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1.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 17(9): 569-586, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213707

RESUMO

In the Anthropocene, in which we now live, climate change is impacting most life on Earth. Microorganisms support the existence of all higher trophic life forms. To understand how humans and other life forms on Earth (including those we are yet to discover) can withstand anthropogenic climate change, it is vital to incorporate knowledge of the microbial 'unseen majority'. We must learn not just how microorganisms affect climate change (including production and consumption of greenhouse gases) but also how they will be affected by climate change and other human activities. This Consensus Statement documents the central role and global importance of microorganisms in climate change biology. It also puts humanity on notice that the impact of climate change will depend heavily on responses of microorganisms, which are essential for achieving an environmentally sustainable future.

2.
Cell ; 177(6): 1600-1618.e17, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150625

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests as alterations in complex human behaviors including social communication and stereotypies. In addition to genetic risks, the gut microbiome differs between typically developing (TD) and ASD individuals, though it remains unclear whether the microbiome contributes to symptoms. We transplanted gut microbiota from human donors with ASD or TD controls into germ-free mice and reveal that colonization with ASD microbiota is sufficient to induce hallmark autistic behaviors. The brains of mice colonized with ASD microbiota display alternative splicing of ASD-relevant genes. Microbiome and metabolome profiles of mice harboring human microbiota predict that specific bacterial taxa and their metabolites modulate ASD behaviors. Indeed, treatment of an ASD mouse model with candidate microbial metabolites improves behavioral abnormalities and modulates neuronal excitability in the brain. We propose that the gut microbiota regulates behaviors in mice via production of neuroactive metabolites, suggesting that gut-brain connections contribute to the pathophysiology of ASD.

5.
Nature ; 569(7758): 655-662, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142855

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial levels. Individual contributing factors have been the focus of extensive research. As part of the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (HMP2 or iHMP), we followed 132 subjects for one year each to generate integrated longitudinal molecular profiles of host and microbial activity during disease (up to 24 time points each; in total 2,965 stool, biopsy, and blood specimens). Here we present the results, which provide a comprehensive view of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during inflammatory bowel disease activity. We demonstrate a characteristic increase in facultative anaerobes at the expense of obligate anaerobes, as well as molecular disruptions in microbial transcription (for example, among clostridia), metabolite pools (acylcarnitines, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids), and levels of antibodies in host serum. Periods of disease activity were also marked by increases in temporal variability, with characteristic taxonomic, functional, and biochemical shifts. Finally, integrative analysis identified microbial, biochemical, and host factors central to this dysregulation. The study's infrastructure resources, results, and data, which are available through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi'omics Database ( http://ibdmdb.org ), provide the most comprehensive description to date of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.

6.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 17(6): 391-396, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092905

RESUMO

The signs of climate change are undeniable, and the inevitable impact for Earth and all its inhabitants is a serious concern. Ice is melting, sea levels are rising, biodiversity is declining, precipitation has increased, atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases are alarmingly high, and extreme weather conditions are becoming increasingly common. But what role do microorganisms have in this global challenge? In this Viewpoint article, several experts in the field discuss the microbial contributions to climate change and consider the effects of global warming, extreme weather, flooding and other consequences of climate change on microbial communities in the ocean and soil, on host-microbiota interactions and on the global burden of infectious diseases and ecosystem processes, and they explore open questions and research needs.

7.
Gut ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a mouse population model with diverse and reproducible genetic backgrounds used to identify novel disease models and genes that contribute to human disease. Since spontaneous tumour susceptibility in CC mice remains unexplored, we assessed tumour incidence and spectrum. DESIGN: We monitored 293 mice from 18 CC strains for tumour development. Genetic association analysis and RNA sequencing were used to identify susceptibility loci and candidate genes. We analysed genomes of patients with gastric cancer to evaluate the relevance of genes identified in the CC mouse model and measured the expression levels of ISG15 by immunohistochemical staining using a gastric adenocarcinoma tissue microarray. Association of gene expression with overall survival (OS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: CC mice displayed a wide range in the incidence and types of spontaneous tumours. More than 40% of CC036 mice developed gastric tumours within 1 year. Genetic association analysis identified Nfκb1 as a candidate susceptibility gene, while RNA sequencing analysis of non-tumour gastric tissues from CC036 mice showed significantly higher expression of inflammatory response genes. In human gastric cancers, the majority of human orthologues of the 166 mouse genes were preferentially altered by amplification or deletion and were significantly associated with OS. Higher expression of the CC036 inflammatory response gene signature is associated with poor OS. Finally, ISG15 protein is elevated in gastric adenocarcinomas and correlated with shortened patient OS. CONCLUSIONS: CC strains exhibit tremendous variation in tumour susceptibility, and we present CC036 as a spontaneous laboratory mouse model for studying human gastric tumourigenesis.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1769, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741985

RESUMO

Increasing salinization in wetland systems is a major threat to ecosystem services carried out by microbial communities. Thus, it is paramount to understand how salinity drives both microbial community structures and their diversity. Here we evaluated the structure and diversity of the prokaryotic communities from a range of highly saline soils (EC1:5 from 5.96 to 61.02 dS/m) from the Odiel Saltmarshes and determined their association with salinity and other soil physicochemical features by analyzing 16S rRNA gene amplicon data through minimum entropy decomposition (MED). We found that these soils harbored unique communities mainly composed of halophilic and halotolerant taxa from the phyla Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Balneolaeota, Bacteroidetes and Rhodothermaeota. In the studied soils, several site-specific properties were correlated with community structure and individual abundances of particular sequence variants. Salinity had a secondary role in shaping prokaryotic communities in these highly saline samples since the dominant organisms residing in them were already well-adapted to a wide range of salinities. We also compared ESV-based results with OTU-clustering derived ones, showing that, in this dataset, no major differences in ecological outcomes were obtained by the employment of one or the other method.

9.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 18, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in the human host's overall health by contributing key biological functions such as expanded metabolism and pathogen defense/immune control. In a healthy individual, the gut microbiome co-exists within the human host in a symbiotic, non-inflammatory relationship that enables mutual benefits, such as microbial degradation of indigestible food products into small molecules that the host can utilize, and enhanced pathogen defense. In abnormal conditions, such as Crohn's disease, this favorable metabolic relationship breaks down and a variety of undesirable activities result, including chronic inflammation and other health-related issues. It has been difficult, however, to elucidate the overall functional characteristics of this relationship because the microbiota can vary substantially in composition for healthy humans and possibly even more in individuals with gut disease conditions such as Crohn's disease. Overall, this suggests that microbial membership composition may not be the best way to characterize a phenotype. Alternatively, it seems to be more informative to examine and characterize the functional composition of a gut microbiome. Towards that end, this study examines 25 metaproteomes measured in several Crohn's disease patients' post-resection surgery across the course of 1 year, in order to examine persistence of microbial taxa, genes, proteins, and metabolic functional distributions across time in individuals whose microbiome might be more variable due to the gut disease condition. RESULTS: The measured metaproteomes were highly personalized, with all the temporally-related metaproteomes clustering most closely by individual. In general, the metaproteomes were remarkably distinct between individuals and to a lesser extent within individuals. This prompted a need to characterize the metaproteome at a higher functional level, which was achieved by annotating identified protein groups with KEGG orthologous groups to infer metabolic modules. At this level, similar and redundant metabolic functions across multiple phyla were observed across time and between individuals. Tracking through these various metabolic modules revealed a clear path from carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid degradation to central metabolism and finally the production of fermentation products. CONCLUSIONS: The human gut metaproteome can vary quite substantially across time and individuals. However, despite substantial intra-individual variation in the metaproteomes, there is a clear persistence of conserved metabolic functions across time and individuals. Additionally, the persistence of these core functions is redundant across multiple phyla but is not always observable in the same sample. Finally, the gut microbiome's metabolism is not driven by a set of discrete linear pathways but a web of interconnected reactions facilitated by a network of enzymes that connect multiple molecules across multiple pathways.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Acetilglucosamina/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico Citidina Monofosfato/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 42-47, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541282

