Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595648

RESUMO

We report 281 individuals carrying a pathogenic recurrent NF1 missense variant at p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423, representing three nontruncating NF1 hotspots in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort, together identified in 1.8% of unrelated NF1 individuals. About 25% (95% confidence interval: 20.5-31.2%) of individuals heterozygous for a pathogenic NF1 p.Met1149, p.Arg1276, or p.Lys1423 missense variant had a Noonan-like phenotype, which is significantly more compared with the "classic" NF1-affected cohorts (all p < .0001). Furthermore, p.Arg1276 and p.Lys1423 pathogenic missense variants were associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities, including pulmonic stenosis (all p < .0001), while p.Arg1276 variants had a high prevalence of symptomatic spinal neurofibromas (p < .0001) compared with "classic" NF1-affected cohorts. However, p.Met1149-positive individuals had a mild phenotype, characterized mainly by pigmentary manifestations without externally visible plexiform neurofibromas, symptomatic spinal neurofibromas or symptomatic optic pathway gliomas. As up to 0.4% of unrelated individuals in the UAB cohort carries a p.Met1149 missense variant, this finding will contribute to more accurate stratification of a significant number of NF1 individuals. Although clinically relevant genotype-phenotype correlations are rare in NF1, each affecting only a small percentage of individuals, together they impact counseling and management of a significant number of the NF1 population.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(12): 2494-2499, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595668

RESUMO

Myhre syndrome is a rare multisystem connective tissue disorder, characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphology, variable intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, arthropathy, cardiopathy, laryngotracheal anomalies, and stiff skin. So far, all molecularly confirmed cases harbored a de novo heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in SMAD4, encoding the SMAD4 transducer protein required for both transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenic proteins signaling. We report on four novel patients (one female proband and her two affected children, and one male proband) with Myhre syndrome harboring the recurrent c.1486C>T (p.Arg496Cys) mutation in SMAD4. The female proband presented with a congenital heart defect, vertebral anomalies, and facial dysmorphic features. She developed severe tracheal stenosis requiring a total laryngectomy. With assisted reproductive treatment, she gave birth to two affected children. The second proband presented with visual impairment following lensectomy in childhood, short stature, brachydactyly, stiff skin, and decreased peripheral sensitivity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the dermis shows irregular elastin cores with globular deposits and almost absent surrounding microfibrils and suggests age-related increased collagen deposition. We report on the first familial case of Myhre syndrome and illustrate the variable clinical spectrum of the disorder. Despite the primarily fibrotic nature of the disease, TEM analysis mainly indicates elastic fiber anomalies.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007845, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543681

