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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Children BMI is a longitudinal phenotype, developing through interplays between genetic and environmental factors. Whilst childhood obesity is escalating, we require a better understanding of its early origins and variation across generations to prevent it. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We designed a cross-cohort study including 12,040 Finnish children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts 1966 and 1986 (NFBC1966 and NFBC1986) born before or at the start of the obesity epidemic. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BMI trajectories from 2 to 20 years. We subsequently tested their associations with early determinants (mother and child) and the possible difference between generations, adjusted for relevant biological and socioeconomic confounders. RESULTS: We identified four BMI trajectories, 'stable-low' (34.8%), 'normal' (44.0%), 'stable-high' (17.5%) and 'early-increase' (3.7%). The 'early-increase' trajectory represented the highest risk for obesity. We analysed a dose-response association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking with BMI trajectories. The directions of effect were consistent across generations and the effect sizes tended to increase from earlier generation to later. Respectively for NFBC1966 and NFBC1986, the adjusted risk ratios of being in the early-increase group were 1.08 (1.06-1.10) and 1.12 (1.09-1.15) per unit of pre-pregnancy BMI and 1.44 (1.05-1.96) and 1.48 (1.17-1.87) in offspring of smoking mothers compared to non-smokers. We observed similar relations with infant factors including birthweight for gestational age and peak weight velocity. In contrast, the age at adiposity peak in infancy was associated with the BMI trajectories in NFBC1966 but did not replicate in NFBC1986. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to adverse maternal predictors were associated with a higher risk obesity trajectory and were consistent across generations. However, we found a discordant association for the timing of adiposity peak over a 20-year period. This suggests the role of residual environmental factors, such as nutrition, and warrants additional research to understand the underlying gene-environment interplay.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 97003, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of noncommunicable diseases in the offspring. Maternal smoking may induce such long-term effects through persistent changes in the DNA methylome, which therefore hold the potential to be used as a biomarker of this early life exposure. With declining costs for measuring DNA methylation, we aimed to develop a DNA methylation score that can be used on adolescent DNA methylation data and thereby generate a score for in utero cigarette smoke exposure. METHODS: We used machine learning methods to create a score reflecting exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy. This score is based on peripheral blood measurements of DNA methylation (Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip). The score was developed and tested in the Raine Study with data from 995 white 17-y-old participants using 10-fold cross-validation. The score was further tested and validated in independent data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (16-y-olds) and 1966 (NFBC1966) (31-y-olds). Further, three previously proposed DNA methylation scores were applied for comparison. The final score was developed with 204 CpGs using elastic net regression. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity values for the best performing previously developed classifier ("Reese Score") were 88% and 72% for Raine, 87% and 61% for NFBC1986 and 72% and 70% for NFBC1966, respectively; corresponding figures using the elastic net regression approach were 91% and 76% (Raine), 87% and 75% (NFBC1986), and 72% and 78% for NFBC1966. CONCLUSION: We have developed a DNA methylation score for exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy, outperforming the three previously developed scores. One possible application of the current score could be for model adjustment purposes or to assess its association with distal health outcomes where part of the effect can be attributed to maternal smoking. Further, it may provide a biomarker for fetal exposure to maternal smoking. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6076.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for multiple cancer types. Lower microbial richness has been linked to obesity, but human studies are inconsistent, and associations of early-life body mass index (BMI) with the fecal microbiome and metabolome are unknown. METHODS: We characterized the fecal microbiome (n = 563) and metabolome (n = 340) in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. We estimated associations of adult BMI and BMI history with microbial features and metabolites using linear regression and Spearman correlations (rs ) and computed correlations between bacterial sequence variants and metabolites overall and by BMI category. RESULTS: Microbial richness, including the number of sequence variants (rs = -0.21, P < 0.0001), decreased with increasing adult BMI but was not independently associated with BMI history. Adult BMI was associated with 56 metabolites but no bacterial genera. Significant correlations were observed between microbes in 5 bacterial phyla, including 18 bacterial genera, and metabolites in 49 of the 62 metabolic pathways evaluated. The genera with the strongest correlations with relative metabolite levels (positively and negatively) were Blautia, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in the Firmicutes phylum, but associations varied by adult BMI category. CONCLUSIONS: BMI is strongly related to fecal metabolite levels, and numerous associations between fecal microbial features and metabolite levels underscore the dynamic role of the gut microbiota in metabolism. IMPACT: Characterizing the associations between the fecal microbiome, the fecal metabolome, and BMI, both recent and early-life exposures, provides critical background information for future research on cancer prevention and etiology.

