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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental metals can cause nephrotoxicity. There is an international epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu). Whether metal exposures contribute to kidney dysfunction in populations at risk for CKDu remains unresolved. OBJECTIVE: Urinary metals (arsenic, cadmium, nickel, and uranium) were examined in 222 sugarcane cutters in Guatemala at three time points over 1 year. METHODS: We explored the relationships between metal concentrations and markers of kidney function using multivariable linear mixed-effect models. RESULTS: Arsenic, cadmium, and nickel were detected in the majority of the 340 urine samples and were generally within limits previously considered to be nonnephrotoxic. Nevertheless, higher urine cadmium was inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ß: -4.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.92, -1.54) and positively associated with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (ß: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.20, 4.64). Higher urine arsenic was also inversely associated with eGFR (ß: -4.36, 95% CI: -7.07, -1.64). SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that exposures to metals, including cadmium and arsenic, might contribute to kidney toxicity seen in workers at risk for CKDu. These findings are consistent with the potential for metal nephrotoxicity at lower than expected levels in the setting of manual work in a very hot environment.

2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 143: 27-37, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506813

RESUMO

Kaimoana (shellfish, seafood) is an important food source and a significant social and cultural component of many New Zealand communities, especially the indigenous Maori. Over the past decade a decline has been detected in shellfish health and an increase in mortality events around New Zealand. Intracellular bacteria termed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) have been observed in New Zealand bivalve molluscs during shellfish mortality events. Affected bivalves include cockles Austrovenus stutchburyi, ringed dosinia Dosinia anus, green-lipped mussels Perna canaliculus, pipi Paphies australis, toheroa Paphies ventricosa, tuatua Paphies subtriangulata, deepwater tuatua Paphies donacina and scallops Pecten novaezelandiae. RLOs are an informal morphology-based classification of intracellular bacteria, with the exact identification often unknown. Using shellfish collected during mortality events from 2014 to 2019 and apparently healthy samples collected in 2018 and 2019, we aimed to identify RLOs in New Zealand shellfish. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from RLO-infected shellfish showed >95% identity to published Endozoicomonas species. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of the sequenced gene in the gill epithelium and digestive epithelium of all study species. A genus-specific quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to detect Endozoicomonas spp. in shellfish tissue. Prevalence of Endozoicomonas spp. in samples from mortality events and healthy shellfish analysed by quantitative PCR was high. Samples collected from mortality events, however, had a significantly higher load of Endozoicomonas spp. than the healthy samples. These results give us a greater understanding of these intracellular bacteria and their presence in populations of New Zealand shellfish.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Pecten , Animais , Bactérias , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Frutos do Mar
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171945

RESUMO

As global temperatures continue to rise it is imperative to understand the adverse effects this will pose to workers laboring outdoors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between increases in wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and risk of occupational injury or dehydration among agricultural workers. We used data collected by an agribusiness in Southwest Guatemala over the course of four harvest seasons and Poisson generalized linear modelling for this analysis. Our analyses suggest a 3% increase in recorded injury risk with each degree increase in daily average WBGT above 30 °C (95% CI: -6%, 14%). Additionally, these data suggest that the relationship between WBGT and injury risk is non-linear with an additional 4% acceleration in risk for every degree increase in WBGT above 30 °C (95% CI: 0%, 8%). No relationship was found between daily average WBGT and risk of dehydration. Our results indicate that agricultural workers are at an increased risk of occupational injury in humid and hot environments and that businesses need to plan and adapt to increasing global temperatures by implementing and evaluating effective occupational safety and health programs to protect the health, safety, and well-being of their workers.

