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1.
Value Health ; 22(11): 1231-1239, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, gene-drug associations exist relevant to first-line treatment options-antiplatelet agent, clopidogrel, and pain medication, tramadol. Knowledge of genotype information may allow for avoidance of adverse drug events during critical clinical windows. OBJECTIVE: This evaluation estimated cost-effectiveness associated with a multi-gene panel pre-emptively testing two genes providing CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy for antiplatelet therapy, with CYP2D6 genotype-guided pain management, compared to single gene test for CYP2C19 with random assignment for pain treatment, and to no testing (empiric clopidogrel with random assignment for pain treatment). METHODS: Decision analysis modeling was used to project costs from a payer perspective and patient quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the three strategies. The model captured composite risks of major adverse cardiovascular events and pain therapy-related adverse drug events and associated utility estimates. We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess influential input parameters. RESULTS: Over 15 months, multi-gene testing was least costly and yielded more QALYs compared to both single gene and no testing; total incremental costs were $1646 lower with incremental gains of 0.04 QALYs for multi-gene compared with single gene and $11 368 lower with 0.17 QALY gains compared to no test. Base case analyses revealed multi gene was dominant compared to both single gene and no test, as it demonstrated cost savings with increased QALYs. CONCLUSIONS: For these patients, a multi-gene-guided strategy yields a favorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared to the other two treatment strategies. Pre-emptively ascertaining additional gene-drug pair information can inform clinical and economic decision-making at the point of care.

2.
World J Surg ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which obesity and genetics determine postoperative complications is incompletely understood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using two population cohorts with electronic health record (EHR) data. The first included 736,726 adults with body mass index (BMI) recorded between 1990 and 2017 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The second cohort consisted of 65,174 individuals from 12 institutions contributing EHR and genome-wide genotyping data to the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Pairwise logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association of BMI categories with postoperative complications derived from International Classification of Disease-9 codes, including postoperative infection, incisional hernia, and intestinal obstruction. A genetic risk score was constructed from 97 obesity-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms for a Mendelian randomization study to determine the association of genetic risk of obesity on postoperative complications. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, site, and race/principal components. RESULTS: Individuals with overweight or obese BMI (≥25 kg/m2) had increased risk of incisional hernia (odds ratio [OR] 1.7-5.5, p < 3.1 × 10-20), and people with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had increased risk of postoperative infection (OR 1.2-2.3, p < 2.5 × 10-5). In the eMERGE cohort, genetically predicted BMI was associated with incisional hernia (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.8-2.5], p = 1.4 × 10-6) and postoperative infection (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.4-1.9], p = 3.1 × 10-6). Association findings were similar after limitation of the cohorts to those who underwent abdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and Mendelian randomization studies suggest that obesity, as measured by BMI, is associated with the development of postoperative incisional hernia and infection.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 84: 105820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical exome sequencing (CES) provides the advantage of assessing genetic variation across the human exome compared to a traditional stepwise diagnostic approach or multi-gene panels. Comparative effectiveness research methods offer an approach to better understand the patient-centered and economic outcomes of CES. PURPOSE: To evaluate CES compared to usual care (UC) in the diagnostic work-up of inherited colorectal cancer/polyposis (CRCP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: The primary outcome was clinical sensitivity for the diagnosis of inherited CRCP; secondary outcomes included psychosocial outcomes, family communication, and healthcare resource utilization. Participants were surveyed 2 and 4 weeks after results return and at 3-month intervals up to 1 year. RESULTS: Evolving outcome measures and standard of care presented critical challenges. The majority of participants in the UC arm received multi-gene panels [94.73%]. Rates of genetic findings supporting the diagnosis of hereditary CRCP were 7.5% [7/93] vs. 5.4% [5/93] in the CES and UC arms, respectively (P = 0.28). Differences in privacy concerns after receiving CRCP results were identified (0.88 in UC vs 0.38 in CES, P = 0.05); however, healthcare resource utilization, family communication and psychosocial outcomes were similar between the two arms. More participants with positive results (17.7%) intended to change their life insurance 1  month after the first return visit compared to participants returned a variant of uncertain significance (9.1%) or negative result (4.8%) (P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CES provides similar clinical benefits to multi-gene panels in the diagnosis of hereditary CRCP.

4.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Consequently, individuals who are genetically predisposed for high risk of cardiovascular disease would benefit most from prevention and early intervention approaches. Among common health risk factors affecting adult populations, we evaluated 23 cardiovascular disease-related traits, including BMI, glucose levels and lipid profiling to determine their associations with low-frequency recurrent copy number variations (CNV) (population frequency < 5%). RESULTS: We examined 10,619 unrelated subjects of European ancestry from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network who were genotyped with 657,366 markers genome-wide on the Illumina Infinium Quad 660 array. We performed CNV calling based on array marker intensity and evaluated data quality, ancestry stratification, and relatedness to ensure unbiased association discovery. Using a segment-based scoring approach, we assessed the association of all CNVs with each trait. In this large genome-wide analysis of low-frequency CNVs, we observed 11 novel genome-wide significant associations of low-frequency CNVs with major cardiovascular disease traits. CONCLUSION: In one of the largest genome-wide studies for low-frequency recurrent CNVs, we identified 11 loci associated with cardiovascular disease and related traits at the genome-wide significance level that may serve as biomarkers for prevention and early intervention studies in subjects who are at elevated risk. Our study further supports the role of low-frequency recurrent CNVs in the pathogenesis of common complex disease traits.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 526-533, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422818

RESUMO

As clinical testing for Mendelian causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely driven by recognition of family history and early age of onset, the rates of such findings among individuals with prevalent CRC not recognized to have these features is largely unknown. We evaluated actionable genomic findings in community-based participants ascertained by three phenotypes: (1) CRC, (2) one or more adenomatous colon polyps, and (3) control participants over age 59 years without CRC or colon polyps. These participants underwent sequencing for a panel of genes that included colorectal cancer/polyp (CRC/P)-associated and actionable incidental findings genes. Those with CRC had a 3.8% rate of positive results (pathogenic or likely pathogenic) for a CRC-associated gene variant, despite generally being older at CRC onset (mean 72 years). Those ascertained for polyps had a 0.8% positive rate and those with no CRC/P had a positive rate of 0.2%. Though incidental finding rates unrelated to colon cancer were similar for all groups, our positive rate for cardiovascular findings exceeds disease prevalence, suggesting that variant interpretation challenges or low penetrance in these genes. The rate of HFE c.845G>A (p.Cys282Tyr) homozygotes in the CRC group reinforces a previously reported, but relatively unexplored, association between hemochromatosis and CRC. These results in a general clinical population suggest that current testing strategies could be improved in order to better detect Mendelian CRC-associated conditions. These data also underscore the need for additional functional and familial evidence to clarify the pathogenicity and penetrance of variants deemed pathogenic or likely pathogenic, particularly among the actionable genes associated with cardiovascular disease.

6.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 135, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver illness with a genetically heterogeneous background that can be accompanied by considerable morbidity and attendant health care costs. The pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD is complex with many unanswered questions. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using both adult and pediatric participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network to identify novel genetic contributors to this condition. METHODS: First, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed, tested, and deployed at each site to identify 1106 NAFLD cases and 8571 controls and histological data from liver tissue in 235 available participants. These include 1242 pediatric participants (396 cases, 846 controls). The algorithm included billing codes, text queries, laboratory values, and medication records. Next, GWASs were performed on NAFLD cases and controls and case-only analyses using histologic scores and liver function tests adjusting for age, sex, site, ancestry, PC, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Consistent with previous results, a robust association was detected for the PNPLA3 gene cluster in participants with European ancestry. At the PNPLA3-SAMM50 region, three SNPs, rs738409, rs738408, and rs3747207, showed strongest association (best SNP rs738409 p = 1.70 × 10- 20). This effect was consistent in both pediatric (p = 9.92 × 10- 6) and adult (p = 9.73 × 10- 15) cohorts. Additionally, this variant was also associated with disease severity and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (p = 3.94 × 10- 8, beta = 0.85). PheWAS analysis link this locus to a spectrum of liver diseases beyond NAFLD with a novel negative correlation with gout (p = 1.09 × 10- 4). We also identified novel loci for NAFLD disease severity, including one novel locus for NAS score near IL17RA (rs5748926, p = 3.80 × 10- 8), and another near ZFP90-CDH1 for fibrosis (rs698718, p = 2.74 × 10- 11). Post-GWAS and gene-based analyses identified more than 300 genes that were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study demonstrates clear confirmation of a previously described NAFLD risk locus and several novel associations. Further collaborative studies including an ethnically diverse population with well-characterized liver histologic features of NAFLD are needed to further validate the novel findings.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/organização & administração , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética
8.
J Genet Couns ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317629

RESUMO

In this work, we explore the results of germline cancer genetic tests in individuals whose insurance would not cover this testing. We enrolled 31 patients with a personal history of cancer whose health insurer denied coverage for a clinical germline cancer panel genetic test recommended by a medical genetics provider into a study providing exome sequencing and return of cancer-related results. Five participants (16%) had a pathogenic variant identified related to increased cancer risk. Three participants (10%) had a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in a gene related to their cancer history. These rates are not significantly different than the 12% rate of pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants and VUS in 1,462 patients approved by insurance to have a similar clinical germline cancer test (p = .59 for P/LP variants; p = .87 for VUS; Shirts et al., Genet Med, 18:974, 2016). Health insurance guidelines may not meaningfully differentiate between patients with cancer who are likely to benefit from germline cancer genetic testing and those who will not. Failure to identify pathogenic variants in this research cohort would have led to suboptimal care. Strategic evaluation of current germline cancer genetic testing coverage policies is needed to appropriately deliver precision medicine.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1088-1096, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104772

RESUMO

Conceptual frameworks are useful in research because they can highlight priority research domains, inform decisions about interventions, identify outcomes and factors to measure, and display how factors might relate to each other to generate and test hypotheses. Discovery, translational, and implementation research are all critical to the overall mission of genomic medicine and prevention, but they have yet to be organized into a unified conceptual framework. To fill this gap, our diverse team collaborated to develop the Genomic Medicine Integrative Research (GMIR) Framework, a simple but comprehensive tool to aid the genomics community in developing research questions, strategies, and measures and in integrating genomic medicine and prevention into clinical practice. Here we present the GMIR Framework and its development, along with examples of its use for research development, demonstrating how we applied it to select and harmonize measures for use across diverse genomic medicine implementation projects. Researchers can utilize the GMIR Framework for their own research, collaborative investigations, and clinical implementation efforts; clinicians can use it to establish and evaluate programs; and all stakeholders can use it to help allocate resources and make sure that the full complexity of etiology is included in research and program design, development, and evaluation.

10.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(17): 1220-1227, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985567

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal cotwin control study of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms with incident chronic back pain (CBP), while controlling for genetic factors and early family environment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: It is unknown whether PTSD symptoms are associated with an increased incidence of CBP. METHODS: In 2010 to 2012, a baseline survey was undertaken as part of a large-scale study of PTSD. Study participants completed the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) and a self-report measure of CBP. In 2015 to 2017, a follow-up survey was sent to all 171 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (342 individuals) where both cotwins had no history of CBP at baseline, but only one cotwin in the pair met criteria for having current PTSD symptoms (one twin with PCL <30 and the cotwin with PCL ≥30). No other inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. CBP at 5-year follow-up was defined as back pain of duration ≥3 months in the low back or mid/upper back. Covariates included age, race, education, income, Veterans Affairs health care use, disability compensation, smoking, body mass index, and depression. Statistical analysis estimated the cumulative incidence of CBP according to baseline PTSD symptoms. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in matched-pair cotwin control analyses adjusting for familial factors. RESULTS: Among 227 males completing 5-year follow-up, including 91 MZ twin pairs, the mean age was 62 years. Five-year incidence of CBP in those without and with baseline PTSD symptoms was 40% and 60%, respectively. Baseline PTSD symptoms were significantly associated with incident CBP in crude and multivariable-adjusted within-pair analyses (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were associated with an increased incidence of CBP, without confounding by genetic factors or early family environment. PTSD symptoms may be a modifiable risk factor for prevention of CBP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas , Dor Crônica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor nas Costas/complicações , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6077, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988330

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results in a significant public health burden due to the morbidity caused by the disease and many of the available remedies. As much as 70% of men over 70 will develop BPH. Few studies have been conducted to discover the genetic determinants of BPH risk. Understanding the biological basis for this condition may provide necessary insight for development of novel pharmaceutical therapies or risk prediction. We have evaluated SNP-based heritability of BPH in two cohorts and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BPH risk using 2,656 cases and 7,763 controls identified from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. SNP-based heritability estimates suggest that roughly 60% of the phenotypic variation in BPH is accounted for by genetic factors. We used logistic regression to model BPH risk as a function of principal components of ancestry, age, and imputed genotype data, with meta-analysis performed using METAL. The top result was on chromosome 22 in SYN3 at rs2710383 (p-value = 4.6 × 10-7; Odds Ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.55-0.83). Other suggestive signals were near genes GLGC, UNCA13, SORCS1 and between BTBD3 and SPTLC3. We also evaluated genetically-predicted gene expression in prostate tissue. The most significant result was with increasing predicted expression of ETV4 (chr17; p-value = 0.0015). Overexpression of this gene has been associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer. In conclusion, although there were no genome-wide significant variants identified for BPH susceptibility, we present evidence supporting the heritability of this phenotype, have identified suggestive signals, and evaluated the association between BPH and genetically-predicted gene expression in prostate.

