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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327556

RESUMO

We examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and concomitant restrictions (i.e., lockdown) on 24-hour movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sitting, sleep) in a purposive sample of people (n = 3230) reporting change recruited online. Participants' self-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking, sitting and sleep prior to lockdown (T1), during the first national lockdown (T2) and as restrictions initially started to ease (T3). For each 24-hour movement behavior, category-shifts are reported (positive, negative or did not change), as well as the percentage of participants recording positive/negative changes across clusters of behaviors and the percentage of participants recording improvement or maintenance of change across time. From T1 to T2 walking decreased, whereas MVPA, sitting and sleep increased, from T2 to T3 levels returned to pre-lockdown for all but MVPA. Participants who changed one behavior positively were more likely to report a positive change in another and 50% of those who reported positive changes from T1 to T2 maintained or improved further when restrictions started to ease. The current study showed that a large proportion of the sample reported positive changes, most notably those displaying initially poor levels of each behavior. These findings will inform salutogenic intervention development.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Postura Sentada , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784956

RESUMO

Welbot is a nudge-based digital intervention that aims to reduce sedentary behaviour and improve physical and mental wellbeing at work. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Welbot intervention. Forty-one (6M/35F) University staff (M age = 43-years) participated in this study, which was a single arm repeated measures trial conducted over three weeks of intervention. The primary outcome was sedentary behaviour (measured subjectively and objectively) and secondary outcomes included: mental wellbeing, procrastination, depression, anxiety and stress, and work engagement. A subset of participants (n = 6) wore an ActivPAL to objectively measure activity data, while another subset of participants (n = 6) completed a qualitative semi-structured interview to ascertain experiences of using Welbot. Following the intervention, a Friedman non-parametric test revealed that participants self-reported significantly less time sitting and more time standing and objectively recorded more steps at the week-1 follow-up. A series of paired t-tests exhibited that changes in all secondary outcomes were in the expected direction. However, only improvements in depression, anxiety, and stress were significant. After using Welbot, thematic analysis demonstrated that participants perceived they had a positive behaviour change, increased awareness of unhealthy behaviours at work, and provided suggestions for intervention improvement. Overall, findings provided indications of the potential positive impact Welbot may have on employees' wellbeing, however, limitations are noted. Recommendations for intervention improvement including personalisation (e.g., individual preferences for nudges and the option to sync Welbot with online calendars) and further research into how users engage with Welbot are provided.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with risk of chronic diseases. Digital interventions in SB require mixed method evaluations to understand potential for impact in real-world settings. In this study, the RE-AIM QuEST evaluation framework will be used to understand the potential of a digital health promotion application which targets reducing and breaking up SB across multiple workplace settings. METHODS: Four companies and 80 employees were recruited to use a digital application. Questionnaires were used to measure SB, and additional health and work-related outcomes at baseline, one month, three month and six month follow-up. Qualitative data was collected through focus groups with employees and interviews with stakeholders. Questionnaire data was analysed using Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests and qualitative data was thematically analysed. RESULTS: The digital application significantly increased standing time at one month for the total group and transitions per hour in one of the companies. Facilitators and barriers were identified across RE-AIM. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the barriers which have been identified, while maintaining the positive attributes will be critical to producing an effective digital application which also has the potential for impact in the real world.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Comportamento Sedentário , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Posição Ortostática , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monitoring population-level physical activity is crucial for examining adherence to global guidelines and addressing obesity. This study validated self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) against an accurate device-based method in Namibia. METHODS: Adolescent girls (n = 52, mean age 16.2 years [SD 1.6]) and adult women (n = 51, mean age 31.3 years [SD 4.7]) completed the PACE+/GPAQ self-report questionnaires and were asked to wear an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days. Validity of self-reported MVPA was assessed using rank-order correlations between self-report and accelerometry, and classification ability of the questionnaires with Mann-Whitney tests, kappa's, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: In the adolescents, Spearman's rank coefficients between self-reported MVPA (days/week) and accelerometry measured MVPA were positive but not significant (r = 0.240; P = 0.104). In the adults, self-reported MVPA (minutes/day) was moderately and significantly correlated with accelerometer-measured MVPA (r = 0.396; P = 0.008). In both groups, there was fair agreement between accelerometry and questionnaire-defined tertiles of MVPA (adolescents κ = 0.267; P = 0.010; adults κ = 0.284; P = 0.008), and measured MVPA was significantly higher in the individuals self-reporting higher MVPA than those reporting lower MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: The PACE+ and GPAQ questionnaires have a degree of validity in adolescent girls and adult females in Namibia, though more suitable for population than individual level measurement.

