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1.
Thorax ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184098

RESUMO

We aimed to determine prevalence and early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults from the general population. Among young adults in their 20s, the prevalence was 5.3% for reversible airflow limitation and 2.0% for irreversible airflow limitation. While parental asthma was the only risk factor for development of reversible airflow limitation, the risk factors for development of irreversible airflow limitation were current asthma, childhood respiratory tract infections and asthma, and exposure to air pollution.

2.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV1/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 µg·m3 increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171069

RESUMO

Rationale: The Global Burden of Disease programme identified smoking, and ambient and household air pollution as the main drivers of death and disability from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Objective: To estimate the attributable risk of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO), a quantifiable characteristic of COPD, due to several risk factors. Methods: The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study is a cross-sectional study of adults, aged≥40, in a globally distributed sample of 41 urban and rural sites. Based on data from 28,459 participants, we estimated the prevalence of CAO, defined as a post-bronchodilator one-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity ratio < lower limit of normal, and the relative risks associated with different risk factors. Local RR were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical model borrowing information from across sites. From these RR and the prevalence of risk factors, we estimated local Population Attributable Risks (PAR). Measurements and Main Results: Mean prevalence of CAO was 11.2% in men and 8.6% in women. Mean PAR for smoking was 5.1% in men and 2.2% in women. The next most influential risk factors were poor education levels, working in a dusty job for ≥10 years, low body mass index (BMI), and a history of tuberculosis. The risk of CAO attributable to the different risk factors varied across sites. Conclusions: While smoking remains the most important risk factor for CAO, in some areas poor education, low BMI and passive smoking are of greater importance. Dusty occupations and tuberculosis are important risk factors at some sites.

4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2673-2682, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149565

RESUMO

Background: Reducing the need for hospitalisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important goal in COPD management. The aim of this study was to evaluate re-hospitalisation, treatment, comorbidities and mortality in patients with COPD who were hospitalised for the first time due to a COPD exacerbation. Methods: This was a retrospective, population-based observational cohort study of Swedish patients using linked data from three mandatory national health registries to assess re-hospitalisation rates, medication use and mortality. Rate of hospitalisation was calculated using the number of events divided by the number of person-years at risk; risk of all-cause and COPD-related mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: In total, 51,247 patients were identified over 10 years; 35% of patients were not using inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting ß2-agonist treatment prior to hospitalisation, 38% of whom continued without treatment after being discharged. Re-hospitalisation due to a second severe exacerbation occurred in 11.5%, 17.8% and 24% of the patients within 30, 90 and 365 days, respectively. Furthermore, 24% died during the first year following hospitalisation and risk of all-cause and COPD-related mortality increased with every subsequent re-hospitalisation. Comorbidities, including ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and pneumonia, were more common amongst patients who were re-hospitalised than those who were not. Conclusion: Following hospitalisation for first severe COPD exacerbation, many patients did not collect the treatment recommended by current guidelines. Risk of mortality increased with every subsequent re-hospitalisation. Patients with concurrent comorbidities had an increased risk of being re-hospitalised.

5.
Nitric Oxide ; 106: 1-8, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies report relations between low nasal nitric oxide (nNO) and poor asthma control and between low nNO and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In our cohort study, we studied if changes in nNO related to changes in asthma control, symptoms of CRS, or asthma or rhinitis medication. METHODS: A total of 196 subjects with predominantly mild to moderate asthma, aged 10-35 years, performed nNO measurements at both baseline and follow-up after a median of 43 (range 23-65) months. Asthma control, CRS symptoms, and medication, were questionnaire-assessed at both timepoints. IgE sensitisation against aeroallergens was quantified at baseline. RESULTS: There was an increase in nNO between baseline and follow-up (764 ± 269 ppb vs. 855 ± 288 ppb, p < 0.001). When adjusted for covariates, a larger increase in nNO was found in subjects sensitised to perennial aeroallergens than those not sensitised (92 (16-167) ppb), as well as in subjects with daily use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) at baseline but not at follow-up than those on ICS daily at both timepoints (146 (51-242) ppb). In the same model, subjects using nasal steroids daily at both timepoints had decreased nNO compared with those without such treatment at both timepoints (-185 (-321-(-48)) ppb). No relations between changes in nNO levels and changes in asthma control or symptoms of CRS were found. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in nNO were not related to changes in asthma control, but were related to changes in asthma or rhinitis medication.

6.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 10 21.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107583

RESUMO

The aim of COPD treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent exacerbations. The pharmacological treatment is based on bronchodilator treatment which reduces symptoms and prevents exacerbations. If patients have exacerbations despite bronchodilator treatment it is important to consider adding inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Concomitant asthma is always an indication for ICS treatment. Studies have shown that measurement of blood eosinophil count predicts the effect of adding ICS to bronchodilators. Higher b-eos (≥ 0,3 × 109/l) strengthens the indication for ICS. A large number of COPD patients in Sweden are treated with both bronchodilators and ICS without a history of exacerbations. It is important to assess that the indication is correct at follow up of these patients.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Suécia
7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is common worldwide and a large part of subjects with asthma have concomitant allergic multimorbidity in the form of rhinitis and/or eczema. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the presence of allergic multimorbidity in asthma relates to allergic sensitization, allergic and respiratory symptoms, quality of life, inflammatory markers, lung function, use of medication and background factors. METHODS: A total of 437 asthmatics from the (GA2 LEN) cross-sectional survey in Sweden were grouped depending on the presence of rhinitis and/or eczema. The impact of allergic multimorbidity was assessed in terms of allergic sensitization, allergic and respiratory symptoms, quality of life, type-2 inflammatory markers (exhaled nitric oxide, eosinophil activation markers, periostin), lung function, use of medication and background factors. RESULTS: Subjects with asthma, rhinitis and eczema were more likely to be sensitized to seasonal allergens (67% vs 32%, P < .001), food allergens (54% vs 18%, P < .001) and to have a higher degree of sensitization than subjects with only asthma (23% vs 10%, P < .001). Subjects with allergic multimorbidity more often had allergic reactions to food (28% vs 10%, P = .002), more respiratory symptoms and anxiety/depression (40% vs, 14%, P < .001) than subjects with only asthma, despite having similar levels of type 2 inflammatory markers. Individuals with allergic multimorbidity were more likely to be diagnosed with asthma before the age of 12 (48% vs 27%, P = .016) and to have maternal heredity for allergy (53% vs 33%, P = .011) than subjects with only asthma. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Asthmatics with allergic multimorbidity are more likely to be sensitized to seasonal aeroallergens, food allergens and they have a higher degree of sensitization compared with those with only asthma. Allergic multimorbidity is associated with respiratory and allergy symptoms, anxiety and/or depression.

8.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 47, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082331

RESUMO

This study reports the association of ICS use and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Swedish patients with COPD using data from real-world, primary care settings. A total of 7078 patients with COPD were included in this analysis and the 5-year cumulative incidence rate per 100,000 person years was 1506.9. The yearly incidence rate per 100,000 person years ranged from 850 to 1919. Use of ICS especially at a high dose in patients with COPD was related to an increased risk of T2DM.

9.
Environ Int ; 146: 106219, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if air pollution and greenness exposure from birth till adulthood affects adult asthma, rhinitis and lung function. METHODS: We analysed data from 3428 participants (mean age 28) in the RHINESSA study in Norway and Sweden. Individual mean annual residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were averaged across susceptibility windows (0-10 years, 10-18 years, lifetime, adulthood (year before study participation)) and analysed in relation to physician diagnosed asthma (ever/allergic/non-allergic), asthma attack last 12 months, current rhinitis and low lung function (lower limit of normal (LLN), z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC below 1.64). We performed logistic regression for asthma attack, rhinitis and LLN lung function (clustered with family and study centre), and conditional logistic regression with a matched case-control design for ever/allergic/non-allergic asthma. Multivariable models were adjusted for parental asthma and education. RESULTS: Childhood, adolescence and adult exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 were associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks (ORs between 1.29 and 2.25), but not with physician diagnosed asthma. For rhinitis, adulthood exposures seemed to be most important. Childhood and adolescence exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with lower lung function, in particular FEV1 (range ORs 2.65 to 4.21). No associations between NDVI and asthma or rhinitis were revealed, but increased NDVI was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC in all susceptibility windows (range ORs 1.39 to 1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposures in childhood, adolescence and adulthood were associated with increased risk of asthma attacks, rhinitis and low lung function in adulthood. Greenness was not associated with asthma or rhinitis, but was a risk factor for low lung function.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083435

RESUMO

Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluating treatment efficacy in patients with obstructive lung disease. However, due to strict inclusion criteria and the conditions required for ascertaining statistical significance, the patients included typically represent as little as 5% of the general obstructive lung disease population. Thus, studies in broader patient populations are becoming increasingly important. These can be randomised effectiveness trials or observational studies providing data on real-world treatment effectiveness and safety data that complement efficacy RCTs. In this review we describe the features associated with the diagnosis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the real-world clinical practice setting. We also discuss how RCTs and observational studies have reported opposing outcomes with several treatments and inhaler devices due to differences in study design and the variations in patients recruited by different study types. Whilst observational studies are not without weaknesses, we outline recently developed tools for defining markers of quality of observational studies. We also examine how observational studies are capable of providing valuable insights into disease mechanisms and management and how they are a vital component of research into obstructive lung disease. As we move into an era of personalised medicine, recent observational studies, such as the NOVEL observational longiTudinal studY (NOVELTY), have the capacity to provide a greater understanding of the value of a personalised healthcare approach in patients in clinical practice by focussing on standardised outcome measures of patient-reported outcomes, physician assessments, airway physiology, and blood and airway biomarkers across both primary and specialist care.