4.
Nutr Diabetes ; 10(1): 26, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls; n = 537). RESULTS: Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 709-724, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705500

RESUMO

Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30 years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new biological insights and important impact for health from early life onwards. The impact of these cohorts and their data could be further increased by combining data from different cohorts. Combining data will lead to the possibility of identifying smaller effect estimates, and the opportunity to better identify risk groups and risk factors leading to disease across the lifecycle across countries. Also, it enables research on better causal understanding and modelling of life course health trajectories. The EU Child Cohort Network, established by the Horizon2020-funded LifeCycle Project, brings together nineteen pregnancy and childhood cohorts, together including more than 250,000 children and their parents. A large set of variables has been harmonised and standardized across these cohorts. The harmonized data are kept within each institution and can be accessed by external researchers through a shared federated data analysis platform using the R-based platform DataSHIELD, which takes relevant national and international data regulations into account. The EU Child Cohort Network has an open character. All protocols for data harmonization and setting up the data analysis platform are available online. The EU Child Cohort Network creates great opportunities for researchers to use data from different cohorts, during and beyond the LifeCycle Project duration. It also provides a novel model for collaborative research in large research infrastructures with individual-level data. The LifeCycle Project will translate results from research using the EU Child Cohort Network into recommendations for targeted prevention strategies to improve health trajectories for current and future generations by optimizing their earliest phases of life.

6.
Bone ; 137: 115462, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485362

RESUMO

Fractures are common injuries in children, but their underlying biological and environmental risk factors are not well known. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a known risk factor for bone malformations and impaired growth, in connection with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). There is evidence that even lower doses of alcohol than what is needed for FASD can cause changes in the developing bone. Birth weight and length may also associate to childhood fractures. The aim of this study was to find out whether there exist associations between maternal alcohol use during pregnancy, birth weight or length and fractures of the long bones in childhood. A prospective birth cohort was performed, including all women in Northern Finland with an expected date of delivery between July 1985 and June 1986, and their offspring (N = 9432). The National Hospital Discharge Register (NHDR) provided the information on inpatient treated fractures. The subjects who declined participation or were treated as outpatient were excluded. The final study population consisted of 6718 children (71.2%). 98 (1.5%) of them suffered from inpatient treated fracture of a long bone (N = 105). Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was inquired by questionnaires during late pregnancy or shortly after parturition. The birth length and weight were recorded immediately after birth. Binomial regression analysis was used to determine the association between the potential explanatory variables and bone fractures. Gender, socioeconomic status of the family, maternal age, premature birth, body mass index (BMI) of the children and maternal smoking during pregnancy were taken as possible confounders. In this study, the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated to 2.22-fold (CI 1.09-4.12, p < 0.02) increased risk of a long bone fracture before the age of eight. Birth weight or length did not associate to childhood fractures. Bone fractures are an important cause of morbidity in childhood. Their prevention should start from the prenatal period by protecting the fetus from the alcohol exposure.

7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low lung function has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of BMI on lung function is mediated by DNA methylation. METHODS: We used individual data from 285,495 participants in four population-based cohorts: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults, and the UK Biobank. We carried out Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in two steps using a two-sample approach with SNPs as instrumental variables (IVs) in each step. In step 1 MR, we estimated the causal effect of BMI on peripheral blood DNA methylation (measured at genome-wide level) using 95 BMI-associated SNPs as IVs. In step 2 MR, we estimated the causal effect of DNA methylation on FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC using two SNPs acting as methQTLs occurring close (in cis) to CpGs identified in the first step. These analyses were conducted after exclusion of weak IVs (F statistic < 10) and MR estimates were derived using the Wald ratio, with standard error from the delta method. Individuals whose data were used in step 1 were not included in step 2. RESULTS: In step 1, we found that BMI might have a small causal effect on DNA methylation levels (less than 1% change in methylation per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI) at two CpGs (cg09046979 and cg12580248). In step 2, we found no evidence of a causal effect of DNA methylation at cg09046979 on lung function. We could not estimate the causal effect of DNA methylation at cg12580248 on lung function as we could not find publicly available data on the association of this CpG with SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the use of a two-step MR approach to assess the role of DNA methylation in mediating the effect of a non-genetic factor on lung function. Our findings do not support a mediating effect of DNA methylation in the association of lung function with BMI.