RESUMO

Nucleoporins build the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which, as sole gate for nuclear-cytoplasmic exchange, is of outmost importance for normal cell function. Defects in the process of nucleocytoplasmic transport or in its machinery have been frequently described in human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, but only in a few cases of developmental disorders. Here we report biallelic mutations in the nucleoporin NUP88 as a novel cause of lethal fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) in two families. FADS comprises a spectrum of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with congenital malformations related to impaired fetal movement. We show that genetic disruption of nup88 in zebrafish results in pleiotropic developmental defects reminiscent of those seen in affected human fetuses, including locomotor defects as well as defects at neuromuscular junctions. Phenotypic alterations become visible at distinct developmental stages, both in affected human fetuses and in zebrafish, whereas early stages of development are apparently normal. The zebrafish phenotypes caused by nup88 deficiency are rescued by expressing wild-type Nup88 but not the disease-linked mutant forms of Nup88. Furthermore, using human and mouse cell lines as well as immunohistochemistry on fetal muscle tissue, we demonstrate that NUP88 depletion affects rapsyn, a key regulator of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Together, our studies provide the first characterization of NUP88 in vertebrate development, expand our understanding of the molecular events causing FADS, and suggest that variants in NUP88 should be investigated in cases of FADS.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Genes Letais , Mutação , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Artrogripose/embriologia , Artrogripose/fisiopatologia , Consanguinidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/química , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/deficiência , Linhagem , Gravidez , Conformação Proteica , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Peixe-Zebra/anormalidades , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/deficiência , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
4.
Prenat Diagn ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30334587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the replacement of karyotyping by chromosomal microarray (CMA) in invasive prenatal diagnosis, new challenges have arisen. By building a national database, we standardize the classification and reporting of prenatally detected copy number variants (CNVs) across Belgian genetic centers. This database, which will link genetic and ultrasound findings with postnatal development, forms a unique resource to investigate the pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance and to refine the phenotypic spectrum of pathogenic and susceptibility CNVs. METHODS: The Belgian MicroArray Prenatal (BEMAPRE) consortium is a collaboration of all genetic centers in Belgium. We collected data from all invasive prenatal procedures performed between May 2013 and July 2016. RESULTS: In this three-year period, 13 266 prenatal CMAs were performed. By national agreement, a limited number of susceptibility CNVs and no variants of uncertain significance were reported. Added values for using CMA versus conventional karyotyping were 1.8% in the general invasive population and 2.7% in cases with an ultrasound anomaly. Of the reported CNVs, 31.5% would have remained undetected with non-invasive prenatal test as the first-tier test. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a national database for prenatal CNV data allows for a uniform reporting policy and the investigation of the prenatal and postnatal genotype-phenotype correlation.

7.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation, but almost all NF1-affected adults present with cutaneous and/or subcutaneous neurofibromas. Exceptions are individuals heterozygous for the NF1 in-frame deletion, c.2970_2972del (p.Met992del), associated with a mild phenotype without any externally visible tumors. METHODS: A total of 135 individuals from 103 unrelated families, all carrying the constitutional NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant and clinically assessed using the same standardized phenotypic checklist form, were included in this study. RESULTS: None of the individuals had externally visible plexiform or histopathologically confirmed cutaneous or subcutaneous neurofibromas. We did not identify any complications, such as symptomatic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) or symptomatic spinal neurofibromas; however, 4.8% of individuals had nonoptic brain tumors, mostly low-grade and asymptomatic, and 38.8% had cognitive impairment/learning disabilities. In an individual with the NF1 constitutional c.2970_2972del and three astrocytomas, we provided proof that all were NF1-associated tumors given loss of heterozygosity at three intragenic NF1 microsatellite markers and c.2970_2972del. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that individuals with the NF1 p.Met992del pathogenic variant have a mild NF1 phenotype lacking clinically suspected plexiform, cutaneous, or subcutaneous neurofibromas. However, learning difficulties are clearly part of the phenotypic presentation in these individuals and will require specialized care.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206421

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences. METHODS: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms. RESULTS: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1916-1925, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084155

RESUMO

Transposable elements modify human genome by inserting into new loci or by mediating homology-, microhomology-, or homeology-driven DNA recombination or repair, resulting in genomic structural variation. Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal neonatal developmental lung disorder caused by point mutations or copy-number variant (CNV) deletions of FOXF1 or its distant tissue-specific enhancer. Eighty-five percent of 45 ACDMPV-causative CNV deletions, of which junctions have been sequenced, had at least one of their two breakpoints located in a retrotransposon, with more than half of them being Alu elements. We describe a novel ∼35 kb-large genomic instability hotspot at 16q24.1, involving two evolutionarily young LINE-1 (L1) elements, L1PA2 and L1PA3, flanking AluY, two AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr elements. The occurrence of L1s at this location coincided with the branching out of the Homo-Pan-Gorilla clade, and was preceded by the insertion of AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr. Our data show that, in addition to mediating recurrent CNVs, L1 and Alu retrotransposons can predispose the human genome to formation of variably sized CNVs, both of clinical and evolutionary relevance. Nonetheless, epigenetic or other genomic features of this locus might also contribute to its increased instability.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 557-565, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435569

