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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645625

RESUMO

In recent decades, fate studies of pesticides have been a topic of interest worldwide due to human health concerns tomato, contain abundant nutritional phytochemicals and lycopene which is known for antioxidant. Tomato is susceptible to many pest, so to overcome from these pests many insecticides are used, leaving residual effects on the crop. So to find out the persistence, the present study was carried out to investigate the residual levels and dissipation behaviour of novaluron 9.45% + lambda-cyhalothrin 1.9% ZC in tomato crop during Rabi session of 2017-18 in randomized block design. The first spray of insecticide was done at fruit formation stage and second spray at 10-day interval at recommended dose @43.31 g a.i. ha-1 and double of recommended dose @86.62 g a.i. ha-1. The residue of novaluron determined by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) on 0 day (two hours after spraying) was 0.154 ppm at lower dose and 0.234 ppm at higher dose. The residue of lambda-cyhalothrin determined by GC ECD (gas chromatography electron capture detector) at 0 day (two hours after spraying) was 0.451 ppm at lower dose and 0.849 ppm at higher dose. The deposition of novaluron 9.45% + lambda-cyhalothrin 1.9% ZC was gradually decreased with increasing days after spraying (DAS). The mean initial deposition of the pesticide novaluron and lambda-cyhalothrin was recorded as 0.154 mg/kg, 0.451 mg/kg, respectively, at the recommended dose @43.31 g a.i. ha-1 while at double of recommended dose @86.62 g a.i. ha-1 novaluron and lambda-cyhalothrin, the mean initial deposition of 0.234 mg/kg and 0.849 mg/kg was recorded, respectively. The residue of the novaluron and lambda-cyhalothrin was at BDL (below determination level) (0.01 and 0.05 ppm) on 5th and 7th day, respectively, at lower dose (x), whereas at higher dose (2x) it was below determination level on 7th and 10th day, respectively. In soil samples, the residue levels were at below the determination level (0.01 mg/kg) for novaluron and (0.05 mg/kg) for lambda-cyhalothrin at both doses. The half-life DT50 of novaluron and lambda-cyhalothrin in the tomato fruit was found to be 2 days at recommended dose (X) @43.31 g a.i. ha-1 for both the pesticide and at double of the recommended dose @86.62 g a.i. ha-1 it was 3 and 2 days, respectively.

2.
Environ Adv ; 11: 100328, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532331

RESUMO

One of the most significant threats to global health since the Second World War is the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to COVID-19 widespread social, environmental, economic, and health concerns. Other unfavourable factors also emerged, including increased trash brought on by high consumption of packaged foods, takeout meals, packaging from online shopping, and the one-time use of plastic products. Due to labour shortages and residents staying at home during mandatory lockdowns, city municipal administrations' collection and recycling capacities have decreased, frequently damaging the environment (air, water, and soil) and ecological and human systems. The COVID-19 challenges are more pronounced in unofficial settlements of developing nations, particularly for developing nations of the world, as their fundamental necessities, such as air quality, water quality, trash collection, sanitation, and home security, are either non-existent or difficult to obtain. According to reports, during the pandemic's peak days (20 August 2021 (741 K cases), 8 million tonnes of plastic garbage were created globally, and 25 thousand tonnes of this waste found its way into the ocean. This thorough analysis attempts to assess the indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment, human systems, and water quality that pose dangers to people and potential remedies. Strong national initiatives could facilitate international efforts to attain environmental sustainability goals. Significant policies should be formulated like good quality air, pollution reduction, waste management, better sanitation system, and personal hygiene. This review paper also elaborated that further investigations are needed to investigate the magnitude of impact and other related factors for enhancement of human understanding of ecosystem to manage the water, environment and human encounter problems during epidemics/pandemics in near future.