8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(11): 933-941, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are various maternal prenatal biopsychosocial (BPS) predictors of birth weight, making it difficult to quantify their cumulative relationship. METHODS: We studied two birth cohorts: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) born in 1985-1986 and the Generation R Study (from the Netherlands) born in 2002-2006. In NFBC1986, we selected variables depicting BPS exposure in association with birth weight and performed factor analysis to derive latent constructs representing the relationship between these variables. In Generation R, the same factors were generated weighted by loadings of NFBC1986. Factor scores from each factor were then allocated into tertiles and added together to calculate a cumulative BPS score. In all cases, we used regression analyses to explore the relationship with birth weight corrected for sex and gestational age and additionally adjusted for other factors. RESULTS: Factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, labelled closely to represent their characteristics as 'Factor1-BMI' (body mass index), 'Factor2-DBP' (diastolic blood pressure), 'Factor3-Socioeconomic-Obstetric-Profile' and 'Factor4-Parental-Lifestyle'. In both cohorts, 'Factor1-BMI' was positively associated with birth weight, whereas other factors showed negative association. 'Factor3-Socioeconomic-Obstetric-Profile' and 'Factor4-Parental-Lifestyle' had the greatest effect size, explaining 30% of the variation in birth weight. Associations of the factors with birth weight were largely driven by 'Factor1-BMI'. Graded decrease in birth weight was observed with increasing cumulative BPS score, jointly evaluating four factors in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: Our study is a proof of concept for maternal prenatal BPS hypothesis, highlighting the components snowball effect on birth weight in two different European birth cohorts.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382794

RESUMO

Increased blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are a replicated abnormality in schizophrenia, and may be associated with smaller hippocampal volumes and greater cognitive impairment. These findings have not been investigated in a population-based birth cohort. The general population Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was followed until age 43. Subjects with schizophrenia were identified through the national Finnish Care Register. Blood IL-6 levels were measured in n = 82 subjects with schizophrenia and n = 5373 controls at age 31. Additionally, 31 patients with schizophrenia and 63 healthy controls underwent brain structural MRI at age 34, and cognitive testing at ages 34 and 43. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher median (interquartile range) blood IL-6 levels than controls (5.31, 0.85-17.20, versus 2.42, 0.54-9.36, p = 0.02) after controlling for potential confounding factors. In both schizophrenia and controls, higher blood IL-6 levels were predictors of smaller hippocampal volumes, but not cognitive performance at age 34. We found evidence for increased IL-6 levels in patients with midlife schizophrenia from a population-based birth cohort, and replicated associations between IL-6 levels and hippocampal volumes. Our results complement and extend the previous findings, providing additional evidence that IL-6 may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and associated brain alterations.

10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(8): 1702-1715, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378014

RESUMO

There is a positive association between parental alcohol use and the alcohol use of their offspring. It is less clear whether this relation exists at different developmental periods. The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between parental alcohol use at two developmental periods (prenatal and adolescence) and the alcohol misuse of their offspring at two developmental periods (adolescence and young adulthood). Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986; n = 6963; 51% of offspring were girls) were used. The NFBC1986 is a population-based study of individuals born during a 1-year period in Finland. Multi-informant (parent, teacher, and youth) and multi-method (surveys and population registers) data were collected at four developmental periods (prenatal, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood). The findings indicated that parents' alcohol use was stable from the prenatal period to adolescence. Mothers' and fathers' (based on mothers' perceptions) alcohol use during the prenatal period and adolescence were directly related to adolescents' heavy drinking. Prenatal alcohol use by mothers and fathers were related to young adults' alcohol use disorder indirectly (but not directly) through mothers' and fathers' alcohol use during adolescence and then through adolescents' heavy drinking. The results suggest that early and ongoing screening for alcohol use by mothers and fathers could help identify individuals at risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems during adolescence and young adulthood.

11.
Aging Cell ; 19(6): e13149, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363781

RESUMO

Markers of biological aging have potential utility in primary care and public health. We developed a model of age based on untargeted metabolic profiling across multiple platforms, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine and serum, within a large sample (N = 2,239) from the UK Airwave cohort. We validated a subset of model predictors in a Finnish cohort including repeat measurements from 2,144 individuals. We investigated the determinants of accelerated aging, including lifestyle and psychological risk factors for premature mortality. The metabolomic age model was well correlated with chronological age (mean r = .86 across independent test sets). Increased metabolomic age acceleration (mAA) was associated after false discovery rate (FDR) correction with overweight/obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and depression. DNA methylation age acceleration measures were uncorrelated with mAA. Increased DNA methylation phenotypic age acceleration (N = 1,110) was associated after FDR correction with heavy alcohol use, hypertension and low income. In conclusion, metabolomics is a promising approach for the assessment of biological age and appears complementary to established epigenetic clocks.

12.
J Pediatr ; 221: 151-158.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of early growth patterns that have previously been associated with later cardiometabolic risk on cardiac left ventricular (LV) structure and function in midlife. STUDY DESIGN: A subpopulation of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 took part in follow-up, including echocardiography (n = 1155) at the age of 46 years. Body mass index (BMI) growth curves were modeled based on frequent anthropometric measurements in childhood. Age and BMI at adiposity peak (n = 482, mean age 9.0 months) and at adiposity rebound (n = 586, mean age 5.8 years) were determined. Results are reported as unstandardized beta (ß) or OR with 95% CIs for 1 SD increase in early growth variable. RESULTS: Earlier adiposity rebound was associated with increased LV mass index (ß = -4.10 g/m2 (-6.9, -1.3); P = .004) and LV end-diastolic volume index (ß = -2.36 mL/m2 (-3.9, -0.84); P = .002) as well as with eccentric LV hypertrophy (OR 0.54 [0.38, 0.77]; P = .001) in adulthood in males. BMI at adiposity rebound was directly associated with LV mass index (ß = 2.33 g/m2 [0.80, 3.9]; P = .003). Higher BMI at both adiposity peak and at adiposity rebound were associated with greater LV end-diastolic volume index (ß = 1.47 mL/m2; [0.51, 2.4], ß = 1.28 mL/m2 [0.41, 2.2], respectively) and also with eccentric LV hypertrophy (OR 1.41 [1.10, 1.82], OR 1.53 [1.23, 1.91], respectively) and LV concentric remodeling (OR 1.38 [1.02, 1.87], OR 1.40 [1.06, 1.83], respectively) in adulthood (P < .05 for all). These relationships were only partly mediated by adult BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Early growth patterns in infancy and childhood contribute to cardiac structure at midlife.

13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 708, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to explore the association between early life and life-course exposure to social disadvantage and later life body mass index (BMI) accounting for genetic predisposition and maternal BMI. METHODS: We studied participants of Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in 1934-1944 (HBCS1934-1944, n = 1277) and Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 and 1986 (NFBC1966, n = 5807, NFBC1986, n = 6717). Factor analysis produced scores of social disadvantage based on social and economic elements in early life and adulthood/over the life course, and was categorized as high, intermediate and low. BMI was measured at 62 years in HBCS1934-1944, at 46 years in NFBC1966 and at 16 years in NFBC1986. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to explore associations between social disadvantages and BMI after adjustments for polygenic risk score for BMI (PRS BMI), maternal BMI and sex. RESULTS: The association between exposure to high early social disadvantage and increased later life BMI persisted after adjustments (ß = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.33, 1.25, p < 0.001) in NFBC1966. In NFBC1986 this association was attenuated by PRS BMI (p = 0.181), and in HBCS1934-1944 there was no association between high early social disadvantage and increased later life BMI (ß 0.22, 95% CI -0.91,1.35, p = 0.700). In HBCS1934-1944 and NFBC1966, participants who had reduced their exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course had lower later life BMI than those who had increased their exposure (ß - 1.34, [- 2.37,-0.31], p = 0.011; ß - 0.46, [- 0.89,-0.03], p = 0.038, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: High social disadvantage in early life appears to be associated with higher BMI in later life. Reducing exposure to social disadvantage during the life-course may be a potential pathway for obesity reduction.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Eur Respir J ; 55(6)2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341110

