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1.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152932, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is continued concern about residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and possible adverse health effects. Studies on this subject have been scarce with inconsistent results. We explored associations between residential proximity to specific crops, pesticide use and cause-specific mortality in a prospective census-based cohort study in The Netherlands. METHODS: Selecting inhabitants aged >30 living in less urbanized areas, at the same address for nine years up to baseline (2004) from a national register-based cohort, we followed ~3.1 million individuals for cause-specific mortality until 2012. We estimated the area of specific crop groups cultivated within buffers of 50 m, 100 m and 250 m around each individual's residence and the amount of fungicides, herbicides and insecticides used within the same buffers for the period 1995-2003. The association between these exposure proxies and 25 primary causes of death was investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. RESULTS: Residential proximity to crops was associated with decreased mortality risks overall. In contrast to the overall trend an increased risk was observed for chronic lower respiratory diseases and proximity to maize cultivation. We found no evidence of an association between the amount of pesticides used and cause-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a large prospective census-based cohort study in The Netherlands we found evidence of an increased risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases in relation to maize cultivation which was not reflected in general pesticide use, hinting to specific pesticides or practices in maize cultivation that may lead to the observed increased risk.

2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(1): e29-e39, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major health concern and is influenced by lifestyle, which can be affected by the neighbourhood environment. Specifically, a fast-food environment can influence eating behaviours and thus diabetes prevalence. Therefore, our aim was to assess the relationship between fast-food environment and diabetes prevalence for urban and rural environments in the Netherlands, using multiple indicators and buffer sizes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data on a nationwide sample of adults older than 19 years in the Netherlands were taken from the 2012 Dutch national health survey (from Public Health Monitor), in which participants were surveyed on topics related to health and lifestyle behaviour. Fast-food outlet exposures were determined within street-network buffers of 100 m, 400 m, 1000 m, and 1500 m around residential addresses. For each of these buffers, three indicators were calculated: presence (yes or no) of fast-food outlets, fast-food outlet density, and ratio. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess associations of these indicators with diabetes, adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying into urban and rural areas. FINDINGS: 387 195 adults were surveyed, 284 793 of whom were included in the study. 22 951 (8%) reported having diabetes. Fast-food outlet exposures were positively associated with diabetes prevalence. We did not observe large differences between urban and rural areas. The effect estimates were small for all indicators. For example, in the 400 m buffer in the urban environment, the odds ratio (OR) for having diabetes among people with a fast-food outlet present compared with those without, was 1·006 (95% CI 1·003-1·009) using the presence indicator. The presence indicator showed higher effect estimates and the most consistent results across buffer sizes (ranging from OR 1·005 [95% CI 1·000-1·010] with the 1000 m buffer to 1·016 [1·005-1·028] with the 1500 m buffer in urban areas and from 1·002 [0·998-1·005] with the 1500 m buffer to 1·009 [1·006-1·018] with the 100 m buffer in rural areas) compared with the density and ratio indicators. INTERPRETATION: The results confirm the evidence that the fast-food outlet environment is a diabetes risk factor. All data included were at the individual level and the variability was ensured by the spatial distribution and number of participants. In this study, we only accounted for residential exposure because we were unable to account for exposure outside the residential environment. The findings of this study encourage local governments to consider the potential adverse effects of fast-food exposures and aim at minimising unhealthy food access. FUNDING: Global Geo Health Data Centre, Utrecht University, Netherlands.

