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1.
Front Genet ; 13: 849839, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360846

RESUMO

Over the past several decades in the United States, incidence of pancreatic cancer (PCa) has increased, with the 5-year survival rate remaining extremely low at 10.8%. Typically, PCa is diagnosed at an advanced stage, with the consequence that there is more tumor heterogeneity and increased probability that more cells are resistant to treatments. Risk factors for PCa can serve as a way to select a high-risk population and develop biomarkers to improve early detection and treatment. We focus on blood-based methylation as an approach to identify a marker set that can be obtained in a minimally invasive way (through peripheral blood) and could be applied to a high-risk subpopulation [those with recent onset type 2 diabetes (DM)]. Blood samples were collected from 30 patients, 15 had been diagnosed with PCa and 15 had been diagnosed with recent onset DM. HumanMethylationEPIC Beadchip (Illumina, CA, United States) was used to quantify methylation of approximately 850,000 methylation sites across the genome and to analyze methylation markers associated with PCa or DM or both. Exploratory analysis conducted to propose importance of top CpG (5'-C-phosphate-G-3') methylation site associated genes and visualized using boxplots. A methylation-based age predictor was also investigated for ability to distinguish disease groups from controls. No methylation markers were observed to be significantly associated with PCa or new onset diabetes compared with control the respective control groups. In our exploratory analysis, one methylation marker, CpG04969764, found in the Laminin Subunit Alpha 5 (LAMA5) gene region was observed in both PCa and DM Top 100 methylation marker sets. Modification of LAMA5 methylation or LAMA5 gene function may be a way to distinguish those recent DM cases with and without PCa, however, additional studies with larger sample sizes and different study types (e.g., cohort) will be needed to test this hypothesis.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349606

RESUMO

This retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HCV infections among individuals incarcerated in a state prison system and identify potential contributing factors to HCV infection. North Dakota Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (NDDOCR) data from 2009 to 2018 was used and period prevalence was calculated for this 10-year time period. The period prevalence of HCV infection was (15.13% (95% CI 14.39-15.90) with a marginally significant (p-value: 0.0542) increasing linear trend in annual prevalence over this period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with HCV infection. The main significant independent risk factors for HCV infection in this incarcerated population were age >40 years [OR: 1.78 (1.37-2.32)]; sex [OR: 1.21 (1.03-1.43)]; race/ethnicity [OR: 1.97 (1.69-2.29)]; history of intravenous drug use (IVDU) [OR: 7.36 (6.41-8.44)]; history of needle or syringe sharing [OR: 7.57 (6.62-8.67)]; and alcohol use [OR: 0.87 (0.77-0.99)]. Study limitations include uncollected information on sexual history, frequency or duration of injection drug use and blood transfusion history of the incarcerated population. Considering the high prevalence of HCV infection and its associated risk factors, it is important to implement prevention programs such as syringe/needle exchanges and counsel with imprisoned IVD users.


Assuntos
Hepatite C , Prisioneiros , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , North Dakota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221086720, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, mitigation measures were implemented on a state-by-state basis. Governors were responsible for establishing interventions appropriate for their states and the timing of implementation. This paper evaluated the association between the presence and timing of a mask mandate and the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic by state. METHODS: The states were divided into 3 categories based on when the governors of each state implemented a mask mandate: Early (mask mandate implemented between March 2020 and June 2020), Late (July 2020-December 2020), and Never (no mask mandate implemented). The rates of hospitalizations and mortality (per 100 000) were assessed at the different time points during the pandemic across these categories from March to December 2020. RESULTS: The mortality rates across all 3 groups were observed to be highest in the beginning and toward the end of the pandemic in 2020 with the peak observed in the Early group between April and May 2020. Also, the rates of hospitalization increased steadily across all groups. The Early mask group was comprised of 86.7% and 13.3% states with Democratic and Republican governors respectively, and no states in the Never category had Democratic governors. CONCLUSION: These results support the benefit of implementing a mask mandate to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of political affiliation of governors on that impact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Brain Behav Immun ; 102: 42-52, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogenous disease, both in terms of clinical profiles and pathobiological alterations. Recently, immunometabolic dysregulations were shown to be correlated with atypical, energy-related symptoms but less so with the Melancholic or Anxious distress symptom dimensions of depression in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) study. In this study, we aimed to replicate these immunometabolic associations and to characterize the metabolomic correlates of each of the three MDD dimensions. METHODS: Using three clinical rating scales, Melancholic, and Anxious distress, and Immunometabolic (IMD) dimensions were characterized in 158 patients who participated in the Predictors of Remission to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study and from whom plasma and serum samples were available. The NESDA-defined inflammatory index, a composite measure of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, was measured from pre-treatment plasma samples and a metabolomic profile was defined using serum samples analyzed on three metabolomics platforms targeting fatty acids and complex lipids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, and gut microbiome-derived metabolites among other metabolites of central metabolism. RESULTS: The IMD clinical dimension and the inflammatory index were positively correlated (r = 0.19, p = 0.019) after controlling for age, sex, and body mass index, whereas the Melancholic and Anxious distress dimensions were not, replicating the previous NESDA findings. The three symptom dimensions had distinct metabolomic signatures using both univariate and set enrichment statistics. IMD severity correlated mainly with gut-derived metabolites and a few acylcarnitines and long chain saturated free fatty acids. Melancholia severity was significantly correlated with several phosphatidylcholines, primarily the ether-linked variety, lysophosphatidylcholines, as well as several amino acids. Anxious distress severity correlated with several medium and long chain free fatty acids, both saturated and polyunsaturated ones, sphingomyelins, as well as several amino acids and bile acids. CONCLUSION: The IMD dimension of depression appears reliably associated with markers of inflammation. Metabolomics provides powerful tools to inform about depression heterogeneity and molecular mechanisms related to clinical dimensions in MDD, which include a link to gut microbiome and lipids implicated in membrane structure and function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Aminoácidos , Depressão , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Humanos , Metabolômica
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159112