4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(12): e696-e703, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate impact of electrolyte supplementation on hydration status and health outcomes in Guatemalan agricultural workers performing heavy work under hot climatic conditions. METHODS: A 3-week pragmatic trial was conducted with a group of 50 workers during the 2017 to 2018 sugarcane harvest. Workers received an electrolyte hydration intervention during 2 of the 3 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected each week. RESULTS: Increased electrolyte intake resulted in less muscle injury. Kidney function was maintained across the intervention period. Workers were adequately hydrated and average electrolyte levels remained in normal ranges. Mild indications of hyponatremia occurred at higher levels of fluid intake. CONCLUSIONS: This trial demonstrates the feasibility of maintaining workers' electrolyte levels under extremely hot and humid conditions while mitigating muscle injury. Electrolyte supplementation should be added to standard workplace water, rest, and shade interventions to protect workers.

5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(9): 1558-1566, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954081

RESUMO

Background: Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is an epidemic that disproportionately affects young agriculture workers in hot regions. It has been hypothesized that repeated acute kidney injury (AKI) may play a role in the development of disease. Methods: Latent class mixed models were used to identify groups of Guatemalan sugarcane harvesters based on their daily changes in creatinine over 6 consecutive days in 2018. Exponential smoothing state space models were used to forecast end-of-season creatinine between the identified groups. Percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) across the harvest was compared between groups. Results: Twenty-nine percent (n = 30) of the 103 workers experienced repeated severe fluctuations in creatinine across shift. The model with multiplicative error, multiplicative trend, and multiplicative seasonality was able to accurately forecast end-of-season creatinine in the severe group (mean percentage error [MPE]: -4.7%). eGFR of workers in the severe group on average decreased 20% across season compared to 11% decline for those in the moderate group (95% confidence interval for difference: -17% to 0%). Conclusions: Daily fluctuations in creatinine can be used to forecast end-of-season creatinine in sugarcane harvesters. Workers who experience repeat severe daily fluctuations in creatinine, on average, experience a greater reduction in kidney function across the season.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugarcane workers in Central America experience a heavy burden of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin. We conducted a pilot study among worker proxies in Guatemala to characterize exposures to particulate matter, silica, heavy metals, and glyphosate, as well as to examine potential nephrotoxic exposures. METHODS: Air, soil, and ash samples were collected and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The average mass concentration for particulate matter (PM)2.5 and PM100 exposures were 360 µg/m3 (range: 32 to 1500 µg/m3) and 555 µg/m3 (range: 229 to 1170 µg/m3), respectively. The elemental composition of particles was largely silicon. The amount of crystalline silica was below 5 µg, yet the percentage of total silica was ~17% by weight. Putatively, the silica was in the amorphous form. Concentrations of aluminum and calcium ranged from 2-7 µg/m3. Glyphosate was not detectable in analyzed air samples but was detectable at concentrations ranging from 81-165 ppb in soil samples. CONCLUSION: Sugarcane workers are exposed to high concentrations of particulate matter. Future studies should investigate the potential role of silica, heavy metals, and agrochemicals in the etiology of chronic kidney disease in this population.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Saccharum , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Projetos Piloto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
7.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(2): 187-196, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194721

