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1.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(5): 683-686, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329074

RESUMO

Background: Proper hydration is vital for both exercise and general health. Although various methods for hydration assessment exist, many are not valid for either use or never tested. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the uChek© smart phone application can be used to diagnose underhydration based on elevated urine specific gravity (USG) assessed by refractometry. Methods: One hundred forty-seven (n = 147) fresh human urine samples from young and middle-age adults were analyzed for USG with a refractometer and the uChek© application by reading the Siemens Multistix 10G urine reagent strip. Results: Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement of the two methods of assessment. Overall diagnostic ability of the uChek© to identify underhydration was fair (area under the curve 79%). However, the sensitivity to correctly identify underhydration was poor (60%) as well as the specificity of correctly identifying euhydration (53%). Conclusion: The uChek© application does not accurately detect underhydration.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(6): 1344-1352, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies in humans show increased concentrations of copeptin, a surrogate marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP), to be associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To examine the acute and independent effect of osmotically stimulated AVP, measured via the surrogate marker copeptin, on glucose regulation in healthy adults. METHODS: Sixty subjects (30 females) participated in this crossover design study. On 2 trial days, separated by ≥7 d (males) or 1 menstrual cycle (females), subjects were infused for 120 min with either 0.9% NaCl [isotonic (ISO)] or 3.0% NaCl [hypertonic (HYPER)]. Postinfusion, a 240-min oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g) was administered. RESULTS: During HYPER, plasma osmolality and copeptin increased (P < 0.05) and remained elevated during the entire 6-h protocol, whereas renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hormones were within the lower normal physiological range at the beginning of the protocol and declined following infusion. Fasting plasma glucose did not differ between trials (P > 0.05) at baseline and during the 120 min of infusion. During the OGTT the incremental AUC for glucose from postinfusion baseline (positive integer) was greater during HYPER (401.5 ± 190.5 mmol/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (354.0 ± 205.8 mmol/L·min; P < 0.05). The positive integer of the AUC for insulin during OGTT did not differ between trials (HYPER 55,850 ± 36,488 pmol/L·min compared with ISO 57,205 ± 31,119 pmol/L·min). Baseline values of serum glucagon were not different between the 2 trials; however, the AUC of glucagon during the OGTT was also significantly greater in HYPER (19,303 ± 3939 ng/L·min) compared with the ISO trial (18,600 ± 3755 ng/L·min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that acute osmotic stimulation of copeptin induced greater hyperglycemic responses during the oral glucose challenge, possibly due to greater glucagon concentrations.This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02761434.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vasopressinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Plasma/química , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
3.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 72(2): 134-141, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393125

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the validity of published resting energy expenditure (REE) equations in Greek adults, and if indicated, develop new cohort-specific predictive REE equations. METHODS: Indirect calorimetry and anthropometric data were obtained from 226 adult volunteers of diverse age groups and body mass index ranges (18-60 years, 16.6-67.7 kg·m-2). Measured REE was compared to preexisting prediction equations via correlation, regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. Then, cohort-specific REE equations were developed using curve estimation and nonlinear regression. To reduce type I error, presently derived equations were validated by splitting the sample into a training and validation group. RESULTS: Preexisting equations over-predicted in-cohort REE. Equations by Livigston and Kohlstadt were most accurate at the individual level (63% accuracy), while formulas by Owen and collaborators elicited highest accuracy at the group level (-1.8% bias). Bland-Altman analysis showed proportional bias for most equations. Currently developed equations showed highest overall accuracy with 70% at the individual and group level (1.0% bias), with small differences between measured and predicted REE values (mean, 95% CI 36 [-15 to 88] kcal·day-1). CONCLUSION: Data indicate currently developed equations to be the most accurate and valid for estimating REE in Greek adults. Further studies should examine the developed equations in an independent sample.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
5.
Nutr Res ; 43: 25-32, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739050

RESUMO

Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg-2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of -1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L-1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L-1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P < .001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP -12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L-1, P = .390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (-85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L-1) vs HYP (-25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L-1; P = .017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Concentração Osmolar , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
6.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 27(1): 18-24, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616716

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects of storage temperature, duration, and the urinary sediment on urinary hydration markers. Thirty-six human urine samples were analyzed fresh and then the remaining sample was separated into 24 separate vials, six in each of the following four temperatures: 22 °C, 7 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C. Two of each sample stored in any given temperature, were analyzed after 1, 2, and 7 days either following vortexing or centrifugation. Each urine sample was analyzed for osmolality (UOsm), urine specific gravity (USG), and urine color (UC). UOsm was stable at 22 °C, for 1 day (+5-9 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05) and at 7 °C, UOsm up to 7 days (+8-8 mmol∙kg-1, p > .05). At -20 and -80 °C, UOsm decreased after 1, 2, and 7 days (9-61 mmol∙kg-1, p < .05). Vortexing the sample before analysis further decreased only UOsm in the -20 °C and -80 °C storage. USG remained stable up to 7 days when samples were stored in 22 °C or 7 °C (p > .05) but declined significantly when stored in -20 °C, and -80 °C (p < .001). UC was not stable in any of the storing conditions for 1, 2, and 7 days. In conclusion, these data indicate that urine specimens analyzed for UOsm or USG remained stable in refrigerated (7 °C) environment for up to 7 days, and in room temperature for 1 day. However, freezing (-20 and -80 °C) samples significantly decreased the values of hydration markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Desidratação/urina , Manejo de Espécimes , Urinálise , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Análise de Regressão , Gravidade Específica , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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