Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 37
Filtrar
1.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the correlation between six different meteorological parameters and the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in 16 administrative regions (voivodeships) of Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Current analysis was based on data acquired from epidemiological reports published by the Polish Ministry of Health. For each of the 16 voivodeships, one synoptic station was selected to provide data on six meteorology parameters: maximum daily temperature, minimum daily temperature, variability of daily temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity and wind speed. RESULTS: For all voivodeships, new COVID-19 cases were correlated with relative humidity (0.41), maximum daily temperature (-0.41), variability of daily temperature (-0.40), and sunshine duration (0.35). For all parameters, a similar time lag was obtained between -14 and -10 days. Such correlation for the wind speed was not statistically significant for most of the voivodeships. New hospitalizations due to the COVID-19 were correlated with the daily maximum temperature (-0.48 with a time lag of -10 days) and sunshine duration (-0.45 with a time lag of -10 days). CONCLUSIONS:  The delayed effects (10-14 days lag) of the meteorological factors on the incidence of COVID-19 and the risk of hospitalization due to the COVID-19 were observed. Relative humidity and the maximum daily temperature had the highest impact on the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic in each of the 16 administrative regions in Poland.

2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452324

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to characterize patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Poland between March and December 2020, as well as to identify factors associated with COVID 19-related risk of in-hospital death. This retrospective analysis was based on data from the hospital discharge reports on COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Poland between March and December 2020. A total of 116,539 discharge reports on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were analyzed. Among patients with COVID-19, 21,490 (18.4%) died during hospitalization. Patients over 60 years of age (OR = 7.74; 95%CI: 7.37-8.12; p < 0.001), men (OR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.38-1.47; p < 0.001) as well as those with cardiovascular diseases (OR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.46-1.56; p < 0.001) or disease of the genitourinary system (OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.31-1.47; p < 0.001) had much higher odds of COVID 19-related risk of in-hospital death. The presence of at least one comorbidity more than doubled the COVID 19-related risk of in-hospital death (OR = 2.23; 95%CI: 2.14-2.32; p < 0.01). The following predictors of admission to ICU were found in multivariable analysis: age over 60 years (OR: 2.03; 95%CI: 1.90-2.16), male sex (OR: 1.79; 95%CI: 1.69-1.89), presence of at least one cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.19-1.34), presence of at least one endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disease (OR: 1.17; 95%CI: 1.07-1.28).


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444541

RESUMO

Perceptions of the harmfulness of tobacco products may be a determinant of smoking behaviors. This study aimed to: (1) assess the perception of harmfulness of various tobacco products and e-cigarettes in Poland as well as (2) to assess the awareness of the health effects of using tobacco and e-cigarettes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2019 with a nationally representative sample of 1011 individuals aged 15 and over. In the studied group, 22.3% were smokers. Smokeless tobacco was most likely to be perceived as less harmful than cigarettes (25%), followed by water pipe (24.5%), heated tobacco products (22%), e-cigarettes (21.6%), slim cigarettes (17.1%), flavored cigarettes (except menthol ones) (16.1%), menthol cigarettes (15.6%) and cigarillos (12.6%). In this study, 10% of respondents denied that smoking causes serious diseases. Most of the respondents (88.9%) were aware that smoking causes lung cancer (88.9%), but only 70.4% were aware that smoking causes stroke. Smokers compared to non-smokers were less likely to declare that smoking causes a stroke (OR: 0.43, 95%CI: 0.31-0.59; p < 0.001) or myocardial infarction (OR: 0.41, 95%CI: 0.29-0.60; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the perception of harmfulness of various tobacco products and e-cigarettes by gender, age, or occupational status.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , Polônia/epidemiologia
4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451957

RESUMO

In December 2020, the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine was authorized in the European Union. This study aimed to assess the changes in attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine and the willingness to get vaccinated among adults in Poland between January and April 2021. Secondary data analysis was carried out using data obtained from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (four consecutive waves: January 2021, n = 1150; February 2021, n = 1179; March 2021, n = 1154; April 2021, n = 1131) carried out by the Public Opinion Research Center. About 31.3% of individuals declared a lack of willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 regardless of the study wave. Significant changes (p < 0.001) were observed by gender and age. The highest percentage of respondents who declared a lack of willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 was observed in the youngest age group (18-34 years), 48.5% among males and 45.6% among females. Among individuals over 65 years of age, males significantly more often declared their willingness to be vaccinated than females (p < 0.001). The main argument against the COVID-19 vaccine was concern about the potential side effects. Differences in attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccine in respect of gender and age indicate the need to implement personalized communications to encourage different social groups to vaccinate against COVID-19.