11.
Environ Res ; 192: 110269, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997968

RESUMO

We studied associations between tobacco smoke, home environment and respiratory health in a 10 year follow up of a cohort of 11,506 adults in Northern Europe. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to estimate onset and remission of symptoms. Current smokers at baseline developed more respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.39-4.43) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 1.35). Starting smoking during follow up increased the risk of new respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.54-1.97) and quitting smoking decreased the risk (OR = 0.34-0.60). ETS at baseline increased the risk of wheeze (OR = 1.26). Combined ETS at baseline or follow up increased the risk of wheeze (OR = 1.27) and nocturnal cough (OR = 1.22). Wood painting at baseline reduced remission of asthma (OR 95%CI: 0.61, 0.38-0.99). Floor painting at home increased productive cough (OR 95%CI: 1.64, 1.15-2.34) and decreased remission of wheeze (OR 95%CI: 0.63, 0.40-0.996). Indoor painting (OR 95%CI: 1.43, 1.16-1.75) and floor painting (OR 95%CI: 1.77, 1.11-2.82) increased remission of allergic rhinitis. Living in the oldest buildings (constructed before 1960) was associated with higher onset of nocturnal cough and doctor diagnosed asthma. Living in the newest buildings (constructed 1986-2001) was associated with higher onset of nocturnal breathlessness (OR = 1.39) and rhinitis (OR = 1.34). In conclusion, smoking, ETS and painting indoor can be risk factors for respiratory symptoms. Wood painting and floor painting can reduce remission of respiratory symptoms. Smoking can increase rhinitis. Living in older buildings can be a risk factor for nocturnal cough and doctor diagnosed asthma. Living in new buildings can increase nocturnal dyspnoea and rhinitis.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972982

RESUMO

The effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the risk of osteoporosis and fracture in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess this risk in patients with COPD.Electronic medical record data linked to National Health Registries were collected from COPD patients and matched reference controls at 52 Swedish primary care centres (2000-2014). The outcomes analysed were the effect of ICS on all fractures, fractures typically related to osteoporosis, recorded osteoporosis diagnosis, prescriptions of drugs for osteoporosis and a combined measure of any-osteoporosis-related event. The COPD patients were stratified by the level of ICS exposure.A total of 9651 patients with COPD and 59 454 matched reference controls were analysed. During the follow-up, 19.9% of COPD patients had at least one osteoporosis-related event compared with 12.9% of reference controls (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis in the COPD population demonstrated a dose-effect relationship, with high-dose ICS being significantly associated with any osteoporosis-related event (risk ratio [RR; 95% confidence interval] 1.52 [1.24-1.62]), while the corresponding estimate for low-dose ICS was 1.27 (1.13-1.56), compared with COPD patients not using ICS. A similar dose-related adverse effect was found for all four of the specific osteoporosis-related events: all fractures, fractures typically related to osteoporosis, prescriptions of drugs for osteoporosis and diagnosis of osteoporosis.We conclude that patients with COPD have a greater risk of bone fractures and osteoporosis and high-dose ICS use increased this risk further.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A farm upbringing has been associated with lower risk of asthma and methylation of asthma-related genes. As such, a farm upbringing has the potential to transfer asthma risk across generations, but this has never been investigated. We aimed to study the generational effects from a parental farm upbringing on offspring asthma. METHODS: Our study involved three generations: 5759 participants from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) study (born 1945-1971, denoted G1), their 9991 parents (G0) and their 8260 offspring (G2) participating in RHINESSA (Respiratory Health In Northern Europe, Spain and Australia). Questionnaire data were collected on G0 and G1 from G1 in 2010 and on G2 from themselves in 2013. The parental/grandparental place of upbringing was categorized: (i) both parents from farm; (ii) mother from farm, father from village/city; (iii) father from farm, mother from village/city; (iv) both parents from village or one parent from village and one from city; (v) both parents from city (reference group). Grandparental upbringing was equivalently categorized. Offspring asthma was self-reported and data were analysed using Cox-regression models with G2 age as the time scale. RESULTS: A parental farm upbringing was not associated with offspring asthma when compared with city upbringing [hazard ratio (HR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.69]. Findings remained similar when stratified by offspring upbringing and asthma phenotypes. Quantitative bias analyses showed similar estimates for alternative data sources. A grandparental farm upbringing was not associated with offspring asthma in either the maternal (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.67-1.65) or paternal line (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.62-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: This multigenerational analysis suggests no evidence of an association between parental/grandparental farm upbringing and offspring asthma.