3.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(11): 310, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36472106

RESUMO

In the present era of climate change and global warming, high temperatures have increased considerably, posing a threat to plant life. Heat stress affects the biochemistry, physiology and molecular makeup of the plant by altering the key processes, i.e., photosynthesis, respiration and reproduction which reduces its growth and development. There is a dire need to manage this problem sustainably for plant conservation as well as the food security of the human population. Use of phytohormones to induce thermotolerance in plants can be a sustainable way to fight the adversities of heat stress. Phytohormone-induced thermotolerance proves to be a compelling approach to sustainably relieve the damaging effects of heat stress on plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential molecule in biotic and abiotic defense response signal transduction pathways. When supplied externally, it imparts heat stress tolerance to the plants by different means, viz., increased Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) production, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, protection of the reproductive system and enhancing photosynthetic efficiency. The effect of SA on plants is highly dependent on the concentration applied, plant species, plant age, type of tissues treated, and duration of the treatment. The present review paper summarizes the mechanism of thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid in plants under heat stress conditions. It includes the regulatory effects of SA on heat shock proteins, antioxidant metabolism, and maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis under heat stress. This review combines the studies conducted to elucidate the role of SA in the modulation of different mechanisms which lead to heat stress tolerance in plants. It discusses the mechanism of SA in protecting the photosynthetic machinery and reproductive system during high-temperature stress.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ácido Salicílico , Humanos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(23)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500810

RESUMO

Water scarcity due to contamination of water resources with different inorganic and organic contaminants is one of the foremost global concerns. It is due to rapid industrialization, fast urbanization, and the low efficiency of traditional wastewater treatment strategies. Conventional water treatment strategies, including chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, coagulation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, adsorption, and photolysis, are based on adopting various nanomaterials (NMs) with a high surface area, including carbon NMs, polymers, metals-based, and metal oxides. However, significant bottlenecks are toxicity, cost, secondary contamination, size and space constraints, energy efficiency, prolonged time consumption, output efficiency, and scalability. On the contrary, green NMs fabricated using microorganisms emerge as cost-effective, eco-friendly, sustainable, safe, and efficient substitutes for these traditional strategies. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art microbial-assisted green NMs and strategies including microbial cells, magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), bio-augmentation and integrated bioreactors for removing an extensive range of water contaminants addressing the challenges associated with traditional strategies. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the efficacies of microbe-assisted green NM-based water remediation strategy with the traditional practices in light of crucial factors like reusability, regeneration, removal efficiency, and adsorption capacity has been presented. The associated challenges, their alternate solutions, and the cutting-edge prospects of microbial-assisted green nanobiotechnology with the integration of advanced tools including internet-of-nano-things, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence have been discussed. This review opens a new window to assist future research dedicated to sustainable and green nanobiotechnology-based strategies for environmental remediation applications.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 972856, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186053

RESUMO

Heavy metal (HM) stress is threatening agricultural crops, ecological systems, and human health worldwide. HM toxicity adversely affects plant growth, physiological processes, and crop productivity by disturbing cellular ionic balance, metabolic balance, cell membrane integrity, and protein and enzyme activities. Plants under HM stress intrinsically develop mechanisms to counter the adversities of HM but not prevent them. However, the exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) is a strategy for boosting the tolerance capacity of plants against HM toxicity by improving osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant machinery. ABA is an essential plant growth regulator that modulates various plant growth and metabolic processes, including seed development and germination, vegetative growth, stomatal regulation, flowering, and leaf senescence under diverse environmental conditions. This review summarizes ABA biosynthesis, signaling, transport, and catabolism in plant tissues and the adverse effects of HM stress on crop plants. Moreover, we describe the role of ABA in mitigating HM stress and elucidating the interplay of ABA with other plant growth regulators.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 953836, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865289

RESUMO

The agricultural sustainability concept considers higher food production combating biotic and abiotic stresses, socio-economic well-being, and environmental conservation. On the contrary, global warming-led climatic changes have appalling consequences on agriculture, generating shifting rainfall patterns, high temperature, CO2, drought, etc., prompting abiotic stress conditions for plants. Such stresses abandon the plants to thrive, demoting food productivity and ultimately hampering food security. Though environmental issues are natural and cannot be regulated, plants can still be enabled to endure these abnormal abiotic conditions, reinforcing the stress resilience in an eco-friendly fashion by incorporating fungal endophytes. Endophytic fungi are a group of subtle, non-pathogenic microorganisms establishing a mutualistic association with diverse plant species. Their varied association with the host plant under dynamic environments boosts the endogenic tolerance mechanism of the host plant against various stresses via overall modulations of local and systemic mechanisms accompanied by higher antioxidants secretion, ample enough to scavenge Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) hence, coping over-expression of defensive redox regulatory system of host plant as an aversion to stressed condition. They are also reported to ameliorate plants toward biotic stress mitigation and elevate phytohormone levels forging them worthy enough to be used as biocontrol agents and as biofertilizers against various pathogens, promoting crop improvement and soil improvement, respectively. This review summarizes the present-day conception of the endophytic fungi, their diversity in various crops, and the molecular mechanism behind abiotic and biotic resistance prompting climate-resilient aided sustainable agriculture.