RESUMO

Approximately 25% of all uveal melanoma (UM) contain driver mutations in the gene encoding the spliceosome factor SF3B1, and whilst patients with such SF3B1 mutations generally have an intermediate risk on developing metastatic disease, a third of these patients develop early metastasis within 5 years after diagnosis. We therefore investigated whether clinical and/or genetic variables could be indicative of short progression-free survival (PFS < 60 months) or long PFS (PFS ≥ 60 months) for SF3B1-mutated (SF3B1mut) UM patients. We collected 146 SF3B1mut UM from our Rotterdam Ocular Melanoma Studygroup (ROMS) database and external published datasets. After stratification of all SF3B1mut UM using short PFS vs. long PFS, only largest tumor diameter (LTD) was significantly larger (mean: 17.7 mm (±2.8 SD) in the short PFS SF3B1mut group vs. the long PFS group (mean: 14.7 (±3.7 SD, p = 0.001). Combined ROMS and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptomic data were evaluated, and we identified SF3B1mut-specific canonical transcripts (e.g., a low expression of ABHD6 indicative for early-onset metastatic disease) or distinct expression of SF3B1mut UM aberrant transcripts, indicative of early- or late-onset or no metastatic SF3B1mut UM.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The search for relevant biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD) is challenged by heterogeneity; biological alterations may vary in patients expressing different symptom profiles. Moreover, most research considers a limited number of biomarkers, which may not be adequate for tagging complex network-level mechanisms. Here we studied clusters of proteins and examined their relation with MDD and individual depressive symptoms. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1621 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). MDD diagnoses were based on DSM-IV criteria and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology questionnaire measured endorsement of 30 symptoms. Serum protein levels were detected using a multi-analyte platform (171 analytes, immunoassay, Myriad RBM DiscoveryMAP 250+). Proteomic clusters were computed using weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA). RESULTS: Six proteomic clusters were identified, of which one was nominally significantly associated with current MDD (p = 9.62E-03, Bonferroni adj. p = 0.057). This cluster contained 21 analytes and was enriched with pathways involved in inflammation and metabolism [including C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin and insulin]. At the individual symptom level, this proteomic cluster was associated with ten symptoms, among which were five atypical, energy-related symptoms. After correcting for several health and lifestyle covariates, hypersomnia, increased appetite, panic and weight gain remained significantly associated with the cluster. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the idea that alterations in a network of proteins involved in inflammatory and metabolic processes are present in MDD, but these alterations map predominantly to clinical symptoms reflecting an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(7): 1171-1182, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788810

RESUMO

Carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) is a biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of future cardiovascular events. Identifying associations between gene expression levels and cIMT may provide insight to atherosclerosis etiology. Here, we use two approaches to identify associations between mRNA levels and cIMT: differential gene expression analysis in whole blood and S-PrediXcan. We used microarrays to measure genome-wide whole blood mRNA levels of 5647 European individuals from four studies. We examined the association of mRNA levels with cIMT adjusted for various potential confounders. Significant associations were tested for replication in three studies totaling 3943 participants. Next, we applied S-PrediXcan to summary statistics from a cIMT genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 71 128 individuals to estimate the association between genetically determined mRNA levels and cIMT and replicated these analyses using S-PrediXcan on an independent GWAS on cIMT that included 22 179 individuals from the UK Biobank. mRNA levels of TNFAIP3, CEBPD and METRNL were inversely associated with cIMT, but these associations were not significant in the replication analysis. S-PrediXcan identified associations between cIMT and genetically determined mRNA levels for 36 genes, of which six were significant in the replication analysis, including TLN2, which had not been previously reported for cIMT. There was weak correlation between our results using differential gene expression analysis and S-PrediXcan. Differential expression analysis and S-PrediXcan represent complementary approaches for the discovery of associations between phenotypes and gene expression. Using these approaches, we prioritize TNFAIP3, CEBPD, METRNL and TLN2 as new candidate genes whose differential expression might modulate cIMT.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
ACS Sens ; 6(12): 4489-4498, 2021 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846848

RESUMO

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are under intensive study for their potential as noninvasive diagnosis biomarkers. Most EV-based cancer diagnostic assays trace supernumerary of a single cancer-associated marker or marker signatures. These types of biomarker assays are either subtype-specific or vulnerable to be masked by high background signals. In this study, we introduce using the ß-sheet richness (BR) of the tumor-derived EVs as an effective way to discriminate EVs originating from malignant and nonmalignant cells, where EV contents are evaluated as a collective attribute rather than single factors. Circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence staining assays, and a de novo workflow combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and protein folding simulations were employed to validate the collective attribute at both cellular and EV levels. Based on the BR of the tumorous EVs, we integrated immunoprecipitation and fluorescence labeling targeting the circulating tumor-derived EVs in serum and developed the process into a clinical assay, named EvIPThT. The assay can distinguish patients with and without malignant disease in a pilot cohort, with weak correlations to prognosis biomarkers, suggesting the potential for a cancer screening panel with existing prognostic biomarkers to improve overall performance.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta
10.
Nat Genet ; 53(9): 1300-1310, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475573

RESUMO

Trait-associated genetic variants affect complex phenotypes primarily via regulatory mechanisms on the transcriptome. To investigate the genetics of gene expression, we performed cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using blood-derived expression from 31,684 individuals through the eQTLGen Consortium. We detected cis-eQTL for 88% of genes, and these were replicable in numerous tissues. Distal trans-eQTL (detected for 37% of 10,317 trait-associated variants tested) showed lower replication rates, partially due to low replication power and confounding by cell type composition. However, replication analyses in single-cell RNA-seq data prioritized intracellular trans-eQTL. Trans-eQTL exerted their effects via several mechanisms, primarily through regulation by transcription factors. Expression of 13% of the genes correlated with polygenic scores for 1,263 phenotypes, pinpointing potential drivers for those traits. In summary, this work represents a large eQTL resource, and its results serve as a starting point for in-depth interpretation of complex phenotypes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 171, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial plasmids often carry antibiotic resistance genes and are a significant factor in the spread of antibiotic resistance. The ability to completely assemble plasmid sequences would facilitate the localization of antibiotic resistance genes, the identification of genes that promote plasmid transmission and the accurate tracking of plasmid mobility. However, the complete assembly of plasmid sequences using the currently most widely used sequencing platform (Illumina-based sequencing) is restricted due to the generation of short sequence lengths. The long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing platform overcomes this limitation. Still, the assembly of plasmid sequence data remains challenging due to software incompatibility with long-reads and the error rate generated using ONT sequencing. Bioinformatics pipelines have been developed for ONT-generated sequencing but require computational skills that frequently are beyond the abilities of scientific researchers. To overcome this challenge, the authors developed 'WeFaceNano', a user-friendly Web interFace for rapid assembly and analysis of plasmid DNA sequences generated using the ONT platform. WeFaceNano includes: a read statistics report; two assemblers (Miniasm and Flye); BLAST searching; the detection of antibiotic resistance- and replicon genes and several plasmid visualizations. A user-friendly interface displays the main features of WeFaceNano and gives access to the analysis tools. RESULTS: Publicly available ONT sequence data of 21 plasmids were used to validate WeFaceNano, with plasmid assemblages and anti-microbial resistance gene detection being concordant with the published results. Interestingly, the "Flye" assembler with "meta" settings generated the most complete plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: WeFaceNano is a user-friendly open-source software pipeline suitable for accurate plasmid assembly and the detection of anti-microbial resistance genes in (clinical) samples where multiple plasmids can be present.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Plasmídeos/genética , Software , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional/instrumentação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
12.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 624618, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854487