14.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation (CAL). CAL is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) after bronchodilation, and FEV1:FVC less than the fifth percentile is often used as a cut-off for CAL. The aim was to investigate if increasing percentiles of FEV1:FVC were associated with any respiratory symptom (cough with phlegm, dyspnoea or wheezing) in a general population sample of never-smokers and ever-smokers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study comprising 15 128 adults (50-64 years), 7120 never-smokers and 8008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV1 and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated their z-scores for FEV1:FVC and defined the fifth percentile using the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference value, GLI5 and increasing percentiles up to GLI25. We analysed the associations between different strata of percentiles and prevalence of any respiratory symptom using multivariable logistic regression for estimation of OR. RESULTS: Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated up to the GLI15-20 strata. Among never-smokers, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated at GLI<5 (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.43 to 5.23) and at GLI5-10 (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.91), but not at higher percentiles. Among ever-smokers, the odds of any respiratory symptom were elevated from GLI<5 (OR 4.64, 95% CI 3.79 to 5.68) up to GLI≥25 (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.75). CONCLUSIONS: The association between percentages of FEV1:FVC and respiratory symptoms differed depending on smoking history. Our results support a higher percentile cut-off for FEV1:FVC for never-smokers and, in particular, for ever-smokers.

15.
Respir Med ; 170: 106069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of this study was to analyze whether sleep disturbances are predictors of smoking cessation and whether continued smoking is associated with the development of sleep disturbances. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to randomly selected men and women in Northern Europe in 1999-2001 (RHINE II) and was followed up by a questionnaire in 2010-2012 (RHINE III). The study population consisted of 2568 participants who were smokers at baseline and provided data on smoking at follow-up. Insomnia symptoms were defined as having difficulty initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early morning awakening ≥3 nights/week. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: Subjects with difficulty initiating sleep (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.6; 0.4-0.8), difficulty maintaining sleep (0.7; 0.5-0.9), early morning awakening (0.6; 0.4-0.8), any insomnia symptom (0.6; 0.5-0.8) or excessive daytime sleepiness (0.7; 0.5-0.8) were less likely to achieve long-term smoking cessation after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years, hypertension, diabetes, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, asthma, gender and BMI difference. There was no significant association between snoring and smoking cessation. In subjects without sleep disturbance at baseline, continued smoking increased the risk of developing difficulty initiating sleep during the follow-up period compared with those that had quit smoking (adj. OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia symptoms and excessive daytime sleepiness negatively predict smoking cessation. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of difficulty initiating sleep. Treatment for sleep disturbances should be included in smoking-cessation programs.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806543

RESUMO

We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) (µg/m3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM2.5 and PM10 exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O3 exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM10 exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM10 exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O3 exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817718

RESUMO

Concerns exist that the positive association of physical activity with better lung function, which has been suggested in previous longitudinal studies in smokers, is due to reverse causation. To investigate this, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM), an exploratory approach, and marginal structural modeling (MSM), an approach from the causal inference framework that corrects for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding and estimates causal effects, on data from participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, a multicentre European cohort study initiated in 1991-1993 with ECRHS I, and with two follow-ups: ECRHS II in 1999-2003, and ECRHS III in 2010-2014). 753 subjects who reported current smoking at ECRHS II, with repeated data on lung function at ECRHS I, II and III, physical activity at ECRHS II and III, and potential confounders at ECRHS I and II, were included in the analyses. SEM showed positive associations between physical activity and lung function in both directions. MSM suggested a protective causal effect of physical activity on lung function (overall difference in mean ß (95% CI), comparing active versus non-active individuals: 58 mL (21-95) for forced expiratory volume in one second and 83 mL (36-130) for forced vital capacity). Our results suggest bi-directional causation and support a true protective effect of physical activity on lung function in smokers, after accounting for reverse causation and time-dependent confounding.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Exercício Físico , Pulmão/fisiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While direct effects of occupational exposures on an individual's respiratory health are evident, a new paradigm is emerging on the possible effects of pre-conception occupational exposure on respiratory health in offspring. We aimed to study the association between parental occupational exposure starting before conception and asthma in their offspring (at 0-15 years of age). METHODS: We studied 3985 offspring participating in the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Their mothers or fathers (n = 2931) previously participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Information was obtained from questionnaires on parental job history pre- and post-conception which was linked to an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). We assessed the association between parental occupational exposure and offspring asthma, applying logistic regression models, clustered by family and adjusted for study centre, offspring sex, parental characteristics (age, asthma onset, place of upbringing, smoking) and grandparents' level of education. RESULTS: Parental occupational exposure to microorganisms, pesticides, allergens or reactive chemicals pre-conception or both pre- and post-conception was not related to offspring asthma; in general, subgroup analyses confirmed this result. However, maternal exposure both pre- and post-conception to allergens and reactive chemicals was associated with increased odds for early-onset asthma in offspring (0-3 years of age); odds ratio 1.70 (95% CI: 1.02-2.84) and 1.65 (95% CI: 0.98-2.77), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find evidence that parental occupational exposure, defined by an asthma JEM before conception only or during pre- and post-conception vs non-exposed, was associated with offspring asthma.