RESUMO

Commensal microorganisms in the mammalian gut play important roles in host health and physiology, but a central challenge remains in achieving a detailed mechanistic understanding of specific microbial contributions to host biochemistry. New function-based approaches are needed that analyze gut microbial function at the molecular level by coupling detection and measurements of in situ biochemical activity with identification of the responsible microbes and enzymes. We developed a platform employing ß-glucuronidase selective activity-based probes to detect, isolate, and identify microbial subpopulations in the gut responsible for this xenobiotic metabolism. We find that metabolic activity of gut microbiota can be plastic and that between individuals and during perturbation, phylogenetically disparate populations can provide ß-glucuronidase activity. Our work links biochemical activity with molecular-scale resolution without relying on genomic inference.

12.
Metallomics ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427023

RESUMO

The chemical structure of organic molecules profoundly impacts their interactions with metal ions and mineral phases in soils. Understanding the sources and cycling of metal-chelating compounds is therefore essential for predicting the bioavailability and transport of metals throughout terrestrial environments. Here we investigate the molecular speciation of organic molecules that solubilize trace metals in calcareous soils from Eastern Washington. Ultra-high performance Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry at 21 Tesla enabled fast and confident detection and identification of metal chelators that are produced by microbes that inhabit these soils based on screening for features that match diagnostic metal isotope patterns. We compared two approaches, one based on direct infusion using the incorporation of a rare isotope to validate true iron-binding features, and another based on separation with liquid chromatography and detection of isotopologues with coherent elution profiles. While the isotopic exchange method requires significantly shorter analysis time, nearly twice as many features were observed with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), mostly due to the reduction in ion suppression where major features limit the sensitivity of minor features. In addition, LCMS enabled the collection of higher quality fragmentation spectra and facilitated feature identification. Siderophores belonging to four major classes were identified, including ferrioxamines, pseudobactins, enterobactins, and arthrobactins. Each of these siderophores likely derives from a unique member of the microbial community, and each possesses different chemical characteristics and uptake pathways, likely contributing to fierce competition for iron within these soils. Our results provide insight into the metabolic pathways by which microbes that co-inhabit calcareous soils compete for this essential micronutrient.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207606, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496195

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to characterize the microbial nitrogen cycling potential in sediments from Ushuaia Bay, a subantarctic environment that has suffered a recent explosive demographic growth. Subtidal sediment samples were retrieved in triplicate from two urban points in the Bay, and analyzed through metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Sequences assigned to genes related to nitrification, nitrate reduction and denitrification were predominant in this environment with respect to metagenomes from other environments, including other marine sediments. The nosZ gene, responsible for nitrous oxide transformation into di-nitrogen, presented a high diversity. The majority of NosZ sequences were classified as Clade II (atypical) variants affiliated to different bacterial lineages such as Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, as well as to Archaea. The analysis of a fosmid metagenomic library from the same site showed that the genomic context of atypical variants was variable, and was accompanied by distinct regulatory elements, suggesting the evolution of differential ecophysiological roles. This work increases our understanding of the microbial ecology of nitrogen transformations in cold coastal environments and provides evidence of an enhanced denitrification potential in impacted sediment microbial communities. In addition, it highlights the role of yet overlooked populations in the mitigation of environmentally harmful forms of nitrogen.

14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(23)2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266729

RESUMO

Several studies monitoring alterations in the community structure upon resistant starch (RS) interventions are available, although comprehensive function-based analyses are lacking. Recently, a multiomics approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics on fecal samples from individuals subjected to high and low doses of type 2 RS (RS2; 48 g and 3 g/2,500 kcal, respectively, daily for 2 weeks) in a crossover intervention experiment was performed. In the present study, we did pathway-based metagenomic analyses on samples from a subset of individuals (n = 12) from that study to obtain additional detailed insights into the functional structure at high resolution during RS2 intervention. A mechanistic framework based on obtained results is proposed where primary degradation was governed by Firmicutes, with Ruminococcus bromii as a major taxon involved, providing fermentation substrates and increased acetate concentrations for the growth of various major butyrate producers exhibiting the enzyme butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. H2-scavenging sulfite reducers and acetogens concurrently increased. Individual responses of gut microbiota were noted, where seven of the 12 participants displayed all features of the outlined pattern, whereas four individuals showed mixed behavior and one subject was unresponsive. Intervention order did not affect the outcome, emphasizing a constant substrate supply for maintaining specific functional communities.IMPORTANCE Manipulation of gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a promising approach to reduce various noncommunicable diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Specific dietary supplements, including resistant starches (RS), are often a focus, yet comprehensive insights into functional responses of microbiota are largely lacking. Furthermore, unresponsiveness in certain individuals is poorly understood. Our data indicate that distinct parts of microbiota work jointly to degrade RS and successively form health-promoting fermentation end products. It highlights the need to consider both primary degraders and specific more-downstream-acting bacterial groups in order to achieve desired intervention outcomes. The gained insights will assist the design of personalized treatment strategies based on an individual's microbiota.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1775, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158906

RESUMO

The North American prairie covered about 3.6 million-km2 of the continent prior to European contact. Only 1-2% of the original prairie remains, but the soils that developed under these prairies are some of the most productive and fertile in the world, containing over 35% of the soil carbon in the continental United States. Cultivation may alter microbial diversity and composition, influencing the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements. Here, we explored the structure and functional potential of the soil microbiome in paired cultivated-corn (at the time of sampling) and never-cultivated native prairie soils across a three-states transect (Wisconsin, Iowa, and Kansas) using metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and lipid analysis. At the Wisconsin site, we also sampled adjacent restored prairie and switchgrass plots. We found that agricultural practices drove differences in community composition and diversity across the transect. Microbial biomass in prairie samples was twice that of cultivated soils, but alpha diversity was higher with cultivation. Metagenome analyses revealed denitrification and starch degradation genes were abundant across all soils, as were core genes involved in response to osmotic stress, resource transport, and environmental sensing. Together, these data indicate that cultivation shifted the microbiome in consistent ways across different regions of the prairie, but also suggest that many functions are resilient to changes caused by land management practices - perhaps reflecting adaptations to conditions common to tallgrass prairie soils in the region (e.g., soil type, parent material, development under grasses, temperature and rainfall patterns, and annual freeze-thaw cycles). These findings are important for understanding the long-term consequences of land management practices to prairie soil microbial communities and their genetic potential to carry out key functions.

16.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 44: 20-27, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007202

RESUMO

Microbiomes impact nearly all systems on Earth, and despite vast differences among systems, we contend that it is possible and highly beneficial to develop a unified conceptual framework for understanding microbiome dynamics that is applicable across systems. The ability to robustly predict and control environmental and human microbiomes would provide impactful opportunities to sustain and improve the health of ecosystems and humans alike. Doing so requires understanding the processes governing microbiome temporal dynamics, which currently presents an enormous challenge. We contend, however, that new opportunities can emerge by placing studies of both environmental and human microbiome temporal dynamics in the context of a unified conceptual framework. Our conceptual framework poses that factors influencing the temporal dynamics of microbiomes can be grouped into three broad categories: biotic and abiotic history, internal dynamics, and external forcing factors. Both environmental and human microbiome science study these factors, but not in a coordinated or consistent way. Here we discuss opportunities for greater crosstalk across these domains, such as leveraging specific ecological concepts from environmental microbiome science to guide optimization of strategies to manipulate human microbiomes towards improved health. To achieve unified understanding, it is necessary to have a common body of theory developed from explicit iteration between models and molecular-based characterization of microbiome dynamics across systems. Only through such model-experiment iteration will we eventually achieve prediction and control across microbiomes that impact ecosystem sustainability and human health.

17.
Environ Microbiol ; 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971895

RESUMO

Thawing permafrost can stimulate microbial activity, leading to faster decomposition of formerly preserved organic matter and CO2 release. Detailed knowledge about the vertical distribution of the responsible microbial community that is changing with increasing soil depth is limited. In this study, we determined the microbial community composition from cores sampled in a high Arctic heath at Svalbard, Norway; spanning from the active layer (AL) into the permafrost layer (PL). A special aim has been on identifying a layer of recently thawed soil, the transition zone (TZ), which might provide new insights into the fate of thawing permafrost. A unique sampling strategy allowed us to observe a diverse and gradually shifting microbial community in the AL, a Bacteroidetes dominated community in the TZ and throughout the PL, a community strongly dominated by a single Actinobacteria family (Intrasporangiaceae). The contrasting abundances of these two taxa caused a community difference of about 60%, just within 3 cm from TZ to PL. We incubated subsamples at about 5°C and measured highest CO2 production rates under aerobic incubations, yet contrasting for five different layers and correlating to the microbial community composition. This high resolution strategy provides new insights on how microbial communities are structured in permafrost and a better understanding of how they respond to thaw.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042744

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the strongest environmental drivers of microbial evolution and community composition. Here we aimed to determine the impact of salt concentrations (2.5, 7.5, and 33.2%) on the microbial community structure of reclaimed saltern ponds near San Francisco, California, and to discover prospective enzymes with potential biotechnological applications. Community compositions were determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealing both higher richness and evenness in the pond sediments compared to the water columns. Co-occurrence network analysis additionally uncovered the presence of microbial seed bank communities, potentially primed to respond to rapid changes in salinity. In addition, functional annotation of shotgun metagenomic DNA showed different capabilities if the microbial communities at different salinities for methanogenesis, amino acid metabolism, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. There was an overall shift with increasing salinity in the functional potential for starch degradation, and a decrease in degradation of cellulose and other oligosaccharides. Further, many carbohydrate-active enzymes identified have acidic isoelectric points that have potential biotechnological applications, including deconstruction of biofuel feedstocks under high ionic conditions. Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of individual halotolerant and halophilic microbes were binned revealing a variety of carbohydrate-degrading potential of individual pond inhabitants.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10542, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002454

RESUMO

Understanding the impact of oceanographic features on marine microbial ecosystems remains a major ecological endeavour. Here we assess microbial diversity, community structure and functional capacity along the Agulhas Current system and the Subtropical Front in the South Indian Ocean (SIO). Samples collected from the epipelagic, oxygen minimum and bathypelagic zones were analysed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, we found high taxonomic richness in surface and deep water samples, but generally low richness for OMZ communities. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant dissimilarity between the three water depths. Most microbial communities were dominated by marine Gammaproteobacteria, with strikingly low levels of picocyanobacteria. Community composition was strongly influenced by specific environmental factors including depth, salinity, and the availability of both oxygen and light. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling capacity in the SIO was linked to several autotrophic and copiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Taken together, our data suggest that the environmental conditions in the Agulhas Current system, particularly depth-related parameters, substantially influence microbial community structure. In addition, the capacity for biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and sulfur is linked primarily to the dominant Gammaproteobacteria taxa, whereas ecologically rare taxa drive carbon cycling.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912205

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry (MS)-based integrated metaproteomic, metabolomic, and lipidomic (multi-omic) studies are transforming our ability to understand and characterize microbial communities in environmental and biological systems. These measurements are even enabling enhanced analyses of complex soil microbial communities, which are the most complex microbial systems known to date. Multi-omic analyses, however, do have sample preparation challenges, since separate extractions are typically needed for each omic study, thereby greatly amplifying the preparation time and amount of sample required. To address this limitation, a 3-in-1 method for the simultaneous extraction of metabolites, proteins, and lipids (MPLEx) from the same soil sample was created by adapting a solvent-based approach. This MPLEx protocol has proven to be both simple and robust for many sample types, even when utilized for limited quantities of complex soil samples. The MPLEx method also greatly enabled the rapid multi-omic measurements needed to gain a better understanding of the members of each microbial community, while evaluating the changes taking place upon biological and environmental perturbations.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Solo/química
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