5.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(5): 629-645, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uniformed services such as police employees are exposed to acute and chronic stressful events at work that may lead to tobacco use. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use and heated tobacco use among police employees in Poland, and to investigate personal characteristics associated with tobacco or e-cigarette use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in June-July 2020 on a randomly selected sample of 8789 police employees from the Mazowieckie Province, Poland. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were obtained from 5082 police employees (79.2% being police officers) with an overall response rate of 57.8%. Smoking ≥100 cigarettes or similar amounts of other tobacco products was declared by 54.6% of the respondents, with significant differences (p < 0.001) between males (56.8%) and females (50.3%). Daily cigarette smoking was declared by 19.5% of the respondents, and 13.4% were occasional cigarette smokers. Daily e-cigarette use was declared by 3.1% of the respondents, and 3.2% were occasional e-cigarette users. Daily heated tobacco use was declared by 2.6% of the respondents, and 2.9% were occasional heated tobacco users. Higher odds of occasional cigarette smoking were observed among men compared to women (OR = 1.254, 95% CI: 1.009-1.558), and among the participants aged 20-29 years (OR = 7.982, 95% CI: 3.066-20.775) or 30-44 years (OR = 3.730, 95% CI: 1.44-9.599) vs. those aged ≥60 years. Higher odds of occasional e-cigarette use were observed among the participants aged 20-29 years (OR = 4.554, 95% CI: 1.213-17.101) vs. those aged 60 years. Police employees with office-based work had lower odds of daily cigarette smoking vs. those with fieldwork (OR = 0.726, 95% CI: 0.55-0.946). Police officers had higher odds of daily heated tobacco use compared to civil workers (OR = 3.362, 95% CI: 1.325-8.534). CONCLUSIONS: The authors observed a marked proportion of police employees who declared occasional tobacco or e-cigarette use, which may indicate the common social smoking phenomenon in this occupational group. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(5):629-45.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918658

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The role of environmental factors in COVID-19 transmission is unclear. This study aimed to analyze the correlation between meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, wind speed) and dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Data on a daily number of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and the number of COVID-19-related deaths were gatheredfrom the official governmental website. Meteorological observations from 55 synoptic stations in Poland were used. Moreover, reports on the movement of people across different categories of places were collected. A cross-correlation function, principal component analysis and random forest were applied. Maximum temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity and variability of mean daily temperature affected the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. An increase intemperature and sunshine hours decreased the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. The occurrence of high humidity caused an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases 14 days later. Decreased sunshine duration and increased air humidity had a negative impact on the number of COVID-19-related deaths. Our study provides information that may be used by policymakers to support the decision-making process in nonpharmaceutical interventions against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805180

RESUMO

Heated tobacco products (HTPs) are devices for generating a nicotine aerosol by heating the tobacco sticks. This study aimed to assess (1) the prevalence of HTP and tobacco cigarette usage among medical students, (2) to characterize smoking habits and (3) to assess students' awareness and opinions about HTPs. A cross-sectional survey on the frequency and attitudes toward cigarettes, e-cigarettes and HTP use was performed between 2019-2020 at the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice (Poland). The data were obtained from 1344 students aged 21.8 ± 1.9 years (response rate: 66.9%). Current traditional tobacco use was 13.2%, e-cigarettes use 3.5%, and HTP use 2.8% of students. Duration of use was shorter among HTPs users comparing to cigarette smokers (p < 0.001) although the number of tobacco sticks used daily was similar (p = 0.1). Almost 30% of respondents have ever tried HTPs. HTPs were considered safe by 5.3% of respondents (43.2% of HTP users vs. 3.9% of non-HTP users, p < 0.001). HTP users were more likely to report that heating tobacco is not addictive (odds ratio (OR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-45.8) and disagreed with a public ban on HTP use (OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 2.5-9.8). Among students, HTP use was less popular than cigarette smoking, but awareness of their presence is widespread.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Estudantes de Medicina , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize sources of knowledge on the means of prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as to assess the methods of preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among police employees in Poland and their potential impact on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases: questionnaire and laboratory tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The questionnaire included 30 questions related to risk factors, knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, and methods of infection prevention. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 5082 police employees. The most common source of knowledge for a daily update on SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention was the Internet (42.6%), television (40.3%), and radio (39.7%). The most commonly used methods of SARS-CoV-2 infection included washing one's hands for at least 20 seconds (95.8%), wearing facemasks (82.9%), and physical distancing (74.9%). Results of IgG tests were lower in police units where the overall compliance with the preventive measures was higher (p < 0.01). Women were more likely to exercise SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention behaviors compared to men. Compliance with the recommended protective measures increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Lower anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity rates were observed in police units with better overall compliance with the preventive measures, suggesting the key importance of group rather than individual behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política de Saúde , Polícia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076351

RESUMO

Smoke-free policies have been shown to significantly reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private and public places. The objectives of this study were to: (1) to assess the prevalence and characteristics of voluntary smoke-free home rules in Poland; and (2) assess the association of smoke-free rules with self-reported SHS exposure in private homes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2019 with a nationally representative sample of 1011 individuals aged 15 and over. Nationally, 66.1% of individuals had a 100% smoke-free home rule (78.9% of non-smokers and 18.6% of smokers; p < 0.001), while a further 24.6% had adopted a partial home smoking rule. SHS exposure in the home during past month was reported by 6.1% of respondents (11.5% of smokers and 4.5% of non-smokers; p < 0.001). The lowest level of SHS exposure (1.8%) was observed among respondents who had implemented a full smoke-free home rule. Non-smokers had higher odds of having adopted a total smoke-free home rule compared with smokers (aOR: 19.17; 95% CI: 12.89-28.50). Moreover, non-smokers had lower odds (aOR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.20-0.61; p < 0.001) of self-reporting SHS smoke exposure at home. Although two-thirds of the Polish population have adopted a full smoke-free home rule in their homes, smokers continue to lag in adoption rates relative to non-smokers.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fumantes
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to determine the prevalence of current and past SARS-CoV-2 infections among police employees. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 5082 police employees from Mazowieckie Province, Poland. RT-PCR testing for current SARS-CoV-2 infection and serological tests (ELISA) for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM+IgA and IgG antibodies were performed. RESULTS: All RT-PCR tests were negative. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM+IgA index was positive (>8) in 8.9% of participants, including 11.2% women and 7.7% men (p < 0.001). Equivocal IgM+IgA index (6-8) was found in 9.8% of participants, including 11.9% women and 8.7% men (p < 0.001). The IgG index was positive (>6) in 4.3% and equivocal (4-6) in 13.2% of participants. A higher odds of positive IgM+IgA index was found in women vs. men (OR: 1.742) and police officers vs. civilian employees (OR: 1.411). Participants aged ≥60 years had a higher odds of positive IgG index vs. those aged 20-29 years (OR: 3.309). Daily vaping also increased the odds of positive IgG index (OR: 2.058). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Polish police employees are seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaping and older age (≥60 years) were associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039918, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in workplaces and public venues in Poland over a 9-year period following the adoption of a smoke-free policy in Poland in 2010. DESIGN: Six waves of cross-sectional surveys were carried out between 2009 and 2019. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of adult Polish residents (age 15 years and older) was surveyed.Survey respondents self-reported SHS exposure in the workplace and 12 different public venues. Data were analysed separately for samples consisting of (1) all respondents and (2) non-smokers only.SHS exposure was defined based on self-report, which may invoke error such as demand bias or recall bias and study protocol do not include participation of paediatric populations that are key limitations of this study. RESULTS: Within a year of adopting the smoke-free policy in 2010, the proportion of non-smokers exposed to SHS in Polish workplaces decreased by more than half (from 19.2% in 2009 to 9.5% in 2011). Over 10 years, a substantial reduction in SHS exposure was observed in all public venues. The highest decrease in SHS exposure was observed in transport services (decreased from 45.7% to 11.7% among all respondents and from 44.2% to 11.7% among non-smokers) and in bars/pubs (SHS exposure decreased from 45.0% to 7.0% among all respondents and from 39.4% to 7.0% among non-smokers). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the substantial success of a national smoke-free law. Nevertheless, smoke-free laws must continue to be refined in terms of their legal boundaries as well as implementation strategies to eliminate disparities in SHS exposure in certain types of venues.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Polônia , Autorrelato
12.
Adv Med Sci ; 65(2): 437-441, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is one of the most popular alternatives to conventional cigarette smoking. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette use among university students from Poland, with particular emphasis on ever and current cigarette and e-cigarette use as well as smoking initiation age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2017 and 2018 in a group of university students in 5 academic centers in Poland. The questionnaire addressed 46 questions about personal attitudes toward cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use. RESULTS: Data were collected from 7324 participants (67.3% females, aged 21.9 ± 2.1 years), with an overall response rate of 70.1%. Among participants, 71.2% had ever smoked a cigarette, and almost half of the respondents (45%) declared ever use of an e-cigarette. The mean age of first use of a cigarette was significantly lower (16.5 ± 2.5 y-old) than of an e-cigarette (18.6 ± 2.2 y-old; p < 0.001). Exclusive cigarette smoking was declared by 12.9%, 1.3% were e-cigarette users and 1.5% were dual users. Those in the medical field were less likely to try e-cigarettes (odds ratio, OR = 0.73) or to currently smoke conventional cigarettes (OR = 0.82). Older participants were more likely to have ever smoked conventional cigarettes (OR = 1.06), but less likely to have ever used e-cigarettes (OR = 0.88). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found a high proportion of young adults who have tried e-cigarettes with both regional and demographic differences. The education profile influences cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use behaviors.

13.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 33(6): 781-789, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), termed COVID-19, is asymptomatic or mild in most cases. These patients do not need treatment in hospital and can be isolated at home. To date, most studies have been conducted among inpatients with severe COVID-19. In this study, the authors surveyed patients with mild COVID-19 who remained in home isolation, and analyzed the sources and occupational risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on April 17-18, 2020, among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who remained in home isolation in Poland. Data were acquired through a structured interview that included questions about the isolation course, symptoms, comorbidities, infection source, household characteristics, occupation, and workplace. Data were presented with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of the 4878 patients in home isolation, the authors were able to contact 3313. Of them, 1191 patients declined their invitation, and 2122 agreed to take part. The median age of the patients included in the study was 50 years; 59% were female. Most patients (92%) had not been abroad before the infection. More than half (55%) knew how they became infected; of them, 75% became infected at work. Of all patients, 70% were occupationally active. Nearly half of the occupationally active patients (48%) worked in healthcare, 3% worked in public administration or defense, 3% worked in transportation, and 2% worked in education. Sixty-five percent of the occupationally active patients worked in companies with >100 employees. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients with COVID-19 in home isolation in Poland were occupationally active, wherein the majority of people who were aware of the source of SARS-CoV-2 infection worked in healthcare. As most of the infected patients worked in companies with >100 employees, which is not a Polish employment pattern, the authors expect that smaller companies may have a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2020;33(6):781-9.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599943

RESUMO

Vaccination is considered as one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions. This study aimed to assess (1) the attitudes and behaviors towards mandatory childhood vaccination, with particular emphasis on socio-economic factors determining the vaccine confidence among adults in Poland as well as to (2) identify the potential impact of anti-vaccination movement on vaccination coverage among children and adolescents aged ≤19 years. This cross-sectional study was carried in 2019 on a nationwide, representative sample of 1079 individuals aged 18 and over in Poland (53.7% females). Most of the respondents (74.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that mandatory vaccinations are safe, and only 8% of participants neglected the safety of vaccines. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the lowest level of vaccine confidence was observed among participants aged 25-34 years (aOR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.29-0.80; p = 0.01). There was a positive correlation (r = 0.35; p < 0.001) between trust in doctors and vaccine confidence. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between trust in scientific knowledge and vaccine confidence (r = 0.19; p < 0.001). Also, a negative correlation (r = -0.13; p < 0.001) between trust in horoscopes and vaccine confidence was observed. Most of the parents declared (97.7%), that their children were vaccinated following the national immunization programme. However, 8.5% of parents who currently vaccinated their children declared that they would stop vaccinating children when vaccination obligation will be abolished. This study demonstrates relatively high confidence in mandatory vaccination among adults in Poland. While most of society trusts in vaccine safety, young adults are the least trustful of vaccinations.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Confiança , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Postepy Dermatol Alergol ; 37(2): 221-228, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489358

RESUMO

Introduction: The international standard for the recognition and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is guided by a regularly updated set of criteria developed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Aim: To investigate the impact of updated COPD management guidelines from 2007 to 2017 (GOLD 2007, GOLD 2011 and GOLD 2017) on the assignment of patients into individual therapeutic groups, examining both individual and population dimensions. Material and methods: Each of 500 randomly chosen primary care physicians in Poland provided information on 10 individual COPD patients (disease history, clinical status, treatment and pharmacotherapy). This data was used to simulate the consequences of the implementation of the GOLD 2007, 2011 and 2017 guidelines. Results: A group of 298 physicians of 500 approached provided information on 2597 patients (64.2% males) aged 29-96 (61.6 ±11.1 years). Based on GOLD 2007 guidelines, most patients (56.7%) presented a severe stage of COPD. GOLD 2011 updates would significantly increase the proportion of patients with the most severe stage of disease, and this group would be predominantly classified as moderate or severe in GOLD 2007. The implementation of GOLD 2017 guidelines would result in a significant migration of patients towards the lightest (category A) form of the disease. Conclusions: Updates to the GOLD 2007 COPD guidelines for GOLD 2011 and 2017 would have a significant impact on the classification of patients for particular therapeutic groups. As a result of the migration of patients to particular therapeutic groups, the pharmacological treatment would also change.

16.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(6): 501-505, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491298

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a communicable disease caused by a novel coronavirus. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess self­reported frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders in nonhospitalized patients with COVID­19 in Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross­sectional survey was conducted between April 17 and 18, 2020, in 4516 nonhospitalized patients with COVID­19 in Poland. The questionnaire included 8 questions related to the health status, symptoms of COVID­19, comorbidities, and smoking status. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were obtained from 1942 patients with COVID­19 with a response rate of 43%. The median age of the respondents was 50 years; 60.2% were women. Among nonhospitalized patients with COVID­19, 21.3% had hypertension, 4.5% had diabetes, and 3.1% had a chronic respiratory disease. Regular tobacco use was declared by 11.2% of patients with COVID­19. At least one gastrointestinal symptom was reported by 53.6% of patients. Almost half of patients (47%) with COVID­19 reported lack of appetite and 24.2% reported diarrhea. Among 1942 interviewed patients, 54.2% reported at least 1 olfactory or taste disorder and 42.5% reported both alterations. Self­reported olfactory and taste disorders were 49.2% and 47.5%, respectively. Self­reported frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders during COVID­19 was significantly higher (P <0.001) in women than men. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that olfactory and taste disorders are frequent symptoms in patients with mild­to­moderate COVID­19. Moreover, our study indicated sex differences in the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders among nonhospitalized patients with COVID­19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Sistema Digestório/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico
17.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 615-621, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520475

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is an infectious disease caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to present an epidemiological analysis of the first 2 months (March and April 2020) of the COVID­19 epidemic in Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This analysis was based on data from epidemiological reports collected between March 4 and April 30, 2020, by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. These epidemiological reports include data on sociodemographic characteristics of new laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases, the number of COVID­19-related deaths, the number of recovered COVID-19 patients as well as the number of laboratory tests performed. RESULTS: From March 4 to April 30, 2020, a total of 12 877 laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases were registered in Poland (55.7% women; mean [SD] age, 50.6 [20.5] years). The RT­ PCR test was performed in 338 000 patients. The notification rate for COVID­19 was 33.2 per 100 000 inhabitants. One third of laboratory­confirmed COVID 19 cases were among quarantined persons, 26.1% were related to the healthcare system (hospital or clinic), and 13.3% occurred in nursing homes. As of April 30, 2020, 644 COVID­19-related deaths were registered in Poland (46.5% women). The death rate for the whole country was 1.7 per 100 000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed higher notification rate for COVID­19 among women than men, but men were more likely to die from COVID­19. The notification rate for COVID-19 in Poland among women aged 45 to 54 years was 2­fold higher than among men.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2 , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924702, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This paper presents an epidemiological analysis of the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional study was carried out between 3 and 27 March 2020 on a sample of 1389 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Poland. Data were obtained from epidemiological reports collected by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. Analysis includes the number of COVID-19 cases, number of deaths, number of hospitalizations, number of people quarantined, and number of laboratory tests performed. RESULTS The first case was confirmed on 4 March 2020. Over 24 days after the first case, the total number of confirmed infections rose to 1389 (34,000 laboratory tests were performed). The highest incidence rates (over 5 per 100,000) were observed in the 2 central administrative regions (Mazowieckie and Lódzkie) and in the south-western region of Dolnoslaskie, which borders the Czech Republic and Germany. Based on available data about age and sex, a clearly higher incidence was observed in the 20-29 years (4.0 per 100,000), 40-49 years (4.1 per 100,000), and 50-59 years (4.3 per 100,000) age groups. In the period analyzed (24 days), there were 16 confirmed deaths (average age 65.5 years; 81.2% males). CONCLUSIONS The proportion of women and men with confirmed COVID-19 infection was similar to the sex ratio in the general population. Infections were relatively less common in those aged under 20 years. The largest numbers of confirmed cases were detected in 3 of the 4 largest cities, each of which has an international airport.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Distribuição por Sexo , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Transplant Proc ; 52(7): 1964-1976, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359828

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hand hygiene (HH) is often under-discussed in clinical work, but it is hard to overestimate its role in preventing health care associated infections (HCAIs), especially among immunocompromised populations such as transplant patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the compliance of doctors in transplant departments in Poland with HH and other selected infection control measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An on-line cross-sectional survey was carried out among doctors from all Polish transplant departments listed by POLTRANSPLANT. The questionnaire addressed HH in different clinical settings and based on the World Health Organization (WHO) "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene." RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were obtained from 204 physicians (49% women; response rate: 24.7%). The lowest proportion of doctors who always comply with HH was observed in 2 out of 5 critical moments for hand hygiene: "before touching a patient" (40.2%) and "after contact with patient surroundings" (21.6%). Most respondents declared correct HH action that they would apply in a particular clinical situation as listed in the survey. More than half of doctors (57.4%) declared disinfecting stethoscopes "before and/or after each use." The lack of alcohol-based hand-rub nearby or nonfunctional containers, daily rush, and occurring emergencies were identified as the main reasons for noncompliance with HH recommendations. CONCLUSION: Doctors in transplant departments in Poland have a satisfactory level of knowledge about HH in various situations. However, further organizational and educational activities are needed to promote compliance with HH recommendations in health care facilities.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Órgãos , Médicos , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Polônia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924730, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282789

RESUMO

This study aimed (1) to present public health interventions to mitigate the early spread of SARS-CoV-2 implemented in Poland between January 9 and March 29, 2020, and (2) to analyze the potential impact of these regulations on the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in Poland. All legal regulations published in the Journal of Laws between January 9 and March 29, 2020, were analyzed. Out of 406 legal regulations identified, 56 were related to the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, the official announcements published on the governmental websites dedicated to the coronavirus and health issues were analyzed. On March 4, Poland reported the first laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case. On March 9, Poland introduced border sanitary control. Six days after the first laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 case, all mass events in Poland were banned. All schools and universities were closed 8 days after the first COVID-19 case. All gastronomic facilities and sport and entertainment services were limited starting on March 14. Eleven days after the first COVID-19 case, controls at all Polish borders were introduced, and a ban on entry into Poland by foreigners (with some exemptions) was implemented. Starting on March 15, all citizens returning from abroad had to undergo compulsory 14 days self-quarantine. On March 20, a state of epidemic was announced, which resulted in new social distancing measures starting on March 25. In Poland, compared to other European countries, far-reaching solutions were implemented relatively early to reduce the spread of infection.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emergências/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...