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2.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e025419, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782932

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite guideline recommendations advocating conservative management before invasive treatment in intermittent claudication, early revascularisation remains widespread in patients with favourable anatomy. The aim of the Effect of Disease Level on Outcomes of Supervised Exercise in Intermittent Claudication Registry is to determine the effect of the location of stenosis on the outcomes of supervised exercise in patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multicentre prospective cohort study aims to enrol 320 patients in 10 vascular centres across the Netherlands. All patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication (peripheral arterial disease: Fontaine II/Rutherford 1-3), who are considered candidates for supervised exercise therapy by their own physicians are appropriate to participate. Participants will receive standard care, meaning supervised exercise therapy first, with endovascular or open revascularisation in case of insufficient effect (at the discretion of patient and vascular surgeon). For the primary objectives, patients are grouped according to anatomical characteristics of disease (aortoiliac, femoropopliteal or multilevel disease) as apparent on the preferred imaging modality in the participating centre (either duplex, CT angiography or magnetic resonance angiography). Changes in walking performance (treadmill tests, 6 min walk test) and quality of life (QoL; Vascular QoL Questionnaire-6, WHO QoL Questionnaire-Bref) will be compared between groups, after multivariate adjustment for possible confounders. Freedom from revascularisation and major adverse cardiovascular disease events, and attainment of the treatment goal between anatomical groups will be compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been exempted from formal medical ethical approval by the Medical Research Ethics Committees United 'MEC-U' (W17.071). Results are intended for publication in peer-reviewed journals and for presentation to stakeholders nationally and internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR7332; Pre-results.

3.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(4): 1293-1308.e2, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute significantly to the prognosis of patients with peripheral artery disease. Therefore cardiovascular risk reduction is a vital element of treatment in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The cardiovascular risk is largely determined by modifiable risk factors, which can be treated with medical care and lifestyle adjustments, such as increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supervised exercise therapy (SET) on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in IC patients. METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on the effects of SET on cardiovascular risk factors in symptomatic IC patients. Studies were eligible if they presented baseline and follow-up values for at least one of the following risk factors: blood pressure (systolic or diastolic), heart rate, lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), glucose, glycated hemoglobin, body weight, body mass index, or cigarette smoking. Pooled mean differences between follow-up and baseline were analyzed using a random-effects model. Data were classified into short-term results (6 weeks-3 months) and midterm results (6-12 months). Statistical heterogeneity was presented as I2 and Q statistic. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies with a total of 808 patients were included in this review. In the short term, SET resulted in significant improvements of systolic blood pressure (decrease of 4 mm Hg; 10 studies; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.40 to -1.76; I2, 0%) and diastolic blood pressure (decrease of 2 mm Hg; 8 studies; 95% CI, -3.64 to -0.22; I2, 35%). In the midterm, SET contributed to significant lowering of levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (decrease of 0.2 mmol/L; four studies; 95% CI, -0.30 to -0.12; I2, 29%) and total cholesterol (decrease of 0.2 mmol/L, four studies; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.10; I2, 36%). No significant effects of SET were identified for heart rate, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, body weight, body mass index, or cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis shows favorable effects of SET on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, specifically blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Despite the moderate quality, small trial sample sizes, and study heterogeneity, these findings support the prescription of SET programs not only to increase walking distances but also for risk factor modification. Future studies should address the potential effectiveness of SET to promote a healthier lifestyle and to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with claudication.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Proteção , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Síndrome
7.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1719-1725, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The interpretation of genetic variants after genome-wide analysis is complex in heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability (ID). We investigate whether algorithms can be used to detect if a facial gestalt is present for three novel ID syndromes and if these techniques can help interpret variants of uncertain significance. METHODS: Facial features were extracted from photos of ID patients harboring a pathogenic variant in three novel ID genes (PACS1, PPM1D, and PHIP) using algorithms that model human facial dysmorphism, and facial recognition. The resulting features were combined into a hybrid model to compare the three cohorts against a background ID population. RESULTS: We validated our model using images from 71 individuals with Koolen-de Vries syndrome, and then show that facial gestalts are present for individuals with a pathogenic variant in PACS1 (p = 8 × 10-4), PPM1D (p = 4.65 × 10-2), and PHIP (p = 6.3 × 10-3). Moreover, two individuals with a de novo missense variant of uncertain significance in PHIP have significant similarity to the expected facial phenotype of PHIP patients (p < 1.52 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our results show that analysis of facial photos can be used to detect previously unknown facial gestalts for novel ID syndromes, which will facilitate both clinical and molecular diagnosis of rare and novel syndromes.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