3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(1): e9-e18, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with premature mortality, but associations at concentrations lower than current annual limit values are uncertain. We analysed associations between low-level air pollution and mortality within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE). METHODS: In this multicentre longitudinal study, we analysed seven population-based cohorts of adults (age ≥30 years) within ELAPSE, from Belgium, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, Norway, Rome (Italy), and Switzerland (enrolled in 2000-11; follow-up until 2011-17). Mortality registries were used to extract the underlying cause of death for deceased individuals. Annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and tropospheric warm-season ozone (O3) from Europe-wide land use regression models at 100 m spatial resolution were assigned to baseline residential addresses. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for area-level and individual-level covariates to evaluate associations with non-accidental mortality, as the main outcome, and with cardiovascular, non-malignant respiratory, and lung cancer mortality. Subset analyses of participants living at low pollutant concentrations (as per predefined values) and natural splines were used to investigate the concentration-response function. Cohort-specific effect estimates were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: We analysed 28 153 138 participants contributing 257 859 621 person-years of observation, during which 3 593 741 deaths from non-accidental causes occurred. We found significant positive associations between non-accidental mortality and PM2·5, NO2, and black carbon, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·053 (95% CI 1·021-1·085) per 5 µg/m3 increment in PM2·5, 1·044 (1·019-1·069) per 10 µg/m3 NO2, and 1·039 (1·018-1·059) per 0·5 × 10-5/m black carbon. Associations with PM2·5, NO2, and black carbon were slightly weaker for cardiovascular mortality, similar for non-malignant respiratory mortality, and stronger for lung cancer mortality. Warm-season O3 was negatively associated with both non-accidental and cause-specific mortality. Associations were stronger at low concentrations: HRs for non-accidental mortality at concentrations lower than the WHO 2005 air quality guideline values for PM2·5 (10 µg/m3) and NO2 (40 µg/m3) were 1·078 (1·046-1·111) per 5 µg/m3 PM2·5 and 1·049 (1·024-1·075) per 10 µg/m3 NO2. Similarly, the association between black carbon and non-accidental mortality was highest at low concentrations, with a HR of 1·061 (1·032-1·092) for exposure lower than 1·5× 10-5/m, and 1·081 (0·966-1·210) for exposure lower than 1·0× 10-5/m. INTERPRETATION: Long-term exposure to concentrations of PM2·5 and NO2 lower than current annual limit values was associated with non-accidental, cardiovascular, non-malignant respiratory, and lung cancer mortality in seven large European cohorts. Continuing research on the effects of low concentrations of air pollutants is expected to further inform the process of setting air quality standards in Europe and other global regions. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
5.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152205, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890671

RESUMO

Evidence for the association between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter components and mortality from natural causes is sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated this association in six large administrative cohorts in the framework of the Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) project. We analyzed data from country-wide administrative cohorts in Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and in Rome (Italy). Annual 2010 mean concentrations of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated using 100 × 100 m Europe-wide hybrid land use regression models assigned to the participants' residential addresses. We applied cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models controlling for area- and individual-level covariates to evaluate associations with natural mortality. Two pollutant models adjusting for PM2.5 total mass or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were also applied. We pooled cohort-specific estimates using a random effects meta-analysis. We included almost 27 million participants contributing more than 240 million person-years. All components except Zn were significantly associated with natural mortality [pooled Hazard Ratios (HRs) (95% CI): 1.037 (1.014, 1.060) per 5 ng/m3 Cu; 1.069 (1.031, 1.108) per 100 ng/m3 Fe; 1.039 (1.018, 1.062) per 50 ng/m3 K; 1.024 (1.006, 1.043) per 1 ng/m3 Ni; 1.036 (1.016, 1.057) per 200 ng/m3 S; 1.152 (1.048, 1.266) per 100 ng/m3 Si; 1.020 (1.006, 1.034) per 2 ng/m3 V]. Only K and Si were robust to PM2.5 or NO2 adjustment [pooled HRs (95% CI) per 50 ng/m3 in K: 1.025 (1.008, 1.044), 1.020 (0.999, 1.042) and per 100 ng/m3 in Si: 1.121 (1.039, 1.209), 1.068 (1.022, 1.117) adjusted for PM2.5 and NO2 correspondingly]. Our findings indicate an association of natural mortality with most components, which was reduced after adjustment for PM2.5 and especially NO2.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830837

RESUMO

Hurdles for effective tumor therapy are delayed detection and limited effectiveness of systemic drug therapies by patient-specific multidrug resistance. Non-invasive bioimaging tools such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and Raman-microspectroscopy have evolved over the last decade, providing the potential to be translated into clinics for early-stage disease detection, in vitro drug screening, and drug efficacy studies in personalized medicine. Accessing tissue- and cell-specific spectral signatures, Raman microspectroscopy has emerged as a diagnostic tool to identify precancerous lesions, cancer stages, or cell malignancy. In vivo Raman measurements have been enabled by recent technological advances in Raman endoscopy and signal-enhancing setups such as coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. FLIM enables in situ investigations of metabolic processes such as glycolysis, oxidative stress, or mitochondrial activity by using the autofluorescence of co-enzymes NADH and FAD, which are associated with intrinsic proteins as a direct measure of tumor metabolism, cell death stages and drug efficacy. The combination of non-invasive and molecular-sensitive in situ techniques and advanced 3D tumor models such as patient-derived organoids or microtumors allows the recapitulation of tumor physiology and metabolism in vitro and facilitates the screening for patient-individualized drug treatment options.