6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 6, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation in adequate levels of physical activity during the early years is important for health and development. We report the 6-month effects of an 18-month multicomponent intervention on physical activity in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in low-income communities. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 43 ECEC settings in disadvantaged areas of New South Wales, Australia. Three-year-old children were recruited and assessed in the first half of 2015 with follow-up 6 months later. The intervention was guided by Social Cognitive Theory and included five components. The primary outcome was minutes per hour in total physical activity during ECEC hours measured using Actigraph accelerometers. Intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome was conducted using a generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: A total of 658 children were assessed at baseline. Of these, 558 (85%) had valid accelerometer data (mean age 3.38y, 52% boys) and 508 (77%) had valid accelerometry data at 6-month follow-up. Implementation of the intervention components ranged from 38 to 72%. There were no significant intervention effects on mins/hr. spent in physical activity (adjusted difference = - 0.17 mins/hr., 95% CI (- 1.30 to 0.97), p = 0.78). A priori sub-group analyses showed a greater effect among overweight/obese children in the control group compared with the intervention group for mins/hr. of physical activity (2.35mins/hr., [0.28 to 4.43], p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: After six-months the Jump Start intervention had no effect on physical activity levels during ECEC. This was largely due to low levels of implementation. Increasing fidelity may result in higher levels of physical activity when outcomes are assessed at 18-months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000597695.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales
7.
Obes Rev ; 21(1): e12953, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646739

RESUMO

Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) is important for childhood obesity prevention and treatment, yet declines with age. Timing and magnitude of the decline in MVPA in children and adolescents are unclear but important for informing effective obesity intervention development. This systematic review aimed to determine and compare the year-to-year changes in MVPA among children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies were identified by searching 10 relevant databases up to December 2018. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported accelerometer-assessed MVPA (min day-1 ) separately for boys and girls and had follow-up duration of at least 1 year. After screening 9,232 studies, 52 were included representing 22,091 aged 3 to 18 year olds (boys=8,857; girls=13,234). Pooled-analysis of the relative change in MVPA per year showed a decline of -3.4% (95% CI, -5.9 to -0.9) in boys and -5.3% (95% CI, -7.6 to -3.1) in girls, across all age groups. There were notable declines in MVPA at age 9 for both boys (-7.8%, 95% CI, -11.2 to -4.4) and girls (-10.2%, 95% CI, -14.2 to -6.3). The relative decline in MVPA affects both sexes from an early age; however, it is greater among girls. Interventions to promote MVPA should start before adolescence.

8.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(1): 101-108, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the approach taken to develop UK Chief Medical Officers' physical activity guidelines for the Under 5s, 2019. METHODS: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)-Adaptation, Adoption, De Novo Development (ADOLOPMENT) approach was used, based on the guidelines from Canada and Australia, with evidence updated to February 2018. Recommendations were based on the associations between (1) time spent in sleep, sedentary time, physical activity, and 10 health outcomes and (2) time spent in physical activity and sedentary behavior on sleep outcomes (duration and latency). RESULTS: For many outcomes, more time spent in physical activity and sleep (up to a point) was beneficial, as was less time spent in sedentary behavior. The authors present, for the first time, evidence in GRADE format on behavior type-outcome associations for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Stakeholders supported all recommendations, but recommendations on sleep and screen time were not accepted by the Chief Medical Officers; UK guidelines will refer only to physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first European use of GRADE-ADOLOPMENT to develop physical activity guidelines. The process is robust, rapid, and inexpensive, but the UK experience illustrates a number of challenges that should help development of physical activity guidelines in future.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
9.
Sleep Med Rev ; 49: 101226, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778942

