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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358329


OBJECTIVE: In the Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery Requiring Cardiopulmonary Bypass (LEVO-CTS) trial, no differences in clinical outcomes were observed between levosimendan and placebo in a broad population of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In previous studies, the benefits of levosimendan were most clearly evident in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. In a prespecified analysis of LEVO-CTS, we compared treatment-related outcomes and costs across types of cardiac surgical procedures. METHODS: Overall, 563 (66.4%) patients underwent isolated CABG, 97 (11.4%) isolated valve, and 188 (22.2%) combined CABG/valve surgery. Outcomes included the co-primary 4-component composite (30-day mortality, 30-day renal replacement, 5-day myocardial infarction, or 5-day mechanical circulatory support), the 2-component composite (30-day mortality or 5-day mechanical circulatory support), 90-day mortality, low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS), and 30-day medical costs. RESULTS: The 4- and 2-component outcomes were not significantly different with levosimendan and placebo in patients undergoing CABG (15.2% vs 19.3% and 7.8% vs 10.4%), valve (49.0% vs 33.3% and 22.4% vs 2.1%), or combined procedures (39.6% vs 35.9% and 24.0% vs 19.6%). Ninety-day mortality was lower with levosimendan in isolated CABG (2.1% vs 7.9%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.64), but not significantly different in valve (8.3% vs 2.0%; HR, 4.10; 95% CI, 0.46-36.72) or combined procedures (10.4% vs 7.6%; HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.53-3.64; interaction P = .011). LCOS (12.0% vs 22.1%; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.76; interaction P = .118) was significantly lower in levosimendan-treated patients undergoing isolated CABG. Excluding study drug costs, median and mean 30-day costs were $53,707 and $65,852 for levosimendan and $54,636 and $67,122 for placebo, with a 30-day mean difference (levosimendan - placebo) of -$1270 (bootstrap 95% CI, -$8722 to $6165). CONCLUSIONS: Levosimendan was associated with lower 90-day mortality and LCOS in patients undergoing isolated CABG, but not in those undergoing isolated valve or combined CABG/valve procedures.

N Engl J Med ; 376(21): 2032-2042, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28316276


BACKGROUND: Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 µg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 µg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. RESULTS: A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. (Funded by Tenax Therapeutics; LEVO-CTS number, NCT02025621 .).

Baixo Débito Cardíaco/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Cardiotônicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Coração Auxiliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Simendana , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Falha de Tratamento
Am Heart J ; 182: 62-71, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914501


BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome is associated with increased mortality and occurs in 3% to 14% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Levosimendan, a novel calcium sensitizer and KATP channel activator with inotropic, vasodilatory, and cardioprotective properties, has shown significant promise in reducing the incidence of low cardiac output syndrome and related adverse outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. METHODS: LEVO-CTS is a phase 3 randomized, controlled, multicenter study evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of levosimendan in reducing morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%) undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (0.2 µg kg-1 min-1 for the first hour followed by 0.1 µg/kg for 23hours) or matching placebo initiated within 8hours of surgery. The co-primary end points are (1) the composite of death or renal replacement therapy through day 30 or perioperative myocardial infarction, or mechanical assist device use through day 5 (quad end point tested at α<.01), and (2) the composite of death through postoperative day 30 or mechanical assist device use through day 5 (dual end point tested at α<.04). Safety end points include new atrial fibrillation and death through 90days. In addition, an economic analysis will address the cost-effectiveness of levosimendan compared with placebo in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. Approximately 880 patients will be enrolled at approximately 60 sites in the United States and Canada between July 2014 and September 2016, with results anticipated in January 2017. CONCLUSION: LEVO-CTS, a large randomized multicenter clinical trial, will evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of levosimendan in reducing adverse outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: (NCT02025621).

Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hidrazonas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Piridazinas , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Hidrazonas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Simendana , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(4): 437-44, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26309242


BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical associated with a wide range of health outcomes in animal and human studies. BPA is used as a developer in thermal paper products, including cash register receipt paper; however, little is known about exposure of cashiers to BPA and alternative compounds in receipt paper. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether handling receipt paper results in measurable absorption of BPA or the BPA alternatives bisphenol S (BPS) and 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-isoprooxyphenylsulfone (BPSIP). METHODS: Cashiers (n = 77) and non-cashiers (n = 25) were recruited from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region of North Carolina during 2011-2013. Receipts were analyzed for the presence of BPA or alternatives considered for use in thermal paper. In cashiers, total urine and serum BPA, BPS, and BPSIP levels in post-shift samples (collected ≤ 2 hr after completing a shift) were compared with pre-shift samples. Levels of these compounds in urine from cashiers were compared to levels in urine from non-cashiers. RESULTS: Each receipt contained 1-2% by weight of the paper of BPA, BPS, or BPSIP. The post-shift geometric mean total urinary BPS concentration was significantly higher than the pre-shift mean in 33 cashiers who handled receipts containing BPS. The mean urine BPA concentrations in 31 cashiers who handled BPA receipts were as likely to decrease as to increase after a shift, but the mean post-shift concentrations were significantly higher than those in non-cashiers. BPSIP was detected more frequently in the urine of cashiers handling BPSIP receipts than in the urine of non-cashiers. Only a few cashiers had detectable levels of total BPA or BPS in serum, whereas BPSIP tended to be detected more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Thermal receipt paper is a potential source of occupational exposure to BPA, BPS, and BPSIP. CITATION: Thayer KA, Taylor KW, Garantziotis S, Schurman SH, Kissling GE, Hunt D, Herbert B, Church R, Jankowich R, Churchwell MI, Scheri RC, Birnbaum LS, Bucher JR. 2016. Bisphenol A, bisphenol S, and 4-hydro​xyphenyl 4-isopro​oxyphenyl​sulfone (BPSIP) in urine and blood of cashiers. Environ Health Perspect 124:437-444;

Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Papel , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/urina , Sulfonas/sangue , Sulfonas/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina