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1.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(3): e00317, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646204

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking and genetic predisposition are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess and compare their individual and joint impact on CRC risk using the novel approach of genetic risk equivalent (GRE). METHODS: Data were extracted from the Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening study, a large population-based case-control study in Germany. A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 140 CRC-related single nucleotide polymorphisms was derived to quantify genetic risk. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and joint impact of smoking and PRS on CRC risk, and to quantify the smoking effect in terms of GRE, the corresponding effect conveyed by a defined difference in PRS percentiles. RESULTS: There were 5,086 patients with CRC and 4,120 controls included. Current smokers had a 48% higher risk of CRC than never smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.72). A PRS above the 90th percentile was significantly associated with a 3.6-, 4.3-, and 6.4-fold increased risk of CRC in never, former, and current smokers, respectively, when compared with a PRS below the 10th percentile in never smokers. The interaction between smoking and PRS on CRC risk did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.53). The effect of smoking was equivalent to the effect of having a 30 percentile higher level of PRS (GRE 30, 95% confidence interval 18-42). DISCUSSION: Both smoking and the PRS carry essentially independent CRC risk information, and their joint consideration provides powerful risk stratification. Abstinence from smoking can compensate for a substantial proportion of genetically determined CRC risk.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of personalized medicine, cancer care is subject to major changes and innovations. It is unclear, however, to what extent implementation of such innovations and their impact on patient outcomes differ by health insurance type. This study compared provision of treatment and survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who had statutory health insurance (SHI) versus private health insurance (PHI) in Germany. METHODS: We analyzed patterns of CRC treatment (surgery, chemotherapy/radiotherapy, and targeted therapy) and survival in a large cohort of patients who were diagnosed with CRC in 2003 through 2014 and were observed for an average of 6 years. Associations of type of health insurance with treatment administration and with overall, CRC-specific, and recurrence-free survival were investigated using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. RESULTS: Of 3,977 patients with CRC, 427 (11%) had PHI. Although type of health insurance was not associated with treatment administration in patients with stage I-III disease, those with stage IV disease with PHI more often received targeted therapy (65% vs 40%; odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.20-4.91), with differences decreasing over time because of catch-up of uptake rates in patients with SHI. Median overall survival was longer in patients with PHI than in those with SHI (137.0 vs 114.9 months; P=.010), but survival advantages were explained to a large extent by differences in sociodemographic factors. In patients with stage IV disease, survival advantages of PHI were nonsignificant and were restricted to the early years after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We observed major differences in uptake of targeted therapy between patients with PHI and those with SHI but no differences in patient survival after adjusting for relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics. Further studies are needed on factors associated with the uptake of therapeutic innovations and their impact on patient survival by health insurance type.

3.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(6): e203, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection is the cornerstone of curative treatment for many nonmetastatic gastric cancers (GCs), but the population treatment patterns remains largely unknown. This large international population-based study aimed at investigating the treatment patterns and trends for nonmetastatic GC in Europe and the United States and at exploring factors associated with resection. METHODS: Data of patients with microscopically confirmed primary invasive GC without distant metastasis from the national cancer registries of the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Slovenia, and Estonia and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18 Program were retrieved. Age-standardized treatment rates were computed and trends were evaluated using linear regression. Associations of resection with patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed using multivariable-adjusted log-binomial regression. Analysis was performed in each country respectively without pooling. RESULTS: Together 65 707 nonmetastatic GC patients diagnosed in 2003-2016 were analyzed. Age-standardized resection rates significantly decreased over years in all countries (by 4-24%). In 2013-2014, rates varied greatly from 54 to 75%. Patients with increasing ages, cardia cancers, or cancers invading adjacent structure were significantly less frequently resected. Resection was further associated with sex, performance status, comorbidities, tumor histology, tumor size, hospital type, and hospital volume. Association patterns and strengths varied across countries. After multivariable adjustment, resection rates remained decreasing (prevalence ratio = 0.97-0.995 per year), with decreasing trends consistently seen in various subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmetastatic GCs were less frequently resected in Europe and the United States in the early 21st century. Resection rates varied greatly across countries and appeared not to be optimal. Various factors associated with resection were revealed. Our findings can help to identify differences and possibly modifiable places in clinical practice and provide important novel references for designing effective population-based GC management strategies. In Europe and the United States, nonmetastatic gastric cancers were less frequently resected in the early 21st century. Resection rates varied greatly across countries and appeared not optimal. Various factors associated with resection were revealed. Our findings identify differences and possibly modifiable places in clinical practice and provide important novel references for designing effective population-based management strategies.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 70: 101858, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported lower colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in patients with low compared to high educational levels. We investigated the impact of education on CRC survival by using both individual and area-based information on education. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CRC in Finland in 2007-2016 were followed up for death until the end of 2016. Age-standardized relative survival and relative excess risk of death (RER) were estimated by sex using period approach. RERs were adjusted for age, stage at diagnosis, cancer site, urbanity, hospital district and municipality by using Bayesian piecewise constant excess hazard models. Analyses were conducted including individual (basic, secondary, high) and area-based (quartiles Q1-Q4 based on the proportion of population with basic education) education separately as well as both measures in one model. RESULTS: We analysed in all 24 462 CRC patients. There was a clear gradient in 5-year relative survival across education groups (men: basic 62 %, secondary 64 %, high 69 %; women: basic 61 %, secondary 67 %, high 71 %). Compared to the basic education group, RER in the high education group was significantly lower. This association was still present after including area-based education in the models (men: RER 0.72, 95 % Confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.81; women: RER 0.76, 95 % CI 0.59-0.96). Area-based education revealed smaller effect estimates than individual education in CRC survival and no association for men. CONCLUSION: Individual education information should be preferred over area-based when survival differences are studied by education. Educational differences in CRC survival are still present in Finland.

5.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) and its treatment can lead to several physical and psychosocial impairments. Cancer rehabilitation aims to reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. The objective of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence on changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation therapy and on the effectiveness of such treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search including the electronic databases Pubmed and Web of Science to find observational and interventional studies, which investigated changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation programs or treatment effects. Study findings were synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Eleven studies were eligible and included in this review. Eight patient cohort studies addressed outcomes such as physical and functional status, fecal incontinence, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. Positive changes during rehabilitation therapy were observed for physical health (functional and physical status, fecal incontinence), and several dimensions of quality of life. Study findings concerning anxiety and depression were not conclusive. Studies that additionally conducted long-term follow-ups indicated that the improved health status after rehabilitative treatment waned over time. One RCT reported no effect of inpatient rehabilitation on distress and two randomized trials reported effects of exercise intensity on oxidative stress and immune response. Sample sizes were low (<100 included CRC patients) in eight studies and only the RCT included a comparison group (non-rehabilitants). CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence level was very limited. Due to the lack of a comparison group in most studies, we were only able to evaluate changes during/after inpatient rehabilitation therapy but not the effectiveness of treatment. However, study findings suggest that physical health and functional independence improve during inpatient rehabilitation, but improvements wane over time. Further large representative studies, in particular RCTs with long-term follow-up, are essential to evaluate the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation and identify determinants of treatment success.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

7.
Cancer Med ; 9(22): 8713-8721, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is more prevalent in breast cancer (BC) survivors than in the general population. However, little is known about depression in long-term survivors. Study objectives were: (1) to compare the age-specific prevalence of depressive symptoms (a) in BC survivors vs female population controls, (b) in disease-free BC survivors vs BC survivors with self-reported recurrence vs controls, and (2) to explore determinants of depression in BC survivors. METHODS: About 3010 BC survivors (stage I-III, 5-16 years post-diagnosis), and 1005 population controls were recruited in German multi-regional population-based studies. Depression was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15. Prevalence of mild/severe and severe depression only were estimated via logistic regression, controlling for age and education. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore determinants of mild and severe depression. RESULTS: Compared with population controls, BC survivors were more likely to report mild/severe depression (30.4% vs 23.8%, p = .0003), adjusted for age and education. At all age groups <80 years, prevalence of both mild/severe and severe depression only was significantly higher in BC survivors, while BC survivors ≥80 years reported severe depression less frequently than controls. BC survivors with recurrence reported significantly higher prevalence of mild/severe depression than disease-free survivors and controls, but prevalence in disease-free survivors and controls was comparable. Age, income, living independently, recurrence, and BMI were significant determinants of mild depression in BC survivors. Age, education, employment, income, recurrence, and BMI were significant determinants of severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term BC survivors <80 years report significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than controls, which might be explained by recurrence and individual factors. The findings suggest that depression in BC survivors is common, and even more after BC recurrence. Clinicians should routinize screening and normalize referral to psychological care.

8.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rectal cancer, prediction of tumor response and pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment could contribute to refine selection of patients who might benefit from a delayed- or no-surgery approach. The aim of this study was to explore the association of clinical and molecular characteristics of rectal cancer with response to neoadjuvant treatment and to compare patient survival according to level of response. METHODS: Resected rectal cancer patients were selected from a population-based cohort study. Molecular tumor markers were determined from the surgical specimen. Tumor response and pCR were defined as downstaging in T or N stage and absence of tumor cells upon pathological examination, respectively. The associations of patient and tumor characteristics with tumor response and pCR were explored, and patient survival was determined by degree of response to neoadjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Among 1536 patients with rectal cancer, 602 (39%) received neoadjuvant treatment. Fifty-five (9%) patients presented pCR, and 239 (49%) and 250 (53%) patients showed downstaging of the T and N stages, respectively. No statistically significant associations were observed between patient or tumor characteristics and tumor response or pCR. Patients who presented any type of response to neoadjuvant treatment had significantly better cancer-specific and overall survival compared with non-responders. CONCLUSION: In this study, patient characteristics were not associated with response to neoadjuvant treatment, and molecular characteristics determined after surgical resection of the tumor were not predictive of pCR or tumor downstaging. Future studies should include molecular biomarkers from biopsy samples before neoadjuvant treatment.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751332

RESUMO

An individual's inherited genetic variation may contribute to the 'angiogenic switch', which is essential for blood supply and tumor growth of microscopic and macroscopic tumors. Polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes potentially predispose to colorectal cancer (CRC) or affect the survival of CRC patients. We investigated the association of 392 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 33 angiogenesis-related genes with CRC risk and survival of CRC patients in 1754 CRC cases and 1781 healthy controls within DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening), a German population-based case-control study. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from unconditional logistic regression to test for genetic associations with CRC risk. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for survival. Multiple testing was adjusted for by a false discovery rate. No variant was associated with CRC risk. Variants in EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 were significantly associated with overall survival. The association of the EFNB2 tagging SNP rs9520090 (p < 0.0001) was confirmed in two validation datasets (p-values: 0.01 and 0.05). The associations of the tagging SNPs rs6040062 in JAG1 (p-value 0.0003) and rs2241145 in MMP2 (p-value 0.0005) showed the same direction of association with overall survival in the first and second validation sets, respectively, although they did not reach significance (p-values: 0.09 and 0.25, respectively). EFNB2, MMP2 and JAG1 are known for their functional role in angiogenesis and the present study points to novel evidence for the impact of angiogenesis-related genetic variants on the CRC outcome.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(12): 2007-2016, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, the protective effect of colonoscopy was generally stronger for distal colorectal cancer than for proximal colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate whether reduction of CRC risk through colonoscopy varies according to major tumor markers and pathways of CRC. METHODS: This is a population-based case-control study from Germany, including 2,132 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and information on major molecular tumor markers and 2,486 control participants without CRC. Detailed participant characteristics were collected by standardized questionnaires. Information on previous colonoscopy was derived from medical records. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between previous colonoscopy and subtypes of CRC. RESULTS: Overall, we observed strong risk reduction of CRC after colonoscopy that was weaker for microsatellite instable (MSI) than for non-MSI CRC (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97 vs OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.24-0.33), for CpG island methylator phenotype high CRC than for CpG island methylator phenotype low/negative CRC (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59 vs OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34), for BRAF-mutated than for BRAF nonmutated CRC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.35), for KRAS nonmutated than for KRAS-mutated CRC (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.29-0.40 vs OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.32), and for CRC classified into the sessile serrated pathway than for CRC of the traditional pathway (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.37). After colonoscopy with the detection of adenomas or hyperplastic polyps, no risk reduction was found for sessile serrated pathway CRC, MSI, and BRAF-mutated subtypes. DISCUSSION: Our study extends the molecular understanding of existing differences in risk reduction of proximal and distal CRCs reported by previous studies and may imply important information for improving strategies for timely detection of relevant precursors.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer treatment has changed tremendously over the last decades. In addition, the use of mammography screening for early detection has increased strongly. To evaluate the impact of these developments, long-term trends in incidence, mortality, stage distribution and survival were investigated for Germany and the United States (US). METHODS: Using population-based cancer registry data, long-term incidence and mortality trends (1975-2015), shifts in stage distributions (1998-2015), and trends in five-year relative survival (1979-2015) were estimated. Additionally, trends in five-year relative survival after standardization for stage were explored (2004-2015). RESULTS: Age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates were much higher in the US than in Germany in all periods, whereas age-standardized mortality began to lower in the US from the 1990s on. The largest and increasing differences were observed for patients aged 70+ years with a 19% lower incidence but 45% higher mortality in Germany in 2015. For this age group, large differences in stage distributions were observed, with 29% (Germany) compared to 15% (US) stage III and IV patients. Age-standardized five-year relative survival increased strongly between 1979-1983 and 2013-2015 in Germany (+17% units) and the US (+19% units) but was 9% units lower in German patients aged 70+ years in 2013-2015. This difference was entirely explained by differences in stage distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results are in line with a later uptake and less extensive utilization of mammography screening in Germany. Further studies and efforts are highly needed to further explore and overcome the increased breast cancer mortality among elderly women in Germany.

12.
Front Oncol ; 10: 857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670870

RESUMO

Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal cancer survival have been observed in many countries. To overcome these inequalities, the underlying reasons must be disclosed. Methods: Using data from three population-based clinical cancer registries in Germany, we investigated whether associations between area-based socioeconomic deprivation and survival after colorectal cancer depended on patient-, tumor- or treatment-related factors. Patients with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in 2000-2015 were assigned to one of five deprivation groups according to the municipality of the place of residence using the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. Cox proportional hazards regression models with various levels of adjustment and stratifications were applied. Results: Among 38,130 patients, overall 5-year survival was 4.8% units lower in the most compared to the least deprived areas. Survival disparities were strongest in younger patients, in rectal cancer patients, in stage I cancer, in the latest period, and with longer follow-up. Disparities persisted after adjustment for stage, utilization of surgery and screening colonoscopy uptake rates. They were mostly still present when restricting to patients receiving treatment according to guidelines. Conclusion: We observed socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal cancer survival in Germany. Further studies accounting for potential differences in non-cancer mortality and exploring treatment patterns in detail are needed.

13.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 61(10): 2365-2374, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476543

RESUMO

Evidence on volume outcome associations for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) is limited. We investigated ASCT utilization patterns and volume outcome associations in the German National Registry for Stem Cell Transplants (DRST). MM patients with an upfront ASCT between 1998 and 2014 registered in the DRST were included. ASCT utilization increased strongly from 6% to 17% between 1999 and 2013 with the largest increase for patients aged 60-64 years (8-34%). The mean number of ASCTs conducted in the hospitals per year varied (quintiles, Q1:0.0-8.2 to Q5:31.0-102.7). Center volume was not associated with survival after upfront ASCT (lowest vs. highest center volume, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.95 (0.76-1.18), p = 0.92). Our findings may reflect a high standard of care and degree of specialization of centers performing ASCT for MM in Germany.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 438, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is beneficial for reducing fatigue in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. However, little is known regarding long-term effects of PA on fatigue and whether pre-diagnosis PA is associated with less fatigue in the years after diagnosis. Our study aimed to investigate the association of pre- and post-diagnosis PA with long-term fatigue in CRC survivors. METHODS: This study used a German population-based cohort of 1781 individuals, diagnosed with CRC in 2003-2014, and alive at five-year follow-up (5YFU). Physical activity was assessed at diagnosis and at 5YFU. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire and the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 fatigue subscale at 5YFU. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between pre- and post-diagnosis PA and fatigue at 5YFU. RESULTS: No evidence was found that pre-diagnosis PA was associated with less fatigue in long-term CRC survivors. Pre-diagnosis work-related PA and vigorous PA were even associated with higher levels of physical (Beta (ß) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.90; ß = 2.03, CI = 0.65-3.41), cognitive (ß = 0.17, CI = 0.05-0.28; ß = 0.13, CI = 0.01-0.25), and affective fatigue (ß = 0.26, CI = 0.07-0.46; ß = 0.21, CI = 0.02-0.40). In cross-sectional analyses, post-diagnosis PA was strongly associated with lower fatigue on all scales. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, pre-diagnosis PA does not appear to be associated with less fatigue among long-term CRC survivors. Our results support the importance of ongoing PA in long-term CRC survivors. Our findings might be used as a basis for further research on specific PA interventions to improve the long-term outcome of CRC survivors.

15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(12): 2742-2751.e7, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could help to define starting ages for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. However, the role of PRS in determining the length of screening interval after negative findings from colonoscopies is unclear. We aimed to evaluate CRC risk according to PRS and time since last negative colonoscopy. METHODS: We collected data from 3827 cases and 2641 CRC-free controls in a population-based case-control study in Germany. We constructed a polygenic risk scoring system, based on 90 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with risk of CRC in people of European descent. Participants were classified as having low, medium, or high genetic risk according to tertiles of PRSs among controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess CRC risk according to PRS and time since last negative colonoscopy. RESULTS: Compared to individuals without colonoscopy in the low PRS category, a 42%-85% lower risk of CRC was observed for individuals who had a negative finding from colonoscopy within 10 years. Beyond 10 years after a negative finding from colonoscopy, significantly lower risk only persisted for the low and medium PRS groups, but not for the high PRS group. Adjusted odds ratios were 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29-0.68), 0.51 (95% CI, 0.34-0.77), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.58-1.23) in the low, medium, and high PRS group, respectively. Within any time interval, risks were lower for distal than for proximal CRCs. CONCLUSIONS: Based on findings from a population-based case-control study, the recommended 10-year screening interval for colonoscopy may not need to be shortened among people with high PRSs, but could potentially be prolonged for people with low and medium PRSs. Studies are needed to address personalized time intervals for repeat colonoscopies in average-risk screening cohorts.

16.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(5): 56, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404891

RESUMO

Five-year survival has increased for many hematologic malignancies in the 21st century. However, whether this has translated into greater long-term survival is unknown. Here, we examine 10- and 20-year survival for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Data were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 database. Patients age 15+ with the above malignancies were included. The newly developed boomerang method was used to examine 10- and 20-year relative survival (RS) for patients in 2002-2006 and 2012-16. Ten and 20-year RS increased for each malignancy examined, with increases ranging from +4.4% units for 20-year RS for AML to +23.1% units for 10-year RS for CML. Ten year RS was >50% in 2012-16 for patients with CLL, CML, HL, NHL, and DLBCL, at 77.1%, 62.1%, 63.9%, 64.5%, and 63.0%, respectively. Survival dropped between 10 and 20 years after diagnosis for most malignancies. Long-term survival is increasing for common hematologic malignancies, but late mortality is an ongoing issue. Further study of long-term outcomes in curable malignancies to determine the reason for these later decreases in survival is indicated.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 147(9): 2373-2386, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319674

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the initiation of several cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether it also plays a role in CRC prognosis is unclear. We assessed the associations of two oxidative stress biomarkers (Diacron's reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and total thiol level [TTL]) with CRC prognosis. CRC patients who were diagnosed in 2003 to 2012 and recruited into a population-based study in Germany (n = 3361) were followed for up to 6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations of d-ROMs and TTL (measured from blood samples collected shortly after CRC diagnosis) with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Particularly pronounced associations of higher d-ROMs with lower survival were observed in stage IV patients, with patients in the highest (vs lowest) tertile having much lower OS (HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.14-2.04) and DSS (HR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.20-2.17). For TTL, strong inverse associations of TTL with mortality were observed within all stages. In patients of all stages, those in the highest (vs lowest) quintile had substantially higher OS (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.38-0.62) and DSS (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.39-0.69). The addition of these biomarkers to models that included age, sex, tumor stage and subsite significantly improved the prediction of CRC prognosis. The observed strong associations of higher d-ROMs and lower TTL levels with poorer prognosis even in stage IV patients suggest that oxidative stress contributes significantly to premature mortality in CRC patients and demonstrate a large potential of these biomarkers in enhancing the prediction of CRC prognosis beyond tumor stage.

18.
Br J Cancer ; 122(11): 1604-1610, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol increase risk for colorectal malignancies. However, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogenic disease and associations with the molecular pathological pathways are unclear. METHODS: This population-based case-control study includes 2444 cases with first-diagnosis CRC and 2475 controls. Tumour tissue was analysed for MSI (microsatellite instability), CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype), BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase gene) and KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue gene) mutations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for associations between alcohol and smoking and CRC molecular subtypes and pathways. RESULTS: Current smoking showed higher ORs for MSI-high (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.86-4.18) compared to MSS (OR = 1.41, 1.14-1.75, p-heterogeneity (p-het) = 0.001), BRAF-mutated (mut) (OR = 2.40, 1.41-4.07) compared to BRAF-wild type (wt) (OR = 1.52, 1.24-1.88, p-het = 0.074), KRAS-wt (OR = 1.70, 1.36-2.13) compared to KRAS-mut (OR = 1.26, 0.95-1.68, p-het = 0.039) and CIMP-high (OR = 2.01, 1.40-2.88) compared to CIMP-low/negative CRC (OR = 1.50, 1.22-1.85, p-het=0.101). Current smoking seemed more strongly associated with sessile serrated pathway (CIMP-high + BRAF-mut; OR = 2.39, 1.27-4.52) than with traditional pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + BRAF-wt; OR = 1.50, 1.16-1.94) and no association was observed with alternate pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + KRAS-wt; OR = 1.08, 0.77-1.43). No heterogeneity was observed in alcohol consumption association by molecular subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: In this large case-control study, smoking was more strongly associated with MSI-high and KRAS-wt CRC and with cases showing features of the sessile serrated pathway. Association patterns were less clear for alcohol consumption.

19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(7): 611-622, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253267

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with (health-related) quality of life (QOL) in colorectal cancer survivors. However, little is known regarding long-term effects of PA on QOL and if prediagnosis PA is associated with QOL in the years after diagnosis. Our study aimed to investigate the association of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis PA with long-term QOL in colorectal cancer survivors.This study is based on a population-based cohort from Germany of 1,781 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer survivors over a 5-year period. PA was assessed at diagnosis and at 5-year follow-up (5YFU). Quality of life was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer C Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 at 5YFU. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis PA and QOL at 5YFU.No evidence of a positive association between higher levels of prediagnosis PA and better long-term QOL was found. Higher levels of prediagnosis work-related PA and vigorous PA were even associated with decreased QOL in domains such as cognitive [Beta(ß) = -2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.77, -1.27; ß = -1.92, CI = -3.17, -0.67) and emotional functioning (ß = -2.52, CI = -3.84, -1.19; ß = -2.12, CI = -3.44, -0.80). In cross-sectional analyses, higher postdiagnosis PA was strongly associated with higher QOL. Survivors physically active at both prediagnosis and postdiagnosis as well as survivors who increased their PA between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis reported significantly higher long-term QOL compared with survivors who remained inactive at prediagnosis and postdiagnosis. In this study, higher prediagnosis PA does not appear to be associated with higher QOL among long-term colorectal cancer survivors but our results support the importance of ongoing PA throughout survivorship.

20.
Gastroenterology ; 159(1): 129-138.e9, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Estimates of absolute risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed to facilitate communication and better inform the public about the potentials and limits of cancer prevention. METHODS: Using data from a large population-based case-control study in Germany (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening [DACHS] study, which began in 2003) and population registry data, we calculated 30-year absolute risk estimates for development of CRC based on a healthy lifestyle score (derived from 5 modifiable lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and body fatness), a polygenic risk score (based on 90 single-nucleotide polymorphisms), and colonoscopy history. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 4220 patients with CRC and 3338 individuals without CRC. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and colonoscopy in the preceding 10 years were associated with a reduced relative risk of CRC in men and women. We observed a higher CRC risk in participants with high or intermediate genetic risk scores. For 50-year-old men and women without a colonoscopy, the absolute risk of CRC varied according to the polygenic risk score and the healthy lifestyle score (men, 3.5%-13.4%; women, 2.5%-10.6%). For 50-year-old men and women with a colonoscopy, the absolute risk of developing CRC was much lower but still varied according to the polygenic risk score and the healthy lifestyle score (men, 1.2%-4.8%; women, 0.9%-4.2%). Among all risk factor profiles, the 30-year absolute risk estimates consistently decreased with adherence to a healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study, we found that a colonoscopy can drastically reduce the absolute risk of CRC and that the genetically predetermined risk of CRC can be further reduced by adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Our results show the magnitude of CRC prevention possible through colonoscopy and lifestyle at a predefined genetic risk. This observational study has been registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00011793), which is a primary registry in the World Health Organization Registry Network.

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