RESUMO

Sleep is crucial to children's health and development. Reduced physical activity and increased screen time adversely impact older children's sleep, but little is known about these associations in children under 5 y. This systematic review examined the association between screen time/movement behaviors (sedentary behavior, physical activity) and sleep outcomes in infants (0-1 y); toddlers (1-2 y); and preschoolers (3-4 y). Evidence was selected according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and synthesized using vote counting based on the direction of association. Quality assessment and a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation was performed, stratified according to child age, exposure and outcome measure. Thirty-one papers were included. Results indicate that screen time is associated with poorer sleep outcomes in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. Meta-analysis confirmed these unfavorable associations in infants and toddlers but not preschoolers. For movement behaviors results were mixed, though physical activity and outdoor play in particular were favorably associated with most sleep outcomes in toddlers and preschoolers. Overall, quality of evidence was very low, with strongest evidence for daily/evening screen time use in toddlers and preschoolers. Although high-quality experimental evidence is required, our findings should prompt parents, clinicians and educators to encourage sleep-promoting behaviors (e.g., less evening screen time) in the under 5s.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e028265, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wearable cameras may help overcome the limitations of existing tools to measure young children's sedentary behaviour, but their use introduces a range of ethical challenges. The primary aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of using wearable cameras to measure the two aspects of sedentary behaviour currently included in evidence-based guidelines (ie, screen time and time spent restrained). If shown to be feasible, a secondary aim will be to validate subjective measures against the directly measured screen time and time spent restrained. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A convenience sample (n=20) will be recruited via flyers at the University of Strathclyde and advertisements on online forums for parents of young children (aged 3 to 5 years). Children will be provided with a wearable camera, attached to the front of their clothing with a clip, to be worn for 3 days (2 non-childcare days and 1 weekend day) in non-public settings. Once switched on, the camera will record continuous video footage. Parents will complete an online survey providing their feedback on their own and their child's experience of the wearable camera. They will also report their own and their child's demographical characteristics and their child's usual daily screen time and time spent restrained in the past week. Data will be downloaded using specialised software and second-by-second coding will be undertaken. Feasibility and acceptability will be assessed using percentages and by analysing qualitative data. If feasibility is shown, intraclass coefficients will be used to determine agreement between video data and parent-reported sedentary behaviours. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by the School of Psychological Sciences and Health Ethics Committee at the University of Strathclyde. Results will be used to inform future studies and will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at major international conferences.


Assuntos
Restrição Física , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Gravação em Vídeo , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Equipamentos para Lactente
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing scientific interest in the benefits of breaking up sedentary time with intermittent standing or walking, few studies have investigated the energy cost of posture transitions. This study aimed to determine whether posture transitions are associated with increased energy expenditure in preschool children. METHODS: Forty children (mean age 5.3 ± 1.0y) completed a ~150-min room calorimeter protocol involving sedentary, light, and moderate- to vigorous-intensity activities. This study utilised data from ~65-min of the protocol, during which children were undertaking sedentary behaviours (TV viewing, drawing/colouring in, and playing with toys on the floor). Posture was coded as sit/lie, stand, walk, or other using direct observation; posture transitions were classified as sit/lie to stand/walk, sit/lie to other, stand/walk to other, or vice versa. Energy expenditure was calculated using the Weir equation and used to calculate individualised MET and activity energy expenditure (AEE) values. Spearman's rank correlations were used to compare the number of posture transitions, in the individual activities separately and combined, with corresponding MET and AEE values. Participants were divided into tertiles based on the number of posture transitions; MET and AEE values of children in the lowest and highest tertiles of posture transitions were compared using unpaired t-tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the total number of posture transitions and average METs (rs = 0.42, p = 0.02) and AEE (rs = 0.43, p = 0.02). MET differences between the lowest and highest tertiles of posture transitions resulted in a small effect size for playing with toys (d = 0.27), and moderate effect sizes for TV viewing, drawing and all three activities combined (d = 0.61, 0.50 and 0.64 respectively). Similar results were found for AEE. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study showed that variation in posture transitions may be associated with variation in energy expenditure in preschool children. The findings suggest that the concept that variation in posture transitions may have meaningful biological or health effects in early childhood is worth investigating further.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905751