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure increases asthma risk in children. There is limited knowledge of prenatal ETS for adult-onset asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between prenatal ETS and adult onset asthma. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The questionnaire and clinical data of 5200 people, free of physician-diagnosed asthma by 31 years of age, who were included in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study was used. The association of maternal smoking during the last 3 months of pregnancy with onset of physician-diagnosed asthma and with lung function in adult offspring was studied using adjusted multivariate regression analyses. The cumulative incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma between the ages of 31 and 46 years was 5.1% among men and 8.8% among women. Gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma among offspring (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.29), namely among offspring who reported either past non-diagnosed asthma (OR 9.63, 95% CI 2.28-40.67) or past cough with wheeze (3.21, 95% CI 1.71-6.05). A significant association was detected between gestational smoke exposure and the offspring's forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at 31 years of age. In offspring with the haplotype rs11702779-AA of RUNX1, gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma (5.53, 95% CI 2.11-14.52, adjusted p-value for interaction 0.10). CONCLUSION: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the cumulative incidence of asthma in offspring between the ages of 31 and 46 years. The association was accentuated in offspring who at age 31, reported having past respiratory problems and/or who had haplotype rs11702779-AA. A reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio was also observed at age 31 years in offspring with gestational smoke exposure. These results could reflect the early vulnerability of offspring's airways to ETS and its putative long-term effects.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 1036-1047, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with inflammation but the role of vitamin D in this process is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], BMI, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers, and to assess the role of vitamin D as a potential mediator in the association between higher BMI and inflammation. METHODS: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) 31-y data on 3586 individuals were analyzed to examine the observational associations between BMI, 25(OH)D, and 16 inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariable regression analyses and 2-sample regression-based Mendelian randomization (MR) mediation analysis were performed to assess any role of vitamin D in mediating a causal effect of BMI on inflammatory biomarkers [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)] for which observational associations were detected. For MR, genome-wide association study summary results ranging from 5163 to 806,834 individuals were used for biomarkers, 25(OH)D, and BMI. Findings were triangulated with a literature review of vitamin D supplementation trials. RESULTS: In NFBC1966, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24.8 (95% CI: 24.7, 25.0) and mean 25(OH)D was 50.3 nmol/L (95% CI: 49.8, 50.7 nmol/L). Inflammatory biomarkers correlated as 4 independent clusters: interleukins, adhesion molecules, acute-phase proteins, and chemokines. BMI was positively associated with 9 inflammatory biomarkers and inversely with 25(OH)D (false discovery rate < 0.05). 25(OH)D was inversely associated with sICAM-1, hs-CRP, and AGP, which were positively associated with BMI. The MR analyses showed causal association of BMI on these 3 inflammatory biomarkers. There was no observational or MR evidence that circulating 25(OH)D concentrations mediated the association between BMI and these 3 inflammatory markers. Review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supported our findings showing no impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our observational study and causal MR analyses, together with data from RCTs, do not support a beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation on obesity-related inflammation.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
17.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(6): e1248, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe hypercholesterolemia (HC, LDL-C > 4.9 mmol/L) affects over 30 million people worldwide. In this study, we validated a new polygenic risk score (PRS) for LDL-C. METHODS: Summary statistics from the Global Lipid Genome Consortium and genotype data from two large populations were used. RESULTS: A 36-SNP PRS was generated using data for 2,197 white Americans. In a replication cohort of 4,787 Finns, the PRS was strongly associated with the LDL-C trait and explained 8% of its variability (p = 10-41 ). After risk categorization, the risk of having HC was higher in the high- versus low-risk group (RR = 4.17, p < 1 × 10-7 ). Compared to a 12-SNP LDL-C raising score (currently used in the United Kingdom), the PRS explained more LDL-C variability (8% vs. 6%). Among Finns with severe HC, 53% (66/124) versus 44% (55/124) were classified as high risk by the PRS and LDL-C raising score, respectively. Moreover, 54% of individuals with severe HC defined as low risk by the LDL-C raising score were reclassified to intermediate or high risk by the new PRS. CONCLUSION: The new PRS has a better predictive role in identifying HC of polygenic origin compared to the currently available method and can better stratify patients into diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(12): 2098-2106, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227112

RESUMO

Glycosuria is a condition where glucose is detected in urine at higher concentrations than normal (i.e. not detectable). Glycosuria at some point during pregnancy has an estimated prevalence of 50% and is associated with adverse outcomes in both mothers and offspring. Little is currently known about the genetic contribution to this trait or the extent to which it overlaps with other seemingly related traits, e.g. diabetes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for self-reported glycosuria in pregnant mothers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (cases/controls = 1249/5140). We identified two loci, one of which (lead SNP = rs13337037; chromosome 16; odds ratio of glycosuria per effect allele: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.56; P = 1.97 × 10-13) was then validated using an obstetric measure of glycosuria measured in the same cohort (227/6639). We performed a secondary GWAS in the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1986; 747/2991) using midwife-reported glycosuria and offspring genotype as a proxy for maternal genotype. The combined results revealed evidence for a consistent effect on glycosuria at the chromosome 16 locus. In follow-up analyses, we saw little evidence of shared genetic underpinnings with the exception of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (Rg = 0.64; SE = 0.22; P = 0.0042), a biomarker of kidney disease. In conclusion, we identified a genetic association with self-reported glycosuria during pregnancy, with the lead SNP located 15kB upstream of SLC5A2, a target of antidiabetic drugs. The lack of strong genetic correlation with seemingly related traits such as type 2 diabetes suggests different genetic risk factors exist for glycosuria during pregnancy.