RESUMO

Importance: Mutations in the titin gene (TTN) cause a wide spectrum of genetic diseases. The interpretation of the numerous rare variants identified in TTN is a difficult challenge given its large size. Objective: To identify genetic variants in titin in a cohort of patients with muscle disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, 9 patients with titinopathy and 4 other patients with possibly disease-causing variants in TTN were identified. Titin mutations were detected through targeted resequencing performed on DNA from 504 patients with muscular dystrophy, congenital myopathy, or other skeletal muscle disorders. Patients were enrolled from 10 clinical centers in April 2012 to December 2013. All of them had not received a diagnosis after undergoing an extensive investigation, including Sanger sequencing of candidate genes. The data analysis was performed between September 2013 and January 2017. Sequencing data were analyzed using an internal custom bioinformatics pipeline. Main Outcomes and Measures: The identification of novel mutations in the TTN gene and novel patients with titinopathy. We performed an evaluation of putative causative variants in the TTN gene, combining genetic, clinical, and imaging data with messenger RNA and/or protein studies. Results: Of the 9 novel patients with titinopathy, 5 (55.5%) were men and the mean (SD) age at onset was 25 (15.8) years (range, 0-46 years). Of the 4 other patients (3 men and 1 woman) with possibly disease-causing TTN variants, 2 (50%) had a congenital myopathy and 2 (50%) had a slowly progressive distal myopathy with onset in the second decade. Most of the identified mutations were previously unreported. However, all the variants, even the already described mutations, require careful clinical and molecular evaluation of probands and relatives. Heterozygous truncating variants or unique missense changes are not sufficient to make a diagnosis of titinopathy. Conclusions and Relevance: The interpretation of TTN variants often requires further analyses, including a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype (deep phenotyping) as well as messenger RNA and protein studies. We propose a specific workflow for the clinical interpretation of genetic findings in titin.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 69-87, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290338

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder with a birth incidence of 1:2,000-3,000, is characterized by a highly variable clinical presentation. To date, only two clinically relevant intragenic genotype-phenotype correlations have been reported for NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809 and a single amino acid deletion p.Met922del. Both variants predispose to a distinct mild NF1 phenotype with neither externally visible cutaneous/plexiform neurofibromas nor other tumors. Here, we report 162 individuals (129 unrelated probands and 33 affected relatives) heterozygous for a constitutional missense mutation affecting one of five neighboring NF1 codons-Leu844, Cys845, Ala846, Leu847, and Gly848-located in the cysteine-serine-rich domain (CSRD). Collectively, these recurrent missense mutations affect ∼0.8% of unrelated NF1 mutation-positive probands in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cohort. Major superficial plexiform neurofibromas and symptomatic spinal neurofibromas were more prevalent in these individuals compared with classic NF1-affected cohorts (both p < 0.0001). Nearly half of the individuals had symptomatic or asymptomatic optic pathway gliomas and/or skeletal abnormalities. Additionally, variants in this region seem to confer a high predisposition to develop malignancies compared with the general NF1-affected population (p = 0.0061). Our results demonstrate that these NF1 missense mutations, although located outside the GAP-related domain, may be an important risk factor for a severe presentation. A genotype-phenotype correlation at the NF1 region 844-848 exists and will be valuable in the management and genetic counseling of a significant number of individuals.

13.
BMC Med Ethics ; 18(1): 46, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carrier screening is generally performed with the aim of identifying healthy couples at risk of having a child affected with a monogenic disorder to provide them with reproductive options. Expanded carrier screening (ECS), which provides the opportunity for multiple conditions to be screened in one test, offers a more cost-effective and comprehensive option than screening for single disorders. However, implementation of ECS at a population level would have implications for genetic counseling practice. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with sixteen European clinical and molecular geneticists with expertise in carrier screening to explore their views on the implementation of ECS in the clinical setting. RESULTS: Using inductive content analysis, we identified content categories relevant to the pre- and post-test settings. Participants believed ECS would ideally be targeted at couples before pregnancy. There was some disagreement regarding the acceptability of performing ECS in individuals, with several participants actively opposing individual-based screening. In addition, participants discussed the importance of ensuring informed and voluntary participation in ECS, recommending measures to minimize external pressure on prospective parents to undergo testing. A need for adequate counseling to foster informed, autonomous reproductive decision-making and provide support for couples found to be at risk was emphasized. CONCLUSIONS: Practical challenges in optimizing pre-test education and post-test counseling should not be underestimated and they should be carefully addressed before implementing ECS in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/ética , Aconselhamento Genético , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/ética , Reprodução , Acesso à Informação/ética , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Europa (Continente) , Características da Família , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Seleção de Pacientes/ética , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 21(3): 195-201, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306397

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the views of the Belgian public on various topics surrounding genetics and genetic testing (GT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A written questionnaire was administered to visitors of the annual cartoon festival in Knokke-Heist, Belgium, during the summer of 2014. The main theme of the festival was challenges and progress in human genetics and it was attended by more than 100,000 visitors. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 1182 respondents, resulting in a demographically diverse sample with a mean age of 48.5 years. Our respondents expressed moderate interest in predictive GT, with 39.1% willing to learn about their predisposition to diseases through GT and 49.5% indicating interest in getting tested exclusively for treatable/preventable diseases. We observed higher interest in GT for reproductive purposes, such as preconception screening for recessive disorders (53.8%) and prenatal GT (60.7%). A substantial minority (46.4%) of the respondents were worried that GT could further stigmatize people with disabilities, while 39.7% believed that carrier screening for recessive diseases would lead to an inferior image of people affected by them. CONCLUSION: Paying due attention to the attitudes, beliefs, and concerns of the general public is important to ensure ethically sound and socially acceptable implementation of new genetic technologies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Gene ; 605: 92-98, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993705

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1-2% of the general population and is characterized by impaired cognitive abilities. ID is both clinically as well as genetically heterogeneous, up to 2000 genes are estimated to be involved in the emergence of the disease with various clinical presentations. For many genes, only a few patients have been reported and causality of some genes has been questioned upon the discovery of apparent loss-of-function mutations in healthy controls. Description of additional patients strengthens the evidence for the involvement of a gene in the disease and can clarify the clinical phenotype associated with mutations in a particular gene. Here, we present two large four-generation families with a total of 11 males affected with ID caused by mutations in ZNF711, thereby expanding the total number of families with ID and a ZNF711 mutation to four. Patients with mutations in ZNF711 all present with mild to moderate ID and poor speech accompanied by additional features in some patients, including autistic features and mild facial dysmorphisms, suggesting that ZNF711 mutations cause non-syndromic ID.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos da Articulação/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Exoma , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 46(1): 63-71, 2017 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27875676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore attitudes of clinical and molecular geneticists about the implementation of multi-disease or expanded carrier screening (ECS) for monogenic recessive disorders. DESIGN: Qualitative; semistructured interviews. SETTING: In person or via Skype. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. PARTICIPANTS: European clinical and molecular geneticists with expertise in carrier screening (N = 16). METHODS: Inductive content analysis was used to identify common content categories in the data. RESULTS: Participants recognized important benefits of ECS, but they also identified major challenges, including limited benefit of ECS for most couples in the general population, lack of knowledge on carrier screening among nongenetic health care providers and the general public, potential negative implications of ECS for society, and limited economic resources. Participants favored an evidence-based approach to the implementation of population-wide ECS and were reluctant to actively offer ECS in the absence of demonstrable benefits. However, there was a consensus among the participants that ECS should be made available to couples who request the test. In addition, they believed ECS could be routinely offered to all people who use assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: Although a limited ECS offer is practical, it also raises concerns over equality in access to screening. A comprehensive risk-benefit analysis is needed to determine the desirability of systematic population-wide ECS.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/normas , Aconselhamento Genético/normas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Neurology ; 87(1): 71-6, 2016 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27281536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the investigation of the genetic basis of undiagnosed muscular dystrophies and myopathies in a very large cohort of patients. METHODS: We applied an NGS-based platform named MotorPlex to our diagnostic workflow to test muscle disease genes with a high sensitivity and specificity for small DNA variants. We analyzed 504 undiagnosed patients mostly referred as being affected by limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or congenital myopathy. RESULTS: MotorPlex provided a complete molecular diagnosis in 218 cases (43.3%). A further 160 patients (31.7%) showed as yet unproven candidate variants. Pathogenic variants were found in 47 of 93 genes, and in more than 30% of cases, the phenotype was nonconventional, broadening the spectrum of disease presentation in at least 10 genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our large DNA study of patients with undiagnosed myopathy is an example of the ongoing revolution in molecular diagnostics, highlighting the advantages in using NGS as a first-tier approach for heterogeneous genetic conditions.