RESUMO

Background: Interventions targeting a reduction in sedentary behaviour in office workers need to be scaled-up to have impact. In this study, the RE-AIM QuEST framework was used to evaluate the potential for further implementation and scale-up of a consultation based workplace intervention which targeted both the reduction, and breaking up of sitting time. Methods: To evaluate the Springfield College sedentary behaviour intervention across multiple RE-AIM QuEST indicators; intervention participant, non-participant (employees who did not participate) and key informant (consultation delivery team; members of the research team and stakeholders in workplace health promotion) data were collected using interviews, focus groups and questionnaires. Questionnaires were summarized using descriptive statistics and interviews and focus groups were transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Results: Barriers to scale-up were: participant burden of activity monitoring; lack of management support; influence of policy; flexibility (scheduling/locations); time and cost. Facilitators to scale up were: visible leadership; social and cultural changes in the workplace; high acceptability; existing health and wellbeing programmes; culture and philosophy of the participating college. Conclusions: There is potential for scale-up, however adaptations will need to be made to address the barriers to scale-up. Future interventions in office workers should evaluate for scalability during the pilot phases of research.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(4): 450-455, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of our study were to quantify levels and investigate sex-specific changes and trajectories in VPA longitudinally from age 7 to 15 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. METHODS: Participants were part of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Measures were taken at age 7 (n=507), 9 (n=510), 12 (n=425) and 15 years (n=310). Vigorous physical activity was quantified objectively using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers over 5-7days at the four time-points. Multilevel linear spline random-effects model and trajectory analysis to identify sub-groups were performed. RESULTS: In boys, average VPA declined across childhood followed by an increase at adolescence, while in girls, average VPA declined across the 8-year study period. In boys, daily VPA decreased from 9-12 years (1.70minutes/year) and increased from 12-15 years (1.99minutes/year) (all p <0.05). In girls daily VPA decreased from 7-9 years (1.70minutes/year) (p <0.05). Three VPA trajectories were identified which differed between the sexes. In boys, one group decreased from an initial relatively high level, one group, initially relatively low, increased, whereas the third one was stable over the 8-year period. In girls, all three groups declined from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Marked sex and age-specific trajectories in VPA change were observed. These novel findings should help sports and exercise medicine specialists, as well as policy makers, in their effort to maintain or increase VPA in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tempo
14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(4): 744-750, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insufficient moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is harmful for youth; however, the evidence for differential effects by weight status is limited. The study aimed to examine associations between MVPA and adiposity by weight status across childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Participants were from the Gateshead Millennium Study. Physical activity and body composition measures were taken at age 7 y (n = 502; measures taken between October 2006 and December 2007), 9 y (n = 506; October 2008-September 2009), 12 y (n = 420; October 2011-September 2012), and 15 y (n = 306; September 2014-September 2015). Participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M and epochs were classified as MVPA when accelerometer counts were ≥574 counts/15 s. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods and fat mass using bioelectrical impedance. Associations between MVPA and changes in BMI and FMI were examined by weight status using quantile regression. RESULTS: Higher MVPA was associated with lower FMI for the 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile and lower BMI at the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile, independent of accelerometer wear time, sex, and sedentary time. The association between MVPA and change in adiposity was stronger in the higher than lower FMI and BMI percentiles (e.g., 1 h/day more MVPA was associated with a 1.5 kg/m2 and 2.7 kg/m2 lower FMI at the 50th and 90th FMI percentiles, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of MVPA on adiposity in the higher adiposity percentiles is stronger than reported to date. Given overweight and obese children are the highest risk group for later obesity, targeting MVPA might be a particularly effective obesity prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558258

RESUMO

Sedentary behaviour is associated with poor health outcomes, and office-based workers are at significant health risk, as they accumulate large proportions of their overall sitting time at work. The aim of this integrated systematic review was to collate and synthesize published research on sedentary behaviour interventions in the workplace that have reported on at least one an aspect of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Studies were included if they involved adult office workers, were conducted in an office setting, and changes in sedentary behaviour had been measured as a primary outcome. Five electronic databases were searched yielding 7234 articles, with 75 articles (61 individual interventions) meeting the inclusion criteria. Reach indicators were the most frequently reported RE-AIM dimensions, which were reported on average 59% of the time. Efficacy/effectiveness was the second most reported dimension at 49% reporting across all of the indicators. Implementation indicators were reported an average of 44% of the time, with indicators of adoption and maintenance reported as the lowest of all indicators at 13% and 8%, respectively. Recommendations are provided to improve reporting across all RE-AIM dimensions, which is an important first step to enable the effective translation of interventions into real world settings.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pesquisa , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
16.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-9, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported on the associations between obesity and sedentary behavior (SB) or physical activity (PA) in children. This study examined longitudinal and bidirectional associations between adiposity and SB and PA in children. METHODS: Participants were 356 children in England. PA was measured at 7 and 9 years of age using accelerometry. Outcome and exposures were time in SB and PAs and concurrent body mass index z score and fat index (FI). RESULTS: Adiposity at baseline was positively associated with changes in SB (ß = 0.975 for FI) and negatively associated with changes in moderate to vigorous PA (ß = -0.285 for body mass index z score, ß = -0.607 for FI), vigorous PA (ß = -0.095 for FI), and total PA (ß = -48.675 for FI), but not vice versa. The changes in SB, moderate to vigorous PA, and total PA for children with overweight/obesity were significantly more adverse than those for children with healthy weight. CONCLUSIONS: A high body mass index z score or high body fatness at baseline was associated with lower moderate to vigorous PA and vigorous PA after 2 years, but not vice versa, which suggests that in this cohort adiposity influenced PA and SB, but the associations between adiposity and SB or PA were not bidirectional.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 768, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of sedentary behavior are linked to increased mortality. In the United States, individuals spend 55-70% of their waking day being sedentary. Since most individuals spend large portions of their daily lives at work, quantifying the time engaged in sedentary behavior at work is emerging as an important health determinant. Studies profiling academic institutions, where a variety of personnel with diverse job descriptions are employed, are limited. Available studies focus mostly on subjective methods, with few using objective approaches. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess sedentary behavior among all occupational groups of a college in the Northeastern United States utilizing both a subjective and an objective method. METHODS: College employees (n = 367) completed the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). A sub-sample of these employees (n = 127) subsequently wore an activPAL3 accelerometer 24 h per day for seven consecutive days. Outcome variables were time spent sitting, standing, stepping, and total number of steps. To assess fragmentation of sedentary behavior, the average duration of a sitting bout and sitting bouts/sitting hour were calculated. Differences between administrators, faculty, and staff, were analyzed using multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. RESULTS: The OSPAQ results indicated that administrators spent more of their working day sedentary (73.2 ± 17.7%) than faculty members (58.5 ± 19.6%, p < 0.05). For the objective phase of the study, complete data were analyzed from 86 participants. During a waking day, administrators (64.0 ± 8.1%) were more sedentary than faculty (56.0 ± 7.9%, p < 0.05) and fragmented their sitting less than staff (3.7 ± 0.7 and 4.5 ± 7.9 bouts of sitting/sitting hour, respectively; p < 0.05). This pattern was also seen during working hours, with administrators (4.9 ± 2.1) taking fewer breaks per hour than staff (6.9 ± 3.0, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Administrators are the most sedentary members of the campus community. However, overall, the level of sedentary behavior among employees was high. This study highlights the need for sedentary behavior interventions in the college/university environment.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Universidades/organização & administração , Acelerometria , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New England , Saúde do Trabalhador , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865177

