2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238570

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) successfully persists in the vast majority of adults but causes lymphoid and epithelial malignancies in a small fraction of latently infected individuals. Innate immunity is the first-line antiviral defense, which EBV has to evade in favor of its own replication and infection. EBV uses multiple strategies to perturb innate immune signaling pathways activated by Toll-like, RIG-I-like, NOD-like, and AIM2-like receptors as well as cyclic GMP-AMP synthase. EBV also counteracts interferon production and signaling, including TBK1-IRF3 and JAK-STAT pathways. However, activation of innate immunity also triggers pro-inflammatory response and proteolytic cleavage of caspases, both of which exhibit proviral activity under some circumstances. Pathogenic inflammation also contributes to EBV oncogenesis. EBV activates NFκB signaling and induces pro-inflammatory cytokines. Through differential modulation of the proviral and antiviral roles of caspases and other host factors at different stages of infection, EBV usurps cellular programs for death and inflammation to its own benefits. The outcome of EBV infection is governed by a delicate interplay between innate immunity and EBV. A better understanding of this interplay will instruct prevention and intervention of EBV-associated cancers.

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