7.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is rising concern regarding possible health effects from exposure to pesticides in residents living near agricultural land. Some studies indicated increased risks of reporting symptoms of anxiety and depression among agricultural workers but less is known about the mental and perceived health of rural residents. We aimed to study possible associations between self-reported psychological distress (SPD) and self-perceived health (SPH) in residents near pesticide-treated agricultural land. METHODS: Using the Public Health Monitor national survey from 2012, we selected 216 932 participants who lived in rural and semi-urban areas of the Netherlands and changed addresses at most once in the period 2009-2012. Psychological distress (PD) was assessed via the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) and participants were asked to assess their own health. We estimated the area of specific crop groups cultivated within buffers of 50 m, 100 m, 250 m and 500 m around each individual's residence for the period 2009-2012. Association between these exposure proxies and the outcomes was investigated using logistic regression, adjusting for individual, lifestyle and area-level confounders. RESULTS: Overall, results showed statistically non-significant OR across all buffer sizes for both SPD and SPH, except for the association between SPH and 'all crops' (total area of all considered crop groups) with OR (95% CI) ranging from 0.77 (0.63 to 0.93) in 50 m to 1.00 (1.00 to 1.00) in 500 m. We observed that most ORs were below unity for SPH. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence that residential proximity to pesticide treated-crops is associated with PD or poorer perceived health.

8.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adding rapid exome sequencing (rES) to conventional genetic tests improves the diagnostic yield of pregnancies showing ultrasound abnormalities but also carries a higher chance of unsolicited findings. We evaluated how rES, including pre- and post-test counseling, was experienced by parents investigating its impact on decision-making and experienced levels of anxiety. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach was adopted. Participating couples (n = 46) were asked to fill in two surveys (pre-test and post-test counseling) and 11 couples were approached for an additional interview. RESULTS: All couples accepted the rES test-offer with the most important reason for testing emphasizing their hope of finding an underlying diagnosis that would aid decision-making. The actual impact on decision-making was low, however, since most parents decided to terminate the pregnancy based on the major and multiple fetal ultrasound anomalies and did not wait for their rES results. Anxiety was elevated for most participants and decreased over time. CONCLUSION: Major congenital anomalies detected on ultrasound seem to have more impact on prenatal parental decision-making and anxiety then the offer and results of rES. However, the impact of rES on reproductive decision-making and experienced anxiety requires further investigation, especially in pregnancies where less (severe) fetal anomalies are detected on ultrasound.

9.
Pleura Peritoneum ; 6(3): 121-129, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676285

RESUMO

Objectives: Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is commonly observed in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The outcome of these patients is poor, with an average survival of only six months without therapy, which requires a better understanding of PM biology and new treatment strategies. Methods: We established and characterized a human ex vivo peritoneal model to investigate the mechanisms of peritoneal seeding and possible treatment options. For this, CRC cell lines and patient-derived tumor organoids were cultured together with human peritoneum to investigate the invasion of malignant cells and the effects of local chemotherapy. Results: Fresh human peritoneum was cultured for up to three weeks in a stainless steel ring system, allowing for survival of all peritoneal structures. Peritoneal cell survival was documented by light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. Further, immunohistological characterization of the tissue revealed CD3-positive T-lymphocytes and vimentin-positive fibroblasts within the peritoneum. In addition, extracellular matrix components (collagens, matrix metalloproteinases) were localized within the tissue. Coculture with CRC cell lines and patient-derived CRC organoids revealed that cancer cells grew on the peritoneum and migrated into the tissue. Coculture with CRC cells confirmed that hyperthermal treatment at 41 °C for 90 min significantly enhanced the intracellular entry of doxorubicin. Moreover, treatment with mitomycin C under hyperthermic conditions significantly reduced the amount of cancer cells within the peritoneum. Conclusions: This human ex vivo peritoneal model provides a stringent and clinically relevant platform for the investigation of PM and for further elucidation of possible treatment options.

10.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 237: 113803, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation, oxidative stress and reduced cardiopulmonary function following exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) from airports has been reported but the biological pathways underlying these toxicological endpoints remain to be explored. Urinary metabolomics offers a robust method by which changes in cellular pathway activity can be characterised following environmental exposures. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the impact of short-term exposures to UFP from different sources at a major airport on the human urinary metabolome. METHODS: 21 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aged 19-27 years) were repeatedly (2-5 visits) exposed for 5h to ambient air at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, while performing intermittent, moderate exercise. Pre- to-post exposure changes in urinary metabolite concentrations were assessed via 1H NMR spectroscopy and related to total and source-specific particle number concentrations (PNC) using linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Total PNC at the exposure site was on average, 53,500 particles/cm3 (range 10,500-173,200) and associated with significant reductions in urinary taurine (-0.262 AU, 95% CI: -0.507 to -0.020) and dimethylamine concentrations (-0.021 AU, 95% CI: -0.040 to -0.067). Aviation UFP exposure accounted for these changes, with the reductions in taurine and dimethylamine associating with UFP produced during both aircraft landing and take-off. Significant reductions in pyroglutamate concentration were also associated with aviation UFP specifically, (-0.005 AU, 95% CI: -0.010 - <0.000) again, with contributions from both landing and take-off UFP exposure. While non-aviation UFPs induced small changes to the urinary metabolome, their effects did not significantly impact the overall response to airport UFP exposure. DISCUSSION: Following short-term exposures at a major airport, aviation-related UFP caused the greatest changes to the urinary metabolome. These were consistent with a heightened antioxidant response and altered nitric oxide synthesis. Although some of these responses could be adaptive, they appeared after short-term exposures in healthy adults. Further study is required to determine whether long-term exposures induce injurious effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aeroportos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Humanos , Metaboloma , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
13.
Brain ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382076

RESUMO

Subcellular membrane systems are highly enriched in dolichol, whose role in organelle homeostasis and endosomal-lysosomal pathway remains largely unclear besides being involved in protein glycosylation. DHDDS encodes for the catalytic subunit (DHDDS) of the enzyme cis-prenyltransferase (cis-PTase), involved in dolichol biosynthesis and dolichol-dependent protein glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. An autosomal recessive form of retinitis pigmentosa (retinitis pigmentosa 59) has been associated with a recurrent DHDDS variant. Moreover, two recurring de novo substitutions were detected in a few cases presenting with neurodevelopmental disorder, epilepsy, and movement disorder. We evaluated a large cohort of patients (n=25) with de novo pathogenic variants in DHDDS and provided the first systematic description of the clinical features and long-term outcome of this new neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. The functional impact of the identified variants was explored by yeast complementation system and enzymatic assay. Patients presented during infancy or childhood with a variable association of neurodevelopmental disorder, generalized epilepsy, action myoclonus/cortical tremor, and ataxia. Later in the disease course they experienced a slow neurological decline with the emergence of hyperkinetic and/or hypokinetic movement disorder, cognitive deterioration, and psychiatric disturbances. Storage of lipidic material and altered lysosomes were detected in myelinated fibers and fibroblasts, suggesting a dysfunction of the lysosomal enzymatic scavenger machinery. Serum glycoprotein hypoglycosylation was not detected and, in contrast to retinitis pigmentosa and other congenital disorders of glycosylation involving dolichol metabolism, the urinary dolichol D18/D19 ratio was normal. Mapping the disease-causing variants into the protein structure revealed that most of them clustered around the active site of the DHDDS subunit. Functional studies using yeast complementation assay and in vitro activity measurements confirmed that these changes affected the catalytic activity of the cis-PTase and showed growth defect in yeast complementation system as compared with the wild-type enzyme and retinitis pigmentosa-associated protein. In conclusion, we characterized a distinctive neurodegenerative disorder due to de novo DHDDS variants, which clinically belongs to the spectrum of genetic progressive encephalopathies with myoclonus. Clinical and biochemical data from this cohort depicted a condition at the intersection of congenital disorders of glycosylation and inherited storage diseases with several features akin to of progressive myoclonus epilepsy such as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and other lysosomal disorders.

14.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 82, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Everyday people are exposed to multiple environmental factors, such as surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise. These exposures are generally spatially correlated. Hence, when estimating associations of surrounding green, air pollution or traffic noise with health outcomes, the other exposures should be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of long-term residential exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with mortality. METHODS: We followed approximately 10.5 million adults (aged ≥ 30 years) living in the Netherlands from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2018. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate associations of residential surrounding green (including the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 300 and 1000 m), annual average ambient air pollutant concentrations [including particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and traffic noise with non-accidental and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In single-exposure models, surrounding green was negatively associated with all mortality outcomes, while air pollution was positively associated with all outcomes. In two-exposure models, associations of surrounding green and air pollution attenuated but remained. For respiratory mortality, in a two-exposure model with NO2 and NDVI 300 m, the HR of NO2 was 1.040 (95%CI: 1.022, 1.059) per IQR increase (8.3 µg/m3) and the HR of NDVI 300 m was 0.964 (95%CI: 0.952, 0.976) per IQR increase (0.14). Road-traffic noise was positively associated with lung cancer mortality only, also after adjustment for air pollution or surrounding green. CONCLUSIONS: Lower surrounding green and higher air pollution were associated with a higher risk of non-accidental and cause-specific mortality. Studies including only one of these correlated exposures may overestimate the associations with mortality of that exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Plantas , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendas , Feminino , Florestas , Pradaria , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/análise
18.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(2): e141, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870014