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El colgajo sural de flujo reverso continúa siendo una herramienta resolutiva para las lesiones de tejidos blandos complejas del tercio distal de la pierna y del pie. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la experiencia de los autores con la aplicación de una técnica de disección modificada, de distal a proximal, que permite la identificación más sencilla del nervio sural en el plano suprafascial, pudiendo centralizar la isla de piel en el eje real del nervio, mejorando la vascularización de la isla de piel y evitando accidentes como el despegamiento del nervio. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Entre 2016 y 2019 realizamos cobertura de defectos complejos en miembros inferiores en 13 pacientes con colgajos surales de flujo reverso aplicando la modificación técnica que presentamos. Consiste en realizar una incisión en libro abierto en el tercio distal de la pierna hasta el tejido celular subcutáneo y una disección roma hasta identificar el nervio sural; a continuación se centraliza la isla de piel según el eje real del nervio, se liga el pedículo en la región proximal y se traspone el colgajo al defecto. Identificamos los datos demográficos y las complicaciones más frecuentes en cada caso y utilizamos estadística descriptiva para presentar las características de los pacientes. RESULTADOS: Del total de 13 pacientes, 7 fueron hombres y 6 mujeres. La causa del defecto en el miembro inferior fue accidente de tránsito en 9 pacientes, ulcera por presión en 2, quemadura eléctrica en 1 y tumor óseo tipo sarcoma de Ewing en 1. En 2 se realizó colgajo de pierna cruzado. Diez pacientes fueron intervenidos bajo anestesia regional y 3 bajo anestesia general. El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 1 hora y media en 9 pacientes y en el resto de 2 horas. Presentaron complicaciones 4 pacientes: 1 con dehiscencia de sutura, 1 seroma, 1 desprendimiento por tracción de un colgajo cruzado con posterior necrosis total y 1 necrosis parcial. CONCLUSIONES: Esta modificación de la disección y levantamiento del colgajo sural de flujo reverso permite encontrar con mayor facilidad el pedículo y así centrar de manera más precisa la isla de piel, disminuyendo las complicaciones, optimizando la piel a recolectar y por lo tanto el defecto del área donante y permitiendo que esta técnica sea más reproducible


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The reverse sural flap is still a resolute tool for complex soft tissue injuries of the distal third of the leg and the foot. The aim of this paper is to present our experience with a modified technique to harvest the reverse sural flap, going first distally to identify the nerve, allowing to centralize the skin paddle in the real nerve axis, improving the vascularization of the skin paddle and avoiding accidents like unnoticed nerve detachment from the flap. METHODS: Coverage of complex defects in the lower limb with our modified technique for reverse sural flap was performed between 2016 and 2019 in 13 patients. In this technique the first incision is made distally in the leg finding the sural nerve, then the skin paddle is centralized in the real nerve axis, the pedicle is ligated proximally and the flap is transposed to the defect. Demographic characteristics and the most frequent complications in each case were identified. Descriptive statistics were used to present the patients features. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included: 7 male and 6 women. The etiology of the defect was traffic accident in 9 patients, pressure sore in 2 patients, electrical burn in 1 patient and sarcoma of Ewing in 1 patient. In 2 cases a crossed leg skin flap was performed. In 10 patients surgery was done under regional anesthesia and in 3 patients general anesthesia. The surgical time was 1 hour and 30 minutes in 9 patients and in 4 patients was 2 hours. There were 4 complications: 1 suture dehiscence, 1 seroma, 1 case of detachment of a crossed-leg flap by traction with subsequent total necrosis and 1 partial necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: This modified dissection technique for the reverse sural flap allows easier finding of the vascular pedicle, put in the center the skin island precisely, diminish the complications and optimize the size of the skin island and the donor site, being this more reproducible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Nervo Sural/cirurgia , Dissecação/instrumentação , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Traumatismos do Pé/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/instrumentação , Nervo Sural/lesões , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/cirurgia , Seroma/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tela Subcutânea/lesões , Tela Subcutânea/cirurgia
9.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 7-25, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118317

RESUMO

El Centro para la Salud, el Trabajo y el Ambiente (CHWE por sus siglas en inglés) inició un proyecto de colaboración con Pantaleon, una empresa agrícola de caña de azúcar en Guatemala, para hacer frente a una epidemia de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) de causa no tradicional (ERCnT) que afecta a las comunidades agrícolas en Centroamérica y otros lugares. Este artículo describe el conocimiento actual de la epidemia en Centroamérica, las manifestaciones clínicas, el tratamiento y el manejo; las hipótesis actuales de su etiología, la colaboración y el enfoque de CHWE-Pantaleon. Nuestro enfoque de Total Worker Health® (TWH) para abordar la salud renal en Guatemala incluye múltiples estudios de investigación con trabajadores de caña de azúcar, para evaluar la prevalencia, incidencia y factores de riesgo de la lesión renal aguda y la ERC; se incluye también el desarrollo e implementación de medidas de prevención mejoradas e intervenciones para proteger a los trabajadores abordando los factores de riesgo ya conocidos. Se examinan también las necesidades futuras de investigación y las implicaciones globales de la ERCnT, al igual que la producción de bienes y la economía, así como las recomendaciones actuales para las estrategias de prevención ocupacional y comunitaria.