RESUMO

Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) has shown to be detrimental to health. Nevertheless, population levels of SB are high and interventions to decrease SB are needed. This study aimed to explore the effect of a personalized intervention aimed at reducing SB and increasing breaks in SB among college employees. A pre-experimental study design was used. Participants (n = 36) were recruited at a college in Massachusetts, USA. SB was measured over 7 consecutive days using an activPAL3 accelerometer. Following baseline measures, all participants received a personalized SB consultation which focused on limiting bouts of SB >30 min, participants also received weekly follow-up e-mails. Post-intervention measures were taken after 16 weeks. Primary outcome variables were sedentary minutes/day and SB bouts >30 min. Differences between baseline and follow-up were analyzed using paired t-tests. The intervention did not change daily sedentary time (-0.48%; p > 0.05). The number of sedentary bouts >30 min decreased significantly by 0.52 bouts/day (p = 0.010). In this study, a personalized SB intervention was successful in reducing number of bouts >30 min of SB. However, daily sedentary time did not reduce significantly. These results indicate that personalized, consultation-based interventions may be effective if focused on a specific component of SB.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Br J Sports Med ; 52(15): 1002-1006, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a widely held and influential view that physical activity begins to decline at adolescence. This study aimed to identify the timing of changes in physical activity during childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study (Gateshead Millennium Study) with 8 years of follow-up, from North-East England. Cohort members comprise a socioeconomically representative sample studied at ages 7, 9, 12 and 15 years; 545 individuals provided physical activity data at two or more time points. Habitual total volume of physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were quantified objectively using the Actigraph accelerometer over 5-7 days at the four time points. Linear mixed models identified the timing of changes in physical activity across the 8-year period, and trajectory analysis was used to identify subgroups with distinct patterns of age-related changes. RESULTS: Four trajectories of change in total volume of physical activity were identified representing 100% of all participants: all trajectories declined from age 7 years. There was no evidence that physical activity decline began at adolescence, or that adolescent declines in physical activity were substantially greater than the declines during childhood, or greater in girls than boys. One group (19% of boys) had relatively high MVPA which remained stable between ages 7 and15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Future policy and research efforts to promote physical activity should begin well before adolescence, and should include both boys and girls.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fatores de Tempo , Actigrafia , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(3): 609-616, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the validity of wrist acceleration cut points for classifying moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (5-12 yr) completed 15 semistructured activities. Three sets of wrist cut points (>192 mg, >250 mg, and >314 mg), previously developed using Euclidian norm minus one (ENMO192+), GENEActiv software (GENEA250+), and band-pass filter followed by Euclidian norm (BFEN314+), were evaluated against indirect calorimetry. Analyses included classification accuracy, equivalence testing, and Bland-Altman procedures. RESULTS: All cut points classified MPA, VPA, and MVPA with substantial accuracy (ENMO192+: κ = 0.72 [95% confidence interval = 0.72-0.73], MVPA: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) = 0.85 [0.85-0.86]; GENEA250+: κ = 0.75 [0.74-0.76], MVPA: ROC-AUC = 0.85 [0.85-0.86]; BFEN314+: κ = 0.73 [0.72-0.74], MVPA: ROC-AUC = 0.86 [0.86-0.87]). BFEN314+ misclassified 19.7% non-MVPA epochs as MPA, whereas ENMO192+ and GENEA250+ misclassified 32.6% and 26.5% of MPA epochs as non-MVPA, respectively. Group estimates of MPA time were equivalent (P < 0.01) to indirect calorimetry for the BFEN314+ MPA cut point (mean bias = -1.5%, limits of agreement [LoA] = -57.5% to 60.6%), whereas estimates of MVPA time were equivalent (P < 0.01) to indirect calorimetry for the ENMO192+ (mean bias = -1.1%, LoA = -53.7% to 55.9%) and GENEA250+ (mean bias = 2.2%, LoA = -56.5% to 52.2%) cut points. Individual variability (LoA) was large for MPA (min: BFEN314+, -60.6% to 57.5%; max: GENEA250+, -42.0% to 104.1%), VPA (min: BFEN314+, -238.9% to 54.6%; max: ENMO192+, -244.5% to 127.4%), and MVPA (min: ENMO192+, -53.7% to 55.0%; max: BFEN314+, -83.9% to 25.3%). CONCLUSION: Wrist acceleration cut points misclassified a considerable proportion of non-MVPA and MVPA. Group-level estimates of MVPA were acceptable; however, error for individual-level prediction was larger.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Exercício Físico , Calibragem , Calorimetria Indireta , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Punho
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