9.
Appl Nurs Res ; 43: 24-29, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220359

RESUMO

AIM(S): This exploratory study examined the relationship of five patient demographic characteristics (residence in an urban or rural site, gender, age group, marital status, and education level) with the patients' (1) perceived importance of, (2) desire to, (3) ability to perform four patient engagement self-care actions that result in finding safe and decent care. BACKGROUND: Equitable access to health care is essential in a humanized health care system. Healthcare providers must engage patients in discussions about their desires for their care to create person-centered care plans reflecting patient values and wishes. METHODS: This secondary data analysis from a cross-sectional survey project surveyed community-dwelling adults living in the southern United States, 2015-2016. This paper only includes responses of participants aged 65 years and older (N = 123). Data collected in The Patient Action Inventory for Self-Care and demographic questions were used. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: As revealed in the Chi-square and logistic regression findings, self-care actions of "finding a doctor or practitioner who meets your needs," "using available information to choose a doctor or practitioner," and "using data to choose a hospital or clinic" showed some associations with whether seniors resided in an urban or rural community, age group, and marital status (P < 0.05). No significant associations between these four self-care actions with gender or education were found. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based solution is warranted to leverage between patient demographic characteristics and their perceived self-care actions by harnessing local factors in collaboration with identified patient needs.

10.
J Foot Ankle Surg ; 57(6): 1120-1124, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205938

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of open reduction and internal fixation through the extended lateral approach (ELA) in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures and to determine whether this approach should remain part of standard therapy. This retrospective cohort study included 60 patients with 64 displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures who underwent surgical treatment through the ELA. Outcome measures were the visual analog scale foot and ankle (VAS FA), the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, surgical site infections (SSIs), and reoperations. We determined the AOFAS score for 40 patients with 42 fractures, and 42 patients with 44 fractures completed the VAS FA questionnaire. The mean VAS FA score was 61.0 ± 23.4 and the median AOFAS score was 83 (range 33 to 100), with 55% good to excellent scores. We found 10.9% superficial SSIs successfully treated with antibiotics. In 4.7% of patients a deep SSI was diagnosed, wherefore premature implant removal was necessary. Patients with an SSI did not have significantly lower VAS FA or AOFAS scores than did patients without an SSI (p = .318 and p = .766, respectively). Implant removal in absence of SSIs was necessary in 17 patients because of pain, and 3 patients needed secondary arthrodesis because of persistent pain. We concluded that the ELA proved to be a safe procedure, and moreover the most common complications did not influence the long-term outcomes of patients. However, recent literature demonstrates that less invasive techniques seem to exceed the ELA with respect to wound complications.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 824-832, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106825

RESUMO

The Rab GTPase family comprises ∼70 GTP-binding proteins, functioning in vesicle formation, transport and fusion. They are activated by a conformational change induced by GTP-binding, allowing interactions with downstream effectors. Here, we report five individuals with two recurrent de novo missense mutations in RAB11B; c.64G>A; p.Val22Met in three individuals and c.202G>A; p.Ala68Thr in two individuals. An overlapping neurodevelopmental phenotype, including severe intellectual disability with absent speech, epilepsy, and hypotonia was observed in all affected individuals. Additionally, visual problems, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and microcephaly were present in the majority of cases. Re-evaluation of brain MRI images of four individuals showed a shared distinct brain phenotype, consisting of abnormal white matter (severely decreased volume and abnormal signal), thin corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, optic nerve hypoplasia and mild ventriculomegaly. To compare the effects of both variants with known inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound RAB11B mutants, we modeled the variants on the three-dimensional protein structure and performed subcellular localization studies. We predicted that both variants alter the GTP/GDP binding pocket and show that they both have localization patterns similar to inactive RAB11B. Evaluation of their influence on the affinity of RAB11B to a series of binary interactors, both effectors and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), showed induction of RAB11B binding to the GEF SH3BP5, again similar to inactive RAB11B. In conclusion, we report two recurrent dominant mutations in RAB11B leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome, likely caused by altered GDP/GTP binding that inactivate the protein and induce GEF binding and protein mislocalization.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/congênito , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Vermis Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vermis Cerebelar/metabolismo , Vermis Cerebelar/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Guanosina Difosfato/química , Guanosina Difosfato/metabolismo , Guanosina Trifosfato/química , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/patologia , Fenótipo , Ligação Proteica , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/metabolismo , Substância Branca/patologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/deficiência
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(8): 2108-2125, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548707

RESUMO

SMC1A encodes one of the proteins of the cohesin complex. SMC1A variants are known to cause a phenotype resembling Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Exome sequencing has allowed recognizing SMC1A variants in individuals with encephalopathy with epilepsy who do not resemble CdLS. We performed an international, interdisciplinary study on 51 individuals with SMC1A variants for physical and behavioral characteristics, and compare results to those in 67 individuals with NIPBL variants. For the Netherlands all known individuals with SMC1A variants were studied, both with and without CdLS phenotype. Individuals with SMC1A variants can resemble CdLS, but manifestations are less marked compared to individuals with NIPBL variants: growth is less disturbed, facial signs are less marked (except for periocular signs and thin upper vermillion), there are no major limb anomalies, and they have a higher level of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Self-injurious behavior is more frequent and more severe in the NIPBL group. In the Dutch group 5 of 13 individuals (all females) had a phenotype that shows a remarkable resemblance to Rett syndrome: epileptic encephalopathy, severe or profound intellectual disability, stereotypic movements, and (in some) regression. Their missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations are evenly spread over the gene. We conclude that SMC1A variants can result in a phenotype resembling CdLS and a phenotype resembling Rett syndrome. Resemblances between the SMC1A group and the NIPBL group suggest that a disturbed cohesin function contributes to the phenotype, but differences between these groups may also be explained by other underlying mechanisms such as moonlighting of the cohesin genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Proteínas/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lange/fisiopatologia , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Rett/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Redox Biol ; 12: 843-853, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence for the involvement of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an anti-inflammatory transcription factor that regulates the oxidative stress defense. Our previous experiments demonstrated that kavalactones protect neuronal cells against Amyloid ß (Aß)-induced oxidative stress in vitro by Nrf2 pathway activation. Here, we tested an in vivo kavalactone treatment in a mouse model of AD. METHODS: The kavalactone methysticin was administered once a week for a period of 6 months to 6 month old transgenic APP/Psen1 mice by oral gavage. Nrf2 pathway activation was measured by methysticin treatment of ARE-luciferase mice, by qPCR of Nrf2-target genes and immunohistochemical detection of Nrf2. Aß burden was analyzed by CongoRed staining, immunofluorescent detection and ELISA. Neuroinflammation was assessed by immunohistochemical stainings for microglia and astrocytes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus was determined by Luminex multi-plex assays. The hippocampal oxidative damage was detected by oxyblot technique and immunohistochemical staining against DT3 and 4-HNE. The cognitive ability of mice was evaluated using Morris water maze. RESULTS: Methysticin treatment activated the Nrf2 pathway in the hippocampus and cortex of mice. The Aß deposition in brains of methysticin-treated APP/Psen1 mice was not altered compared to untreated mice. However, methysticin treatment significantly reduced microgliosis, astrogliosis and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-17A. In addition, the oxidative damage of hippocampi from APP/Psen1 mice was reduced by methysticin treatment. Most importantly, methysticin treatment significantly attenuated the long-term memory decline of APP/Psen1 mice. CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings show that methysticin administration activates the Nrf2 pathway and reduces neuroinflammation, hippocampal oxidative damage and memory loss in a mouse model of AD. Therefore, kavalactones might be suitable candidates to serve as lead compounds for the development of a new class of neuroprotective drugs.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Presenilina-1/genética , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piranos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 650-658, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343630

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis. We identified 14 individuals with mild to severe ID and/or developmental delay and de novo truncating PPM1D mutations. Additionally, deep phenotyping revealed overlapping behavioral problems (ASD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders), hypotonia, broad-based gait, facial dysmorphisms, and periods of fever and vomiting. PPM1D is expressed during fetal brain development and in the adult brain. All mutations were located in the last or penultimate exon, suggesting escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Both PPM1D expression analysis and cDNA sequencing in EBV LCLs of individuals support the presence of a stable truncated transcript, consistent with this hypothesis. Exposure of cells derived from individuals with PPM1D truncating mutations to ionizing radiation resulted in normal p53 activation, suggesting that p53 signaling is unaffected. However, a cell-growth disadvantage was observed, suggesting a possible effect on the stress-response pathway. Thus, we show that de novo truncating PPM1D mutations in the last and penultimate exons cause syndromic ID, which provides additional insight into the role of cell-cycle checkpoint genes in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Éxons , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Adolescente , Ciclo Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neurochem ; 141(1): 86-99, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28112393

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are an important part of the innate immune defense in the central nervous system (CNS). The expression of the antimicrobial peptides psoriasin (S100A7) is up-regulated during bacterial meningitis. However, the exact mechanisms induced by psoriasin to modulate glial cell activity are not yet fully understood. Our hypothesis is that psoriasin induced pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways as well as regenerative factors to contribute in total to a balanced immune response. Therefore, we used psoriasin-stimulated glial cells and analyzed the translocation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NFκB) in murine glial cells and the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators by real time RT-PCR, ELISA technique, and western blotting. Furthermore, the relationship between psoriasin and the antioxidative stress transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was investigated. Stimulation with psoriasin not only enhanced NFκB translocation and increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) but also neurotrophin expression. Evidence for functional interactions between psoriasin and Nrf2 were detected in the form of increased antioxidant response element (ARE) activity and induction of Nrf2/ARE-dependent heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in psoriasin-treated microglia and astrocytes. The results illustrate the ability of psoriasin to induce immunological functions in glia cells where psoriasin exerts divergent effects on the innate immune response.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Neuroglia/imunologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Proteínas S100/imunologia , Proteínas S100/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína A7 Ligante de Cálcio S100 , Proteínas S100/biossíntese
18.
Hum Mutat ; 38(5): 594-599, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074630

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing led to the identification of many potential novel disease genes. The presence of mutations in the same gene in multiple unrelated patients is, however, a priori insufficient to establish that these genes are truly involved in the respective disease. Here, we show how phenotype information can be incorporated within statistical approaches to provide additional evidence for the causality of mutations. We developed a broadly applicable statistical model that integrates gene-specific mutation rates, cohort size, mutation type, and phenotype frequency information to assess the chance of identifying de novo mutations affecting the same gene in multiple patients with shared phenotype features. We demonstrate our approach based on the frequency of phenotype features present in a unique cohort of 6,149 patients with intellectual disability. We show that our combined approach can decrease the number of patients required to identify novel disease genes, especially for patients with combinations of rare phenotypes. In conclusion, we show how integrating genotype-phenotype information can aid significantly in the interpretation of de novo mutations in potential novel disease genes.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fenótipo , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(8): 373-6, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296938

RESUMO

We report four patients with a similar gain in 5p13.2 encompassing a single gene: SLC1A3. Behavioural problems resembling ADHD and/or autism-like features are observed which is in line with the glial glutamate transporter role of SLC1A3. We consider an association between SLC1A3 and the behavioural problems which can also be considered a contributing factor to behavioural problems in larger duplications overlapping the 5p13 microduplication syndrome region.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
20.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2016: 7678542, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057100

RESUMO

The most frequent pathogen that causes bacterial meningitis is the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. By entering the brain, host cells will be activated and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are released. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between IL-6 and TNFR1 as receptor for TNF-α and the innate immune response in vivo in a model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced meningitis. For the experiments IL-6(-/-), TNFR1(-/-), and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) KO mice were used. Our results revealed higher mortality rates and bacterial burden after infection in TNFR1(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice and a decreased immune response including lower neutrophil infiltration in the meninges of TNFR1(-/-) and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice in contrast to IL-6(-/-) and wild type mice. Furthermore, the increased mortality of TNFR1(-/-) and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice correlated with decreased glial cell activation compared to IL-6(-/-) or wild type mice after pneumococcal meningitis. Altogether, the results show the importance of TNFR1 and IL-6 in the regulation of the innate immune response. The lack of TNFR1 and IL-6 results in higher mortality by weakened immune defence, whereas the lack of TNFR1 results in more severe impairment of the innate immune response than the lack of IL-6 alone.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interleucina-6/deficiência , Meningites Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/deficiência , Animais , Imunidade Inata/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções Pneumocócicas/metabolismo , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade
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