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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106016, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) can be a warning sign of an impending stroke. The objective of our study is to assess the feasibility, safety, and cost savings of a comprehensive TIA protocol in the emergency room for low-risk TIA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center cohort study performed at an academic comprehensive stroke center. We implemented an emergency department-based TIA protocol pathway for low-risk TIA patients (defined as ABCD2 score < 4 and without significant vessel stenosis) who were able to undergo vascular imaging and a brain MRI in the emergency room. Patients were set up with rapid outpatient follow-up in our stroke clinic and scheduled for an outpatient echocardiogram, if indicated. We compared this cohort to TIA patients admitted prior to the implementation of the TIA protocol who would have qualified. Outcomes of interest included length of stay, hospital cost, radiographic and echocardiogram findings, recurrent neurovascular events within 30 days, and final diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were assessed (65 patients in the pre-pathway cohort, 73 in the expedited, post-TIA pathway implementation cohort). Average time from MRI order to MRI end was 6.4 h compared to 2.3 h in the pre- and post-pathway cohorts, respectively (p < 0.0001). The average length of stay for the pre-pathway group was 28.8 h in the pre-pathway cohort compared to 7.7 h in the post-pathway cohort (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in neuroimaging or echocardiographic findings. There were no differences in the 30 days re-presentation for stroke or TIA or mortality between the two groups. The direct cost per TIA admission was $2,944.50 compared to $1,610.50 for TIA patients triaged through the pathway at our institution. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility, safety, and cost-savings of a comprehensive, emergency department-based TIA protocol. Further study is needed to confirm overall benefit of an expedited approach to TIA patient management and guide clinical practice recommendations.

3.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Renda , Seguro Saúde , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica
5.
Stroke ; 51(3): 914-921, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078493

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Loss of cerebral autoregulation in the acute phase of ischemic stroke leaves patients vulnerable to blood pressure (BP) changes. Effective BP management after endovascular thrombectomy may protect the brain from hypoperfusion or hyperperfusion. In this observational study, we compared personalized, autoregulation-based BP targets to static systolic BP thresholds. Methods- We prospectively enrolled 90 patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy for stroke. Autoregulatory function was continuously measured by interrogating changes in near-infrared spectroscopy-derived tissue oxygenation (a cerebral blood flow surrogate) in response to changes in mean arterial pressure. The resulting autoregulatory index was used to trend the BP range at which autoregulation was most preserved. Percent time that mean arterial pressure exceeded the upper limit of autoregulation or decreased below the lower limit of autoregulation was calculated for each patient. Time above fixed systolic BP thresholds was computed in a similar fashion. Functional outcome was measured with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Results- Personalized limits of autoregulation were successfully computed in all 90 patients (age 71.6±16.2, 47% female, mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 13.9±5.7, monitoring time 28.0±18.4 hours). Percent time with mean arterial pressure above the upper limit of autoregulation associated with worse 90-day outcomes (odds ratio per 10% 1.84 [95% CI, 1.3-2.7] P=0.002), and patients with hemorrhagic transformation spent more time above the upper limit of autoregulation (10.9% versus 16.0%, P=0.042). Although there appeared to be a nonsignificant trend towards worse outcome with increasing time above systolic BP thresholds of 140 mm Hg and 160 mm Hg, the effect sizes were smaller compared with the personalized approach. Conclusions- Noninvasive determination of personalized BP thresholds for stroke patients is feasible. Deviation from these limits may increase risk of further brain injury and poor functional outcome. This approach may present a better strategy compared with the classical approach of maintaining systolic BP below a predetermined value, though a randomized trial is needed to determine the optimal approach for hemodynamic management.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Isquemia Encefálica , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Homeostase , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Trombectomia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia
6.
Am J Med Qual ; 34(6): 585-589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868922

RESUMO

Measurement of quality of stroke care has become increasingly important, but data come mostly from programs in hospitals that choose to participate in certification programs, which may not be representative of the care provided in nonparticipating hospitals. The authors sought to determine differences in quality of care metric concordance for acute ischemic stroke among hospitals designated as a primary stroke center, comprehensive stroke center, and non-stroke center in a population-based epidemiologic study. Significant differences were found in both patient demographics and in concordance with guideline-based quality metrics. These differences may help inform quality improvement efforts across hospitals involved in certification as well as those that are not.


Assuntos
Certificação , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/normas , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Neurocrit Care ; 31(2): 288-296, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging is often associated with ischemic stroke or anoxic injury, but other conditions can present similarly. We present six cases of an unusual but consistent pattern of restricted diffusion in bilateral hippocampi and cerebellar cortices. This pattern of injury is distinct from typical imaging findings in ischemic, anoxic, or toxic injury, suggesting it may represent an under-recognized clinicoradiographic syndrome. Despite initial presentation with stupor or coma in the context of obstructive hydrocephalus, patients may have acceptable outcomes if offered early intervention. METHODS: We identified an ad hoc series of patients at our two institutions between years 2014 and 2017 who presented to the neurocritical care unit with severe, otherwise unexplained cerebellar edema and retrospectively identified several commonalities in history, presentation, and imaging. RESULTS: Between two institutions, we identified six patients-ages 33-59 years, four male-with similar presentations of decreased level of consciousness in the context of intoxicant exposure, with acute cytotoxic edema of the cerebellar cortex, hippocampi, and aspects of the basal nuclei. All patients presented with severe cerebellar edema which led to obstructive hydrocephalus requiring aggressive medical and/or surgical management. The five patients who survived to discharge demonstrated variable degrees of physical and memory impairment on discharge and at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We present findings of a potentially novel syndrome involving a distinct pattern of cerebellar and hippocampal restricted diffusion, with imaging and clinical characteristics distinct from ischemic stroke, hypoxic injury, and known toxidromes and leukoencephalopathies. Given the potential for favorable outcome despite early obstructive hydrocephalus, early identification and treatment of this syndrome are critical.


Assuntos
Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Edema Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Córtex Cerebelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcaloides Opiáceos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Anfetaminas/efeitos adversos , Edema Encefálico/induzido quimicamente , Edema Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/terapia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Coma/etiologia , Feminino , Heroína/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/fisiopatologia , Hidrocefalia/terapia , Hidromorfona/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estupor/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Síndrome
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