Assuntos
Distrofias Musculares/diagnóstico , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise de Sequência
18.
Prenat Diagn ; 36(8): 699-707, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To implement non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidies with semiconductor sequencing in an academic cytogenomic laboratory and to evaluate the first 15-month experience on clinical samples. METHODS: We validated a NIPT protocol for cell-free fetal DNA sequencing from maternal plasma for the detection of trisomy 13, 18 and 21 on a semiconductor sequencing instrument. Fetal DNA fraction calculation for all samples and several quality parameters were implemented in the workflow. One thousand eighty-one clinical NIPT samples were analysed, following the described protocol. RESULTS: Non-invasive prenatal testing was successfully implemented and validated on 201 normal and 74 aneuploid samples. From 1081 clinical samples, 17 samples showed an abnormal result: 14 trisomy 21 samples, one trisomy 18 and one trisomy 16 were detected. Also a maternal copy number variation on chromosome 13 was observed, which could potentially lead to a false positive trisomy 13 result. One sex discordant result was reported, possibly attributable to a vanishing twin. Moreover, our combined fetal fraction calculation enabled a more reliable risk estimate for trisomy 13, 18 and 21. CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 has a very high specificity and sensitivity. Because of several biological phenomena, diagnostic invasive confirmation of abnormal results remains required. © 2016 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , DNA/sangue , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Semicondutores , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , DNA/análise , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/genética , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trissomia/diagnóstico , Trissomia/genética , Síndrome da Trissomia do Cromossomo 13 , Síndrome da Trissomía do Cromossomo 18
19.
Hum Mutat ; 37(8): 812-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27068579

RESUMO

Although there are nearly 100 different causative genes identified for nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL), Sanger sequencing-based DNA diagnostics usually only analyses three, namely, GJB2, SLC26A4, and OTOF. As this is seen as inadequate, there is a need for high-throughput diagnostic methods to detect disease-causing variations, including single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), insertions/deletions (Indels), and copy-number variations (CNVs). In this study, a targeted resequencing panel for hearing loss was developed including 79 genes for NSHL and selected forms of syndromic hearing loss. One-hundred thirty one presumed autosomal-recessive NSHL (arNSHL) patients of Western-European ethnicity were analyzed for SNVs, Indels, and CNVs. In addition, we established a straightforward variant classification system to deal with the large number of variants encountered. We estimate that combining prescreening of GJB2 with our panel leads to a diagnosis in 25%-30% of patients. Our data show that after GJB2, the most commonly mutated genes in a Western-European population are TMC1, MYO15A, and MYO7A (3.1%). CNV analysis resulted in the identification of causative variants in two patients in OTOA and STRC. One of the major challenges for diagnostic gene panels is assigning pathogenicity for variants. A collaborative database collecting all identified variants from multiple centers could be a valuable resource for hearing loss diagnostics.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Conexinas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Miosinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(6): e1-e12, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26980105

RESUMO

This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético/psicologia , Testes Genéticos/normas , Heterozigoto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tomada de Decisões , Europa (Continente) , Aconselhamento Genético/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Genética Médica/ética , Genética Médica/organização & administração , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA