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Nano Lett ; 22(9): 3591-3597, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439017


Despite the successful control of crystal phase using template-directed growth, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that the crystal phase taken by the deposited metal depends on the lateral size of face-centered cubic (fcc)-Pd nanoplate templates with 12 nm plates giving fcc-Ru while 18-26 nm plates result in hexagonal closed-packed (hcp)-Ru. Although Ru overlayers with a metastable fcc- (high in bulk energy) or stable hcp-phase (low in bulk energy) can be epitaxially deposited on the basal planes, the lattice mismatch will lead to jagged hcp- (high in surface energy) and smooth fcc-facets (low in surface energy), respectively, on the side faces. As the proportion of basal and side faces on the nanoplates varies with lateral size, the crystal phase will change depending on the relative contributions from the surface and bulk energies. The Pd@fcc-Ru outperforms the Pd@hcp-Ru nanoplates toward ethylene glycol and glycerol oxidation reactions.

Nanopartículas , Oxirredução , Fenômenos Físicos
Adv Mater ; 33(49): e2103801, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623694


A relatively unexplored aspect of noble-metal nanomaterials is polymorphism, or their ability to crystallize in different crystal phases. Here, a method is reported for the facile synthesis of Ru@Pd core-shell nanocrystals featuring polymorphism, with the core made of hexagonally close-packed (hcp)-Ru while the Pd shell takes either an hcp or face-centered cubic (fcc) phase. The polymorphism shows a dependence on the shell thickness, with shells thinner than ≈1.4 nm taking the hcp phase whereas the thicker ones revert to fcc. The injection rate provides an experimental knob for controlling the phase, with one-shot and drop-wise injection of the Pd precursor corresponding to fcc-Pd and hcp-Pd shells, respectively. When these nanocrystals are tested as catalysts toward formic acid oxidation, the Ru@Pdhcp nanocrystals outperform Ru@Pdfcc in terms of both specific activity and peak potential. Density functional theory calculations are also performed to elucidate the origin of this performance enhancement.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(22): 12192-12203, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476449


In addition to the conventional knobs such as composition, size, shape, and defect structure, the crystal structure (or phase) of metal nanocrystals offers a new avenue for engineering their properties. Various strategies have recently been developed for the fabrication of colloidal metal nanocrystals in metastable phases different from their bulk counterparts. With a focus on noble metals, we begin with a brief introduction to their atomic packing, followed by a discussion about five major synthetic approaches to their colloidal nanocrystals in unconventional phases. We then highlight the success of synthesis in terms of mechanistic insights and experimental controls, as well as the enhanced catalytic properties. We end this Minireview with perspectives on the remaining issues and future opportunities.

Chemistry ; 26(61): 13890-13895, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459866


In order to maximize the performance of nanocrystals in a specific application, it is necessary to control both their size and shape. Here we report a one-pot protocol that allows us to separate growth from nucleation for achieving better control over the size and shape of Pd nanocrystals. The two processes are temporally separated from each other, although the synthesis is carried out in the same reaction container. Size control is achieved by simply varying the ratio between the amounts of precursor allocated to the growth and nucleation processes. With the involvement of seeds at a fixed number, increasing the amount of precursor for growth leads to increasingly larger nanocrystals. Shape control is made possible by varying the capping agent, with bromide leading to a cubic shape and citrate inducing the formation of an octahedral shape. The synthesis can also be scaled up by at least tenfold without compromising the quality.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(36): 15378-15401, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595609


Surface capping agents have been extensively used to control the evolution of seeds into nanocrystals with diverse but well-controlled shapes. Here we offer a comprehensive review of these agents, with a focus on the mechanistic understanding of their roles in guiding the shape evolution of metal nanocrystals. We begin with a brief introduction to the early history of capping agents in electroplating and bulk crystal growth, followed by discussion of how they affect the thermodynamics and kinetics involved in a synthesis of metal nanocrystals. We then present representative examples to highlight the various capping agents, including their binding selectivity, molecular-level interaction with a metal surface, and impacts on the growth of metal nanocrystals. We also showcase progress in leveraging capping agents to generate nanocrystals with complex structures and/or enhance their catalytic properties. Finally, we discuss various strategies for the exchange or removal of capping agents, together with perspectives on future directions.