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment is characterized by anomalous vascularization, hypoxia, and acidity at the core of solid tumors that culminates in concentrated necrosis and immune system dysregulation among other effects. While this environment presents several challenges for the development of oncotherapeutics that deliver their activity via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of the leaky blood vessels around a tumor, oncolytic bacteria, or a class of bacteria with a noted capacity to lyse solid tumors, are attracted to the very environment found at the center of solid tumors that confounds other therapeutics. It is this capacity that allows for a potent, active penetration from the tumor margins into the core, and subsequent colonization to facilitate lysis and immune reactivation. Clostridium novyi in particular has recently shown great promise in preclinical and clinical trials when administered directly to the tumor. These studies indicate that C. novyi is uniquely poised to effectively accomplish the long sought after "holy grail" of oncotherapeutics: selective tumor localization via intravenous delivery. This study reports the development of efficient methods that facilitate experimental work and therapeutic translation of C. novyi including the ability to work with this obligate micro-anaerobe on the benchtop. Additionally, this study seeks to utilize this newfound experimental flexibility to address several gaps in the current knowledge regarding the efficacy of CRIPSR/Cas9-mediated gene insertion in this species to further develop this oncolytic bacteria and the genetic customization of bacteria in general.

13.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 144(2): 178-193, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression has been associated with metabolomic alterations. Depressive and anxiety disorders are often comorbid diagnoses and are suggested to share etiology. We investigated whether differential metabolomic alterations are present between anxiety and depressive disorders and which clinical characteristics of these disorders are related to metabolomic alterations. METHODS: Data were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), including individuals with current comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (N = 531), only a current depression (N = 304), only a current anxiety disorder (N = 548), remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorders (N = 897), and healthy controls (N = 634). Forty metabolites from a proton nuclear magnetic resonance lipid-based metabolomics panel were analyzed. First, we examined differences in metabolites between disorder groups and healthy controls. Next, we assessed whether depression or anxiety clinical characteristics (severity and symptom duration) were associated with metabolites. RESULTS: As compared to healthy controls, seven metabolomic alterations were found in the group with only depression, reflecting an inflammatory (glycoprotein acetyls; Cohen's d = 0.12, p = 0.002) and atherogenic-lipoprotein-related (e.g., apolipoprotein B: Cohen's d = 0.08, p = 0.03, and VLDL cholesterol: Cohen's d = 0.08, p = 0.04) profile. The comorbid group showed an attenuated but similar pattern of deviations. No metabolomic alterations were found in the group with only anxiety disorders. The majority of metabolites associated with depression diagnosis were also associated with depression severity; no associations were found with anxiety severity or disease duration. CONCLUSION: While substantial clinical overlap exists between depressive and anxiety disorders, this study suggests that altered inflammatory and atherogenic-lipoprotein-related metabolomic profiles are uniquely associated with depression rather than anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Metabolômica , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary interventions did not prevent depression onset nor reduced depressive symptoms in a large multi-center randomized controlled depression prevention study (MooDFOOD) involving overweight adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms. We conducted follow-up analyses to investigate whether dietary interventions differ in their effects on depressive symptom profiles (mood/cognition; somatic; atypical, energy-related). METHODS: Baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data from MooDFOOD were used (n = 933). Participants received (1) placebo supplements, (2) food-related behavioral activation (F-BA) therapy with placebo supplements, (3) multi-nutrient supplements (omega-3 fatty acids and a multi-vitamin), or (4) F-BA therapy with multi-nutrient supplements. Depressive symptom profiles were based on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. RESULTS: F-BA therapy was significantly associated with decreased severity of the somatic (B = -0.03, p = 0.014, d = -0.10) and energy-related (B = -0.08, p = 0.001, d = -0.13), but not with the mood/cognition symptom profile, whereas multi-nutrient supplementation was significantly associated with increased severity of the mood/cognition (B = 0.05, p = 0.022, d = 0.09) and the energy-related (B = 0.07, p = 0.002, d = 0.12) but not with the somatic symptom profile. CONCLUSIONS: Differentiating depressive symptom profiles indicated that food-related behavioral interventions are most beneficial to alleviate somatic symptoms and symptoms of the atypical, energy-related profile linked to an immuno-metabolic form of depression, although effect sizes were small. Multi-nutrient supplements are not indicated to reduce depressive symptom profiles. These findings show that attention to clinical heterogeneity in depression is of importance when studying dietary interventions.

15.
Elife ; 102021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558008

RESUMO

Biological clocks have been developed at different molecular levels and were found to be more advanced in the presence of somatic illness and mental disorders. However, it is unclear whether different biological clocks reflect similar aging processes and determinants. In ~3000 subjects, we examined whether five biological clocks (telomere length, epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic clocks) were interrelated and associated to somatic and mental health determinants. Correlations between biological aging indicators were small (all r < 0.2), indicating little overlap. The most consistent associations of advanced biological aging were found for male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome, smoking, and depression. As compared to the individual clocks, a composite index of all five clocks showed most pronounced associations with health determinants. The large effect sizes of the composite index and the low correlation between biological aging indicators suggest that one's biological age is best reflected by combining aging measures from multiple cellular levels.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Proteoma/fisiologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
16.
Cancer Res ; 81(7): 1667-1680, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558336

RESUMO

Insights into oncogenesis derived from cancer susceptibility loci (SNP) hold the potential to facilitate better cancer management and treatment through precision oncology. However, therapeutic insights have thus far been limited by our current lack of understanding regarding both interactions of these loci with somatic cancer driver mutations and their influence on tumorigenesis. For example, although both germline and somatic genetic variation to the p53 tumor suppressor pathway are known to promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the extent to which such variants cooperate to alter pathway activity. Here we hypothesize that cancer risk-associated germline variants interact with somatic TP53 mutational status to modify cancer risk, progression, and response to therapy. Focusing on a cancer risk SNP (rs78378222) with a well-documented ability to directly influence p53 activity as well as integration of germline datasets relating to cancer susceptibility with tumor data capturing somatically-acquired genetic variation provided supportive evidence for this hypothesis. Integration of germline and somatic genetic data enabled identification of a novel entry point for therapeutic manipulation of p53 activities. A cluster of cancer risk SNPs resulted in increased expression of prosurvival p53 target gene KITLG and attenuation of p53-mediated responses to genotoxic therapies, which were reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival c-KIT signal. Together, our results offer evidence of how cancer susceptibility SNPs can interact with cancer driver genes to affect cancer progression and identify novel combinatorial therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: These results offer evidence of how cancer susceptibility SNPs can interact with cancer driver genes to affect cancer progression and present novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 2148-2162, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420481

RESUMO

DNA methylation profiles of aggressive behavior may capture lifetime cumulative effects of genetic, stochastic, and environmental influences associated with aggression. Here, we report the first large meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of aggressive behavior (N = 15,324 participants). In peripheral blood samples of 14,434 participants from 18 cohorts with mean ages ranging from 7 to 68 years, 13 methylation sites were significantly associated with aggression (alpha = 1.2 × 10-7; Bonferroni correction). In cord blood samples of 2425 children from five cohorts with aggression assessed at mean ages ranging from 4 to 7 years, 83% of these sites showed the same direction of association with childhood aggression (r = 0.74, p = 0.006) but no epigenome-wide significant sites were found. Top-sites (48 at a false discovery rate of 5% in the peripheral blood meta-analysis or in a combined meta-analysis of peripheral blood and cord blood) have been associated with chemical exposures, smoking, cognition, metabolic traits, and genetic variation (mQTLs). Three genes whose expression levels were associated with top-sites were previously linked to schizophrenia and general risk tolerance. At six CpGs, DNA methylation variation in blood mirrors variation in the brain. On average 44% (range = 3-82%) of the aggression-methylation association was explained by current and former smoking and BMI. These findings point at loci that are sensitive to chemical exposures with potential implications for neuronal functions. We hope these results to be a starting point for studies leading to applications as peripheral biomarkers and to reveal causal relationships with aggression and related traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agressão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Longevidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 24, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402679

RESUMO

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Insulina/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/etnologia , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(8): 3884-3895, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811260

RESUMO

DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neuropsychopathology, however, large-scale epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) are needed to investigate the utility of DNA methylation profiling as a peripheral marker for the brain. Here, in an analysis of eleven international cohorts, totalling 3337 individuals, we report epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation with volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)-three subcortical regions selected for their associations with disease and heritability and volumetric variability. Analyses of individual CpGs revealed genome-wide significant associations with hippocampal volume at two loci. No significant associations were found for analyses of thalamus and nucleus accumbens volumes. Cluster-based analyses revealed additional differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with hippocampal volume. DNA methylation at these loci affected expression of proximal genes involved in learning and memory, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fatty acid metabolism and type-2 diabetes. These DNA methylation marks, their interaction with genetic variants and their impact on gene expression offer new insights into the relationship between epigenetic variation and brain structure and may provide the basis for biomarker discovery in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
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