The Center for Health, Work and Environment (CHWE) began a collaborative project with Pantaleon, a Guatemalan sugarcane agribusiness, to address an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu) that affects agricultural communities in Central America and elsewhere. This paper describes the current knowledge of the epidemic in Central America including clinical manifestations, course, and management, current etiology hypotheses, and the CHWE-Pantaleon collaboration and approach. Our Total Worker Health® (TWH) approach to addressing kidney health in Guatemala has included multiple research studies with sugarcane workers to assess prevalence, incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease, as well as development and implementation of enhanced prevention measures and interventions to protect workers by addressing known risk factors. Future research needs and the global implications of CKDu including for economy and commodity production are discussed, as well as current recommendations for occupational and community prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Trabalhadores Rurais , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Guatemala/epidemiologia
10.
J Fish Dis ; 42(2): 167-180, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488966

RESUMO

Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata were challenged by immersion with nervous necrosis virus (NNV) at different ages and under controlled conditions to investigate factors affecting disease expression. Fish challenged at 3 weeks of age with 103 TCID50 /ml and higher doses developed clinical disease; a lower dose of 102 TCID50 /ml resulted in incidence below 100% and 101 TCID50 /ml was insufficient to cause infection. Additionally, fish were challenged at 5, 6 and 13 weeks of age at 17 and 21°C to assess the role of the age of the host and water temperature on disease expression. Although Australian bass challenged at all ages had evidence of replication of NNV, only those challenged at 3 weeks of age (20 and 24 days post-hatch [dph]) developed clinical disease. Higher water temperature had an additive effect on disease expression in larvae challenged at 24 dph, but it did not affect the disease outcome in older fish. Finally, isolates of NNV derived from fish with clinical or subclinical disease presentations caused similar cumulative mortality and clinical signs when larvae at 24 dph were challenged, suggesting that agent variation was not responsible for variation in clinical presentation in these field outbreaks of NNV infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Perciformes , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/transmissão , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Larva/virologia , New South Wales , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/patologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/transmissão , Temperatura , Replicação Viral
11.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 17(2): 11-22, May-Ago 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1047113

RESUMO

Introducción: estudios de trayectorias escolares permiten conocer diversas dimensiones de eficiencia escolar para incidir en la planeación y evaluación de la educación superior. Objetivo: determinar la influencia de factores escolares en el rendimiento académico de alumnos de cuarto semestre de enfermería de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala. Material y métodos: estudio correlacional con 230 estudiantes de cuarto semestre.Variables: rendimiento académico, factores escolares y sociodemográficas. Se aplicó cues-tionario validado por jueceo de expertos, confiabilidad por Alfa de Cronbach 0.80, previo consentimiento informado, base de datos con SPSS V. 20, análisis inferencial con prueba t de student. Resultados: aplicación de prueba t de student para muestras independientes y comparar promedios entre mujeres y hombres, obteniendo 8.490 y 8.492, p=0.983; la diferencia no es estadísticamente significativa. También se empleó t de student para muestras independientes y asociar cada una de las seis categorías de los factores escolares con el rendimiento académico, obteniendo que no existe diferencia en estadística significativa con ninguna de las categorías de los factores escolares. Conclusiones: aunque no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa al asociar los factores escolares y el rendimiento académico, es necesario profundizar en este tipo de estudios para identificar factores que sean significativos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Enfermagem , Desempenho Acadêmico
12.
Perspect. nutr. hum ; 19(2): 167-179, sep.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-955314