12.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 477-490, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964586

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to develop a brief instrument, the Feelings About genomiC Testing Results (FACToR), to measure the psychosocial impact of returning genomic findings to patients in research and clinical practice. To create the FACToR, we modified and augmented the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA) questionnaire based on findings from a literature review, two focus groups (N = 12), and cognitive interviews (N = 6). We evaluated data from 122 participants referred for evaluation for inherited colorectal cancer or polyposis from the New EXome Technology in (NEXT) Medicine Study, an RCT of exome sequencing versus usual care. We assessed floor and ceiling effects of each item, conducted principal component analysis to identify subscales, and evaluated each subscale's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. After excluding items that were ambiguous or demonstrated floor or ceiling effects, 12 items forming four distinct subscales were retained for further analysis: negative emotions, positive feelings, uncertainty, and privacy concerns. All four showed good internal consistency (0.66-0.78) and test-retest reliability (0.65-0.91). The positive feelings and the uncertainty subscales demonstrated known-group validity. The 12-item FACToR with four subscales shows promising psychometric properties on preliminary evaluation in a limited sample and needs to be evaluated in other populations.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 578-595, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951675

RESUMO

The evidence base supporting genetic and genomic sequence-variant interpretations is continuously evolving. An inherent consequence is that a variant's clinical significance might be reinterpreted over time as new evidence emerges regarding its pathogenicity or lack thereof. This raises ethical, legal, and financial issues as to whether there is a responsibility to recontact research participants to provide updates on reinterpretations of variants after the initial analysis. There has been discussion concerning the extent of this obligation in the context of both research and clinical care. Although clinical recommendations have begun to emerge, guidance is lacking on the responsibilities of researchers to inform participants of reinterpreted results. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in November 2018. The workgroup included representatives from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, the Canadian College of Medical Genetics, and the Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors. The final statement includes twelve position statements that were endorsed or supported by the following organizations: Genetic Alliance, European Society of Human Genetics, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, American Association of Anthropological Genetics, Executive Committee of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Canadian College of Medical Genetics, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, and National Society of Genetic Counselors.

14.
J Community Genet ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843145

RESUMO

Assess the feasibility and acceptability of health system-led genetic risk notification in a US integrated health system. We conducted semi-structured phone interviews with individuals age 40-64 years who had undergone genetic sequencing, but had not yet received their results, assessing attitudes to direct outreach to relatives. During each interview, we collected contact information for adult relatives identified as members of the same system and attempted to identify each relative in administrative data. We conducted 20 interviews. Most participants expressed support for Kaiser Permanente Washington involvement in familial risk notification. Direct outreach to relatives received the most unqualified support; outreach to the relatives' physician or interaction with the relatives' electronic medical record received more tempered support. Support was motivated by the desire to have risk communicated accurately and quickly. The most common caveat was a desire to alert relatives before the health system contacted them. Of 57 named relatives who were members of the same health system, we retrieved a single match for 40 (70.2%) based on name or birthdate. Health system involvement in familial risk notification received support in a sample of patients in a US integrated health system, and identification of relatives is feasible.

15.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet ; 20: 293-307, 2019 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848956

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline alterations in the mismatch repair genes and is the most common etiology of hereditary colorectal cancer. While Lynch syndrome was initially defined by the clinical Amsterdam criteria, these criteria lack the sensitivity needed for clinical utility. This review covers the evolution of screening for Lynch syndrome from the use of tumor microsatellite instability and/or somatic alterations in mismatch repair protein expression by immunohistochemistry to the newest methods using next-generation sequencing. Additionally, it discusses the clinical implications of the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome as it affects cancer therapeutics and the role of screening in noncolorectal Lynch-associated cancers. As molecular oncology continues to evolve, it is crucial to remain current on the increasing complexity of Lynch syndrome diagnostics and treatment options.