7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 44(1): 221-234, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864175

RESUMO

Widespread use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) threatens soil, plants, terrestrial and aquatic animals. Thus, it is essential to explore the fate and behavior of NPs in soil and also its mechanism of interaction with soil microbial biodiversity to maintain soil health and quality to accomplish essential ecosystem services. With this background, the model experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to study the impact of ZnO-NPs on soil taking maize as a test crop. The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Particles size analysis of engineered NPs confirmed that the material was ZnO-NPs (particle size--65.82 nm). The application of ZnO-NPs resulted in a significant decrease in soil pH. Significantly high EC (0.13 dS m-1) was recorded where ZnO-NPs were applied at the rate of 2.5 mg Zn kg-1 soil over control (0.12 dS m-1). A significant increase in soil available phosphorus was observed on applying ZnO-NPs (15.29 mg kg-1 of soil) as compared to control (11.84 mg kg-1 of soil). Maximum soil available Zn (2.09 mg kg-1) was recorded in ZnO-NPs-amended soil (T11) which was significantly higher than control (0.33 mg kg-1) as well as treatments containing conventional zincatic fertilizers. The inhibition rates of dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the presence of 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg and 2.5 mg ZnO-NPs per kg soil were 31.3, 46.2 and 49.7%, respectively. Soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly reduced (103.33 µg g-1 soil) in soils treated with ZnO-NPs over control (111.33 µg g-1 soil). Soil bacterial count was also significantly lesser (12.33 × 105 CFU) in the case where 2.5 mg kg-1 ZnO-NPs were applied as compared to control (21.33 × 105 CFU). The corresponding decrease in fungal and actinomycetes colony count was 24.16, 37.35, 46.15% and 14.59, 17.97, 22.45% with the application of 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg and 2.5 mg ZnO-NPs per kg soil, respectively, as compared to control. Thus, the use of ZnO-NPs resulted in an increase in soil available Zn but inhibited soil microbial activity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes do Solo , Óxido de Zinco , Animais , Ecossistema , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
8.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440021

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is considered a non-essential element similar to cadmium, arsenic, lead, etc., for plants, yet Si is beneficial to plant growth, so it is also referred to as a quasi-essential element (similar to aluminum, cobalt, sodium and selenium). An element is considered quasi-essential if it is not required by plants but its absence results in significant negative consequences or anomalies in plant growth, reproduction and development. Si is reported to reduce the negative impacts of different stresses in plants. The significant accumulation of Si on the plant tissue surface is primarily responsible for these positive influences in plants, such as increasing antioxidant activity while reducing soil pollutant absorption. Because of these advantageous properties, the application of Si-based nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in agricultural and food production has received a great deal of interest. Furthermore, conventional Si fertilizers are reported to have low bioavailability; therefore, the development and implementation of nano-Si fertilizers with high bioavailability could be crucial for viable agricultural production. Thus, in this context, the objectives of this review are to summarize the effects of both Si and Si-NPs on soil microbes, soil properties, plant growth and various plant pathogens and diseases. Si-NPs and Si are reported to change the microbial colonies and biomass, could influence rhizospheric microbes and biomass content and are able to improve soil fertility.

9.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1581-1596, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448964

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute predominantly to soil organic matter by creating a sink demand for plant C and distributing to below-ground hyphal biomass. The extra-radical hyphae along with glomalin-related soil protein significantly influence the soil carbon dynamics through their larger extent and turnover period need to discuss. The role of AMF is largely overlooked in terrestrial C cycling and climate change models despite their greater involvement in net primary productivity augmentation and further accumulation of this additional photosynthetic fixed C in the soil. However, this buffering mechanism against elevated CO2 condition to sequester extra C by AMF can be described only after considering their potential interaction with other microbes and associated mineral nutrients such as nitrogen cycling. In this article, we try to review the potential of AMF in C sequestration paving the way towards a better understanding of possible AMF mechanism by which C balance between biosphere and atmosphere can be moved forward in more positive direction.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Hifas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química
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