19.
Sleep Breath ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632893

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study changes in lung function among individuals with a risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and if asthma affected this relationship. METHODS: We used data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II and III, a multicentre general population study. Participants answered questionnaires and performed spirometry at baseline and 10-year follow-up (n = 4,329 attended both visits). Subjects with high risk for OSA were identified from the multivariable apnoea prediction (MAP) index, calculated from BMI, age, gender, and OSA symptoms at follow-up. Asthma was defined as having doctor's diagnosed asthma at follow-up. Primary outcomes were changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to follow-up. RESULTS: Among 5108 participants at follow-up, 991 (19%) had a high risk of OSA based on the MAP index. Participants with high OSA risk more often had wheeze, cough, chest tightness, and breathlessness at follow-up than those with low OSA risk. Lung function declined more rapidly in subjects with high OSA risk (low vs high OSA risk [mean ± SD]: FEV1 = - 41.3 ± 24.3 ml/year vs - 50.8 ± 30.1 ml/year; FVC = - 30.5 ± 31.2 ml/year vs - 45.2 ± 36.3 ml/year). Lung function decline was primarily associated with higher BMI and OSA symptoms. OSA symptoms had a stronger association with lung function decline among asthmatics, compared to non-asthmatics. CONCLUSION: In the general population, a high probability of obstructive sleep apnoea was related to faster lung function decline in the previous decade. This was driven by a higher BMI and more OSA symptoms among these subjects. The association between OSA symptoms and lung function decline was stronger among asthmatics.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628720

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that parents' preconception exposures may influence offspring health. We aimed to investigate maternal and paternal smoking onset in specific time windows in relation to offspring body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI). We investigated fathers (n = 2111) and mothers (n = 2569) aged 39-65 years, of the population based RHINE and ECRHS studies, and their offspring aged 18-49 years (n = 6487, mean age 29.6 years) who participated in the RHINESSA study. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight, and FMI was estimated from bioelectrical impedance measures in a subsample. Associations with parental smoking were analysed with generalized linear regression adjusting for parental education and clustering by study centre and family. Interactions between offspring sex were analysed, as was mediation by parental pack years, parental BMI, offspring smoking and offspring birthweight. Fathers' smoking onset before conception of the offspring (onset ≥15 years) was associated with higher BMI in the offspring when adult (ß 0.551, 95%CI: 0.174-0.929, p = 0.004). Mothers' preconception and postnatal smoking onset was associated with higher offspring BMI (onset <15 years: ß1.161, 95%CI 0.378-1.944; onset ≥15 years: ß0.720, 95%CI 0.293-1.147; onset after offspring birth: ß2.257, 95%CI 1.220-3.294). However, mediation analysis indicated that these effects were fully mediated by parents' postnatal pack years, and partially mediated by parents' BMI and offspring smoking. Regarding FMI, sons of smoking fathers also had higher fat mass (onset <15 years ß1.604, 95%CI 0.269-2.939; onset ≥15 years ß2.590, 95%CI 0.544-4.636; and onset after birth ß2.736, 95%CI 0.621-4.851). There was no association between maternal smoking and offspring fat mass. We found that parents' smoking before conception was associated with higher BMI in offspring when they reached adulthood, but that these effects were mediated through parents' pack years, suggesting that cumulative smoking exposure during offspring's childhood may elicit long lasting effects on offspring BMI.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Crianças Adultas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fertilização , Pais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez
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