RESUMO

Green space, air pollution, and traffic noise exposure may be associated with stress levels in children. A flattened diurnal cortisol slope (the decline in cortisol concentrations from awakening to evening) is an indicator of chronic stress. We examined associations of green space, ambient air pollution, and traffic noise with the diurnal cortisol slope in children 12 years of age. Methods: At age 12 years, 1,027 participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort collected three saliva samples during 1 day. We estimated residential exposure to green space (i.e., the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI] and percentages of green space in circular buffers of 300 m and 3,000 m), air pollution, and traffic noise. Associations of these exposures with the diurnal cortisol slope (in nmol/L per hour) were assessed by multiple linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Higher average NDVI and total percentage of green space in a 3,000 m buffer were associated with a larger diurnal decrease in cortisol levels (adjusted difference [95% confidence interval] = -0.11 nmol/L/hr [-0.21, 0.00 nmol/L/hr] per interquartile range increase in the average NDVI; -0.13 nmol/L/hr [-0.26, 0.00 nmol/L/hr] per interquartile range increase in the total percentage of green space). These associations were largely driven by associations with the percentage of agricultural green space and by associations in children living in nonurban areas. We observed no relationships between air pollution or traffic noise and the diurnal cortisol slope. Conclusions: Residential exposure to green space in a buffer of 3,000 m may be associated with lower stress levels in children 12 years of age.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916542

RESUMO

Environmental factors, such as air pollution, can affect the composition of exhaled breath, and should be well understood before biomarkers in exhaled breath can be used in clinical practice. Our objective was to investigate whether short-term exposures to air pollution can be detected in the exhaled breath profile of healthy adults. In this study, 20 healthy young adults were exposed 2-4 times to the ambient air near a major airport and two highways. Before and after each 5 h exposure, exhaled breath was analyzed using an electronic nose (eNose) consisting of seven different cross-reactive metal-oxide sensors. The discrimination between pre and post-exposure was investigated with multilevel partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA), followed by linear discriminant and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, for all data (71 visits), and for a training (51 visits) and validation set (20 visits). Using all eNose measurements and the training set, discrimination between pre and post-exposure resulted in an area under the ROC curve of 0.83 (95% CI = 0.76-0.89) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.75-0.92), whereas it decreased to 0.66 (95% CI = 0.48-0.84) in the validation set. Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution potentially influences the exhaled breath profiles of healthy adults, however, the effects may be minimal for regular daily exposures.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Testes Respiratórios , Biomarcadores , Nariz Eletrônico , Expiração , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Int ; 146: 106306, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To characterize air pollution exposure at a fine spatial scale, different exposure assessment methods have been applied. Comparison of associations with health from different exposure methods are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of air pollution based on hybrid, land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models with natural cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We followed a Dutch national cohort of approximately 10.5 million adults aged 29+ years from 2008 until 2012. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as underlying time scale and adjusted for several potential individual and area-level socio-economic status confounders to evaluate associations of annual average residential NO2, PM2.5 and BC exposure estimates based on two stochastic models (Dutch LUR, European-wide hybrid) and deterministic Dutch dispersion models. RESULTS: Spatial variability of PM2.5 and BC exposure was smaller for LUR compared to hybrid and dispersion models. NO2 exposure variability was similar for the three methods. Pearson correlations between hybrid, LUR and dispersion modeled NO2 and BC ranged from 0.72 to 0.83; correlations for PM2.5 were slightly lower (0.61-0.72). In general, all three models showed stronger associations of air pollutants with respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality than with natural cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Associations of air pollutants estimated by LUR were generally weaker compared to associations of air pollutants estimated by hybrid and dispersion models. For natural cause mortality, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.030 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019, 1.041) per 10 µg/m3 for hybrid modeled NO2, a HR of 1.003 (95% CI: 0.993, 1.013) per 10 µg/m3 for LUR modeled NO2 and a HR of 1.015 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.024) per 10 µg/m3 for dispersion modeled NO2. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was positively associated with natural cause and cause-specific mortality, but the strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Our study documents that the selected exposure model may contribute to heterogeneity in effect estimates of associations between air pollution and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
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