19.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(10): 1311-1319, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to determine the association of body mass index (BMI), self-reported symptoms or diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hyperandrogenemia with the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) through reproductive life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of women born in 1966 were investigated at ages 14, 31 and 46. Women with self-reported PCOS symptoms (presence of both oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism) at age 31 or with formally diagnosed polycystic ovaries (PCO)/PCOS by age 46 formed the group of self-reported PCOS (srPCOS, n = 222) and were compared with women without self-reported PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n = 1357). We investigated also the association of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism or biochemical hyperandrogenism) at age 31 with the occurrence of GDM throughout reproductive life. RESULTS: Self-reported PCOS alone was not a risk factor for GDM, but combined with overweight at age 31 (odds ratio [OR] 2.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-4.86) or 46 (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.58-5.83) srPCOS was associated with GDM when compared with normal weight controls. The association disappeared when comparing overweight srPCOS women with overweight controls. However, hyperandrogenemia at age 31, but not hirsutism, was associated with GDM even after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of GDM in women with srPCOS was mostly attributed to overweight or obesity. Importantly, normal weight women with srPCOS did not seem to be at increased risk for developing GDM. However, hyperandrogenemia was associated with GDM even after adjustment for BMI. These findings strengthen the importance of weight management in reproductive-age women and suggest a noteworthy role of hyperandrogenemia in the pathophysiology of GDM.

20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(7): 715-728, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293669

RESUMO

Importance: Adult mood disorders are often preceded by behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. It is yet unclear what explains the associations between childhood psychopathology and adult traits. Objective: To investigate whether genetic risk for adult mood disorders and associated traits is associated with childhood disorders. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis examined data from 7 ongoing longitudinal birth and childhood cohorts from the UK, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Starting points of data collection ranged from July 1985 to April 2002. Participants were repeatedly assessed for childhood psychopathology from ages 6 to 17 years. Data analysis occurred from September 2017 to May 2019. Exposures: Individual polygenic scores (PGS) were constructed in children based on genome-wide association studies of adult major depression, bipolar disorder, subjective well-being, neuroticism, insomnia, educational attainment, and body mass index (BMI). Main Outcomes and Measures: Regression meta-analyses were used to test associations between PGS and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and internalizing and social problems measured repeatedly across childhood and adolescence and whether these associations depended on childhood phenotype, age, and rater. Results: The sample included 42 998 participants aged 6 to 17 years. Male participants varied from 43.0% (1040 of 2417 participants) to 53.1% (2434 of 4583 participants) by age and across all cohorts. The PGS of adult major depression, neuroticism, BMI, and insomnia were positively associated with childhood psychopathology (ß estimate range, 0.023-0.042 [95% CI, 0.017-0.049]), while associations with PGS of subjective well-being and educational attainment were negative (ß, -0.026 to -0.046 [95% CI, -0.020 to -0.057]). There was no moderation of age, type of childhood phenotype, or rater with the associations. The exceptions were stronger associations between educational attainment PGS and ADHD compared with internalizing problems (Δß, 0.0561 [Δ95% CI, 0.0318-0.0804]; ΔSE, 0.0124) and social problems (Δß, 0.0528 [Δ95% CI, 0.0282-0.0775]; ΔSE, 0.0126), and between BMI PGS and ADHD and social problems (Δß, -0.0001 [Δ95% CI, -0.0102 to 0.0100]; ΔSE, 0.0052), compared with internalizing problems (Δß, -0.0310 [Δ95% CI, -0.0456 to -0.0164]; ΔSE, 0.0074). Furthermore, the association between educational attainment PGS and ADHD increased with age (Δß, -0.0032 [Δ 95% CI, -0.0048 to -0.0017]; ΔSE, 0.0008). Conclusions and Relevance: Results from this study suggest the existence of a set of genetic factors influencing a range of traits across the life span with stable associations present throughout childhood. Knowledge of underlying mechanisms may affect treatment and long-term outcomes of individuals with psychopathology.

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