16.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2135-2144, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a validated method to confidently identify exon-containing copy-number variants (CNVs), with a low false discovery rate (FDR), in targeted sequencing data from a clinical laboratory with particular focus on single-exon CNVs. METHODS: DNA sequence coverage data are normalized within each sample and subsequently exonic CNVs are identified in a batch of samples, when the target log2 ratio of the sample to the batch median exceeds defined thresholds. The quality of exonic CNV calls is assessed by C-scores (Z-like scores) using thresholds derived from gold standard samples and simulation studies. We integrate an ExonQC threshold to lower FDR and compare performance with alternate software (VisCap). RESULTS: Thirteen CNVs were used as a truth set to validate Atlas-CNV and compared with VisCap. We demonstrated FDR reduction in validation, simulation, and 10,926 eMERGESeq samples without sensitivity loss. Sixty-four multiexon and 29 single-exon CNVs with high C-scores were assessed by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). CONCLUSION: Atlas-CNV is validated as a method to identify exonic CNVs in targeted sequencing data generated in the clinical laboratory. The ExonQC and C-score assignment can reduce FDR (identification of targets with high variance) and improve calling accuracy of single-exon CNVs respectively. We propose guidelines and criteria to identify high confidence single-exon CNVs.

17.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 24: 272-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864329

RESUMO

The link between cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders has been widely observed in the aging population. Disease prevention and treatment rely on understanding the potential genetic nexus of multiple diseases in these categories. In this study, we were interested in detecting pleiotropy, or the phenomenon in which a genetic variant influences more than one phenotype. Marker-phenotype association approaches can be grouped into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate categories based on the number of phenotypes considered at one time. Here we applied one statistical method per category followed by an eQTL colocalization analysis to identify potential pleiotropic variants that contribute to the link between cardiovascular and neurological diseases. We performed our analyses on ~530,000 common SNPs coupled with 65 electronic health record (EHR)-based phenotypes in 43,870 unrelated European adults from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. There were 31 variants identified by all three methods that showed significant associations across late onset cardiac- and neurologic- diseases. We further investigated functional implications of gene expression on the detected "lead SNPs" via colocalization analysis, providing a deeper understanding of the discovered associations. In summary, we present the framework and landscape for detecting potential pleiotropy using univariate, bivariate, multivariate, and colocalization methods. Further exploration of these potentially pleiotropic genetic variants will work toward understanding disease causing mechanisms across cardiovascular and neurological diseases and may assist in considering disease prevention as well as drug repositioning in future research.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 136-143, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673079

RESUMO

Importance: Thyroid hormone levels are tightly regulated through feedback inhibition by thyrotropin, produced by the pituitary gland. Hyperthyroidism is overwhelmingly due to thyroid disorders and is well recognized to contribute to a wide spectrum of cardiovascular morbidity, particularly the increasingly common arrhythmia atrial fibrillation (AF). Objective: To determine the association between genetically determined thyrotropin levels and AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phenome-wide association study scanned 1318 phenotypes associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels identified by a previously published genome-wide association study that included participants of European ancestry. North American individuals of European ancestry with longitudinal electronic health records were analyzed from May 2008 to November 2016. Analysis began March 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical diagnoses associated with a polygenic predictor of thyrotropin levels. Exposures: Genetically determined thyrotropin levels. Results: Of 37 154 individuals, 19 330 (52%) were men. The thyrotropin polygenic predictor was positively associated with hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.14; P = 5 × 10-11) and inversely associated with diagnoses related to hyperthyroidism (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.74; P = 2 × 10-8 for toxic multinodular goiter). Among nonthyroid associations, the top association was AF/flutter (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.9-0.95; P = 9 × 10-7). When the analyses were repeated excluding 9801 individuals with any diagnoses of a thyroid-related disease, the AF association persisted (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95; P = 2.9 × 10-6). To replicate this association, we conducted an inverse-variance weighted average meta-analysis using AF single-nucleotide variant weights from a genome-wide association study of 17 931 AF cases and 115 142 controls. As in the discovery analyses, each SD increase in predicted thyrotropin was associated with a decreased risk of AF (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93; P = 4.7 × 10-4). In a set of AF cases (n = 745) and controls (n = 1680) older than 55 years, directly measured thyrotropin levels that fell within the normal range were inversely associated with AF risk (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests a role for genetically determined variation in thyroid function within a physiologically accepted normal range as a risk factor for AF. The clinical decision to treat subclinical thyroid disease should incorporate the risk for AF as antithyroid medications to treat hyperthyroidism may reduce AF risk and thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may increase AF risk.

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