RESUMO

Resumen Antecedentes: la extracción en frío de aceite de sacha inchi presenta bajo rendimiento, lo que genera aproximadamente un 60 % de torta residual, un contenido variado de grasa y un valor elevado de proteína. Objetivo: evaluar formulaciones de colada elaborados con harina de sacha inchi producida a partir de la torta residual de la extracción del aceite (HTSI). Materiales y métodos: se obtuvo HTSI mediante el acondicionamiento de la torta, molienda y tamizado, luego se incorporó en una formulación de colada sustituyendo el almidón de maíz al 0 %, 25 % y 50 %. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas fisicoquímica, microbiológica, reológica y sensorialmente con panelistas mayores de 45 años. Resultados: según la Resolución 333 de 2011, la HTSI es buena fuente de proteína, calcio y ácidos grasos omega 3. Las formulaciones de colada presentaron buena calidad microbiológica y fueron aceptadas sensorialmente. La formulación F1 con sustitución del 50 % de almidón de maíz por HTSI fue un líquido que aportó 2,3 % menos energía, 16,3 % menos carbohidratos, 1,4 % más grasa y 90,7 % más proteína que una porción del producto tradicional. Conclusiones: la HTSI puede ser empleada en matrices alimentarias, y aporta proteína de alta digestibilidad a la dieta.


Abstract Background: Cold extraction of sacha inchi oil presents low yield, generating approximately 60% solid residual remnants, which contain a variety of fats and high levels of protein. Objective: Evaluate porridge formulations made with the solid remnants left from the oil extraction of sacha inchi flour (HTSI). Materials and Methods: HTSI was obtained using the solids as dough, then conditioning, grinding, and sieving. The resultant product was then incorporated into a porridge formulation by substitution with corn flour at 0%, 25% and 50%. The formulations were evaluated using physical chemistry, microbiology, and rheology, and additionally were evaluated sensorially in panel with adults aged 45+ years. Results: HTSI is suitable for human consumption, and is a good source of protein, calcium and omega 3 fatty acids. The porridge formulations presented microbiological quality levels and were sensorially accepted by panel participants. Formulation with 50% substitution of cornstarch by HTSI is a liquid, and provides 2.3% less energy, 16.3% less carbohydrates, 1.4% more fat and 90.7% more protein than a portion of the traditional product. Conclusions: HTSI can be used in dietary plans to provide a high quality protein.

13.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 124(1): 1-10, 2017 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28357981

RESUMO

We conducted single point-in-time and repeated cross-sectional studies of the prevalence of antibodies against nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in populations of adult barramundi Lates calcarifer in Australia. Serum samples collected between 2002 and 2012 were analyzed with indirect ELISA (n = 468). Most of the samples were sourced from broodstock with unknown exposure history, and these were compared with reference populations with confirmed history of exposure to NNV. Non-lethally collected gonad fluid samples from economically valuable barramundi broodstock (n = 164) were tested for the presence of NNV using RT-quantitative PCR at the time of blood sampling to compare infectivity with serostatus, but no virus was detected. NNV-specific immunoreactivity in broodstock was significantly lower than that for immunized and persistently infected populations. Seroprevalence increased over time in broodstock sampled longitudinally, probably reflecting repeated exposure to NNV in a region where the virus was endemic. The seroprevalence for the broodstock was 23.8% over the entire sample period while a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 found a seroprevalence of 34.5% with no significant difference between populations based on the geographic region or the history of occurrence of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in the progeny in the respective hatcheries. Although serological surveillance was useful for studying the history of exposure of barramundi to NNV, the lack of association between serostatus in broodstock and the subsequent occurrence of VNN disease in their progeny indicates that ELISA tests for anti-NNV antibodies are not suitable for the purpose of preventing vertical transmission of NNV in barramundi.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Nodaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , Estudos Transversais , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 29(1): 1-14, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166451

RESUMO

Historically, serological tests for finfish diseases have been underused when compared with their use in terrestrial animal health. For years the nonspecific immune response in fish was judged to make serology unreliable and inferior to the direct measurement of agent analytes. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications that reported on the development, validation, or application of serological tests for finfish diseases. A total of 168 articles met the screening criteria; most of them were focused on salmonid pathogens (e.g., Aeromonas spp. and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus). Before the 1980s, most publications reported the use of agglutination tests, but our review indicates that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has more recently become the dominant serological test. The main application of serological tests has been in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, with few applications for surveillance or demonstration of freedom from disease, despite the advantages of serological tests over direct detection at the population level. Nonlethal sampling, low cost, and postinfection persistence of antibodies make serological assays the test of choice in surveillance, especially of valuable broodstock. However, their adoption has been constrained by poor characterization and validation. The number of publications in our review reporting diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serological tests in finfish was small (n = 7). Foreseeing a wider use of serological tests in the future for diagnostic end purposes, we offer recommendations for mitigating deficiencies in the development and evaluation of serological tests, including optimization, control of nonspecific reactions, informed cutoff points, diagnostic accuracy, and serological baseline studies. Achieving these goals will facilitate greater international recognition of serological testing in programs supporting aquatic animal health. Received March 21, 2016; accepted September 24, 2016.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Peixes , Novirhabdovirus , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 30(15): 1836-1840, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative stress marker and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pregnancy before and after perinatal event. METHODS: This study was performed on 200 healthy full-term pregnant women admitted to pregnancy resolution in Maternal-Child Hospital of Durango, Mexico. Oxidative stress and TAC were assessed through detection of lipid peroxidation by quantitation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and TAC through ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP). RESULTS: Our results showed increased levels of MDA after vaginal delivery (VD). TAC was also increased after obstetric event, but it did not differ between VD and caesarean section. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that MDA concentrations are increased two hours after obstetric event, and this increase correlates with VD. The TAC was increased as a compensatory mechanism during obstetric event. Another important finding is that women receiving analgesia administration in VD, as well as dexamethasone administration in caesarean section, experienced a protector effect that decreased MDA levels.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Adulto , Analgesia Obstétrica , Antioxidantes/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cesárea , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , México , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 123: 138-142, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702588

RESUMO

Diagnosis of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection in susceptible fish species is mostly performed post-mortem due to the neurotropism of the causative agent and the only validated diagnostic assays require samples from brain and retinal tissue. However, a non-lethal alternative to test for exposure of fish to NNV is needed. An indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-NNV antibodies in was recently developed and evaluated to detect responses in the sera from immunized fish. For this study, we assessed the accuracy of the assay at detecting specific antibodies from naturally exposed fish using field samples from populations with differing infection status. We applied a Bayesian model, using RTqPCR as a second test. Median estimates of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the VNN ELISA were 81.8% and 86.7%, respectively. We concluded that the assay was fit for the purpose of identifying animals in naturally exposed populations. With further evaluation in larger populations the test might be used to inform implementation of control measures, and for estimating infection prevalence to facilitate risk analysis. To our knowledge this is the first report on the diagnostic accuracy of an antibody ELISA for an infectious disease in finfish.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Nodaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Perciformes , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Northern Territory , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Nurs Educ ; 54(6): 328-34, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article discusses and describes the experiences of five Hispanic bilingual (English and Spanish) research assistants (RAs) who were undergraduate and graduate nursing students and who were part of a research team. METHOD: A capacity-building framework was used, which has six guiding principles: a whole-system approach; accommodating diversity; reducing barriers to participation; enabling collaboration; mentoring; and facilitating networking. In addition, mentorship and peer learning were essential components of building research capacity. RESULTS: Reflections of the five RAs highlighting how these principles were applied are described. The experiences of the five Hispanic RAs and the outcomes of the projects are also described. CONCLUSION: These experiences demonstrate the importance of involving undergraduate and graduate nursing students in research, which can build research capacity and increase the number of Hispanic nurses in the workforce.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Hispano-Americanos , Mentores , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Enfermagem Transcultural
18.
Hisp Health Care Int ; 13(1): 19-26, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25741930

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a public health concern disproportionately affecting Hispanics. Because Hispanics are greatly affected by a high prevalence of diabetes, a qualitative study was conducted, which explored how Hispanics understand, perceive, and experience behavioral change and how they maintain such change while managing their diabetes. Twenty Caribbean (Dominican and Puerto Rican) Hispanic adults with diabetes, who were either English- or Spanish-speaking, participated in the study. Twenty individual interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated. Structured questions were used in the interviews which covered the meaning of certain terms (e.g., healthy eating, exercise), motivators and barriers to changing behaviors related to diabetes management, and a question to explore ways nurses can assist them in changing behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the text of the interviews. Three themes (diabetes management, behavior change, and nurse's role) emerged from the data, including apparent gaps in the participants' perception of adapting their cultural foods into healthier dietary habits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Autocuidado/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enfermagem , Dieta , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Med. U.P.B ; 31(2): 201-205, jul.-dic. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-689088

RESUMO

El aneurisma del tronco de la arteria pulmonar (AAP) es una patología poco frecuente, clínicamente relevante solo cuando su diámetro excede los 5 cm. El debilitamiento de la pared arterial es una característica del vaso afectado, por lo cual la progresión y subsecuente dilatación del mismo es inevitable. El manejo ha sido controversial, las opciones terapéuticas van desde la observación hasta la intervención, incluida la arterioplastia, reconstrucción arterial con el uso de parches de pericárdico, injertos sintéticos con o sin cambio valvular. Se realiza la intervención para reducir el riesgo de complicaciones como tromboembolismo pulmonar, hipertensión pulmonar y ruptura aneurismática. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes con aneurismas gigantes de la arteria pulmonar y se presenta el tratamiento quirúrgico; en uno de ellos se remplazó el segmento afectado con un injerto de Dacrón, con preservación de la válvula pulmonar, y en el otro paciente se hizo plastia simple de la arteria pulmonar.


Pulmonary Artery Aneurysms (PAA) are a scarce vascular pathology. They become clinically relevant when their diameter exceeds 5 cm. Weakening of the arterial wall is assumed to be intrinsic, rendering dilation and progression unavoidable. There has been controversy over type of treatment as therapeutic approaches vary, ranging from observation to surgical repair with arterioplasty, pericardial patches, graft interposition and allografts. Surgical repair is performed to reduce complications such as pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and aneurysm rupture. Here we present two cases of patients with giant PAA and the type of surgical treatment conducted: in one patient, the affected segment was replaced with a Dacron graft (with pulmonary valve preservation), while the other patient was treated with simple arterioplasty.


O aneurisma do tronco da artéria pulmonar (AAP) é uma patologia pouco frequente, clinicamente relevante só quando seu diâmetro excede os 5 cm. O enfraquecimento da parede arterial é uma característica do copo afetado, pelo qual a progressão e subsequente dilatação do mesmo é inevitável. O manejo teve controvérsia, as opções terapêuticas vão desde a observação até os diferentes tipos de intervenção incluindo arterioplastia, reconstrução arterial utilizando parches de pericárdico, enxertos sintéticos com ou sem mudança valvular. Realiza-se a intervenção procurando reduzir o risco de complicações como tromboembolismo pulmonar, hipertensão pulmonar e ruptura aneurismática. Apresentam-se dois casos de pacientes com aneurismas gigantes da artéria pulmonar, e se apresenta o tipo de tratamento cirúrgico realizado, num disso se substituiu o segmento afetado com um enxerto de Dacrón, com preservação da válvula pulmonar, e no outro paciente se realizo plástica simples da artéria pulmonar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ruptura , Aneurisma/cirurgia , Transplantes
20.
Genet Mol Biol ; 35(2): 435-40, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22888292

RESUMO

DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine ß-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds.

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