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1.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; : e12452, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a global mental health problem for people of all ages. While rates of suicide in children and adolescents are reported as lower than those in older populations worldwide, they represent the third leading cause of death in 15-19-year-olds. The rates are higher among boys than girls worldwide, though the death rates for girls exceed those for boys in Bangladesh, China, India, and Nepal. There has been a general decrease in adolescent suicide rates over recent decades. However, increases are reported in South East Asia as well as South America over the same time period. METHODS: A narrative review method has been used to summarize current knowledge about risk and protective factors for suicide among children and adolescents and to discuss evidence-based strategy for suicide prevention in this age group. RESULTS: Identified suicide risk and protective factors for children and adolescents largely overlap with those for adults. Nevertheless, developmental characteristics may strengthen the impact of some factors, such as decision-making style, coping strategies, family and peer relationships, and victimization. The implementation of evidence-based suicide preventive strategies is needed. Restricting access to lethal means, school-based awareness and skill training programs, and interventions delivered in clinical and community settings have been proven effective. The effectiveness of gatekeeper training and screening programs in reducing suicidal ideation and behavior is unproven but widely examined in selected settings. DISCUSSION: Since most studies have been conducted in western countries, future research should assess the effectiveness of these promising strategies in different cultural contexts. The use of more rigorous study designs, the use of both short- and long-term follow-up evaluations, the larger inclusion of individuals belonging to vulnerable groups, the evaluation of online intervention, and the analysis of programs' cost-effectiveness are also required.

2.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; : e12450, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605074

RESUMO

An increased risk of suicide has been reported for psychiatric patients. In several world regions, an underlying psychiatric disorder is reported in up to 90% of people who die from suicide, though this rate seems to be considerably lower in low- and middle-income countries. Major psychiatric conditions associated with suicidality are mood disorders, alcohol and substance use disorders, borderline personality disorder, and schizophrenia. Comorbidity between different disorders is frequently associated with a higher suicide risk. A history of suicide attempts, feelings of hopelessness, impulsivity and aggression, adverse childhood experiences, severe psychopathology, and somatic disorders are common risk factors for suicide among psychiatric patients. Stressful life events and interpersonal problems, including interpersonal violence, are often triggers. A comprehensive and repeated suicide risk assessment represents the first step for effective suicide prevention. Particular attention should be paid during and after hospitalization, with the first days and weeks after discharge representing the most critical period. Pharmacological treatment of mood disorders and schizophrenia has been shown to have an anti-suicidal effect. A significant reduction of suicidal thoughts and behavior has been reported for cognitive behavioral therapy and dialectical behavior therapy. Brief interventions, including psychoeducation and follow-ups, are associated with a decrease in suicide deaths. Further development of suicide prevention in psychiatric patients will require a better understanding of additional risk and protective factors, such as the role of a person's decision-making capacity and social support, the role of spiritual and religious interventions, and the reduction of the treatment gap in mental health care.

3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 58: 102601, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611083

RESUMO

Mental health disorders are a burgeoning global public health challenge, and disproportionately affect the poor. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) bear 80 % of the mental health disease burden. Stigma associated with mental health results in delayed help seeking, reduced access to health services, suboptimal treatment, poor outcomes and an increased risk of individuals' human rights violations. Moreover, widespread co-occurrence of physical comorbidities such as noncommunicable diseases with mental health disorders makes the treatment of both conditions challenging and worsens prognosis. This paper explores various aspects of stigma towards mental health with a focus on LMICs and assesses measures to increase help-seeking and access to and uptake of mental health services. Stigma impacts persons living with mental illness, their families and caregivers and healthcare professionals (mental health professionals, non-psychiatric specialists and general practitioners) imparting mental health care. Cultural, socio-economic and religious factors determine various aspects of mental health in LMICs, ranging from perceptions of health and illness, health seeking behavior, attitudes of the individuals and health practitioners and mental health systems. Addressing stigma requires comprehensive and inclusive mental health policies and legislations; sustainable and culturally-adapted awareness programs; capacity building of mental health workforce through task-shifting and interprofessional approaches; and improved access to mental health services by integration with primary healthcare and utilizing existing pathways of care. Future strategies targeting stigma reduction must consider the enormous physical comorbidity burden associated with mental health, prioritize workplace interventions and importantly, address the deterioration of population mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Humanos
5.
Psychiatriki ; 31(4): 289-292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361058

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, all European countries were hit, but mortality rates were heterogenous, with some countries being hit very hard, while others including Greece had a much lower death rate during the first wave of spring 2020. The ultra-fast application of measures was probably the reason of this outstanding success. This outbreak is expected to trigger feelings of fear, worry, and stress, as responses to an extreme threat for the community and the individual. In addition, changes in social behavior, as well as in working conditions, daily habits and routine, are expected to impose further stress, especially with the expectation of an upcoming economic crisis and possible unemployment. In Greece, where the lockdown was extremely successful in terms of containing the outbreak, worries concerning the possible adverse effects on mental health were also predominant. A collaboration concerning mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak was established, between the Aristotle University School of Medicine, the Panhellenic Medical Association and the World Psychiatric Association. Two large multinational studies were launched, one concerning the general population and one university students. Students' mental health is an area of special interest, both because of the vulnerability of this age group as well as because any disruption during the time of the studies has profound long-term consequences in the lives of the individuals, and this might trigger feelings of fear, worry, and stress. According the results from the Greek arm of the students' study, during the lockdown, two-thirds of university students reported at least 'much' increase in anxiety, one third in depressive feelings and in 2.59% concerning suicidal thoughts. There was also a worsening of quality of life and deterioration of lifestyle issues. Major depression was present in 12.43% with an additional 13.46% experiencing severe distress. Beliefs in conspiracy theories enjoyed wide acceptance ranging from 20-68%, with students of law, literature, pedagogics, political sciences and related studies manifesting higher acceptance rates. Female sex and depression/dysphoria both independently but also in interaction were related to higher rates of such beliefs. The results of the Greek arm of the general population study suggested that during the lockdown, clinical depression was present in 9.31%, with an additional 8.5% experiencing severe distress. Increased anxious and depressive emotions (including subclinical cases) were present in more than 40% of the population. In persons with a previous history of depression, 23.31% experienced depression vs. 8.96% of cases without previous history, who were experiencing their first depressive episode. Family dynamics suggested that fewer conflicts and better quality of relationships were surprisingly related to higher anxiety and depressive emotions, higher rates of depression and distress, and greater rates of suicidal thoughts. Eventually, spiritual and religious affiliation could protect the individual from the emerging suicidal thoughts. As correlation does not imply causation, the results suggest that conspiracy theories could be either the cause of depression or on the contrary a coping mechanism against depression. After taking into consideration that also in the family environment the expression of anger seemed to be a protective factor, the most likely explanation could be that the beliefs in conspiracy theories are a coping and 'protective' mechanism against the emergence of depression. These studies were among the first published, they went deeper in the data collection and even led to the creation of a model with distinct stages for the development of mental disorders during the lockdown. The analysis of the international data will probably provide further insight into the prevalence of mental disorders and the universal but also culturally specific models and factors pertaining to their development. At the time this editorial was in press, more than 40 countries representing more than two thirds of earth's population were participating with more than 45,000 responses already gathered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Psiquiatria Comunitária , Saúde Mental/tendências , Angústia Psicológica , Pesquisa Comportamental/organização & administração , Pesquisa Comportamental/tendências , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária/métodos , Psiquiatria Comunitária/tendências , Saúde Global , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Comportamento Social
6.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S495-S497, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227042

RESUMO

In a humanitarian crisis, healthcare workers are on the frontline in providing their services. Despite being crisis management personnel, healthcare workers may get exposed to occupational stress due to unprecedented circumstances, challenges in delivery of high-quality care, lack of resources, and most importantly for being at high risk to suffer from the impact of the situation itself. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain the mental health of healthcare workers on a regular basis and more so during a pandemic like COVID-19. For addressing the occupational stress in healthcare workers, a Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) based intervention is suggested, also supported by a Cochrane review, which can build/ improve/ enhance resilience, needed to shield individuals against the development of psychopathology, at the public health level in humanitarian crises. In addition to developing resilience, which will be helpful in combating anxiety, depression, somatization, and incapacitation, CBT will also help in dealing with the social isolation which has been part and parcel of COVID-19 and similar pandemic situations.

7.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S343-S353, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227049

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. The South-Asian (SA) countries have witnessed both the initial brunt of the outbreak as well as the ongoing rise of cases. Their unique challenges in relation to mental health during the pandemic are worth exploring. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was conducted for all the original studies on the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on psychological health/well-being in the SA countries of the World Psychiatric Association Zone 16. PubMed, Google Scholar, PSYCHINFO, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched till June 2020. Studies conducted in the age group of 18-60 years with a minimum sample size of 10, and statistically significant results were included. Results: Thirteen studies were included in the review. They showed increase prevalence in nonpsychotic depression, preanxiety, somatic concerns, alcohol-related disorders, and insomnia in the general population. Psychological symptoms correlated more with physical complaints of fatigue and pain in older adults and were directly related to social media use, misinformation, xenophobia, and social distancing. Frontline workers reported guilt, stigma, anxiety, and poor sleep quality, which were related to the lack of availability of adequate personal protective equipment, increased workload, and discrimination. One study validated the Coronavirus anxiety scale in the Indian population while another explored gaming as a double-edged sword during the lockdown in adolescents. Another study from Bangladesh explored psychosexual health during lockdown. Most studies were cross-sectional online surveys, used screening tools and had limited accessibility. Conclusion: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis and its impact serve as an important period for adequate mental healthcare, promotion, research, and holistic biopsychosocial management of psychiatric disorders, especially in vulnerable groups. Mental healthcare and research strategies during the pandemic and preparedness for postpandemic aftermath are advocated subsequently.

8.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S330-S334, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227052
9.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S380-S382, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227054

RESUMO

Health systems are adapting to the unique challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing has forced clinicians to provide their services through online platforms in high income countries. Similar trends have been noticed in Low and middle-income countries (LAMIC). Digital health can help LAMIC address traditional barriers to care by overcoming issues related to stigma, discrimination, staffing, and physical and geographical resource constraints. Mobile phone subscriptions exceed 80% of the population in many LAMICs. Mobile platforms represent a viable resource in overcoming the significant mental health gap in LAMIC. This paper discusses the enormous potential that digital health has to transform healthcare delivery in LAMICs, as well as numerous challenges to implementation. We also discuss the need to develop national digital health strategies and suggest solutions to some of the barriers.

10.
World Psychiatry ; 19(3): 411-412, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931091
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 135-138, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization identified a chronic shortage of psychiatrists in Low- Middle- and High-Income Countries. In Qatar, the situation is dire with reports there is one psychiatrist per 170,000 people in the population. A one-day, student-led mental-health conference was held in Doha, Qatar under the auspices of the World Psychiatric Association with the aim of increasing interest in psychiatry as a career. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this single-arm, pre-post comparison study, a questionnaire assessing interest in psychiatry as a career was administered on participants before and after attending the conference. Demographic information was obtained and response items were on a 5-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-sample t-test with a significant p-value set at <0.05. RESULTS: The conference was attended by 102 individuals. Fifty-four attendees completed the pre-conference survey (53% response rate) and 36 participants completed the post-conference survey (35% response rate). Data for the 36 matched pre-post responses were included in our analyses. The average age of respondents was 22 years and 81% were female. There was improvement in post-conference results however these changes were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge this is the first intervention study on increasing interest in psychiatry as a career carried out in Qatar. It is likely that psychiatry enthusiasts attended the conference and therefore their interest in this medical specialty was already high as corroborated by the favorable pre-conference survey results. This might explain why there was a lack of statistical significance in comparison to post- intervention scores. We recommend that such an event be integrated into the medical school curricula throughout Qatar to include students with low baseline interest in psychiatry. Further research in this area with more robust methodology is urgently needed to help narrow the pervasive treatment gap.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Psiquiatria , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Catar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772489

RESUMO

Although the association between antipsychotic use and corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation has been repeatedly confirmed, the relationship has been rarely studied in a practical setting. Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) survey, our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of QTc prolongation in 2553 Asian patients with schizophrenia. After adjusting for the potential effect of confounding factors, the baseline and clinical characteristics of the schizophrenia patients with and without QTc prolongation were compared using analyses of covariance and binary logistic analyses. In addition, a binary logistic analysis model with a forward selection method was used to identify the distinctive clinical correlates of QTc prolongation. QTc prolongation was noted in 1.1% of Asian patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients were characterized by lower proportions of disorganized speech and negative symptoms; higher use of amisulpride and clozapine; and higher proportions of rigidity, hypercholesterolemia, and sedation than those without QTc prolongation. Finally, a binary logistic mode showed that amisulpride, clozapine, rigidity, and hypercholesterolemia might be the distinctive clinical correlates of QTc prolongation in Asian patients with schizophrenia. These findings indicate the clinical implications that the uses of amisulpride and clozapine and the occurrences of rigidity and hypercholesterolemia may be potential risk factors for QTc prolongation of schizophrenia patients.

13.
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 176-186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and Parkinson disease (PD) has been repeatedly reported, to our knowledge, the relationship between BMI and antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) has rarely been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and EPS in patients with schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study, we compared the prevalence of EPS in 1448 schizophrenia patients stratified as underweight, normal range, overweight pre-obese, overweight obese I, overweight obese II, and overweight obese III according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for body weight status, and with underweight, normal range, overweight at risk, overweight obese I, and overweight obese II according to the Asia-Pacific obesity classification. RESULTS: In the first step of the WHO classification system for body weight status, adjusting for the potential effects of confounding factors, the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that underweight was significantly associated with greater rates of bradykinesia and muscle rigidity, and a lower rate of gait disturbance. In the second step of the Asia-Pacific obesity classification, adjusting for the potential effects of confounding factors, the multinomial logistic regression model revealed that underweight was significantly associated with a higher rate of muscle rigidity. CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study consistently revealed that underweight was associated with a greater rate of muscle rigidity in a stepwise pattern among Asian patients with schizophrenia. Although the mechanism underlying the inverse relationship between BMI and muscle rigidity cannot be sufficiently explained, it is speculated that low BMI may contribute to the development of muscle rigidity regardless of antipsychotic "typicality" and dose in patients with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ásia , Humanos , Sobrepeso , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Magreza
15.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 35(6): 1-7, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies examining coprescription and dosages of mood stabilizers (MSs) with antipsychotics for psychotic disorders are infrequent. Based on sparse extant data and clinical experience, we hypothesized that adjunctive MS use would be associated with certain demographic (e.g., younger age), clinical factors (e.g., longer illness duration), and characteristics of antipsychotic treatment (e.g., multiple or high antipsychotic doses). METHODS: Within an Asian research consortium focusing on pharmaco-epidemiological factors in schizophrenia, we evaluated rates of MS coprescription, including high doses (>1000 mg/day lithium-equivalents) and clinical correlates. RESULTS: Among 3557 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia in 14 Asian countries, MSs were coprescribed with antipsychotics in 13.6% (n = 485) of the sample, with 10.9% (n = 53) on a high dose. Adjunctive MS treatment was associated (all p < 0.005) with demographic (female sex and younger age), setting (country and hospitalization), illness (longer duration, more hospitalizations, non-remission of illness, behavioral disorganization, aggression, affective symptoms, and social-occupational dysfunction), and treatment-related factors (higher antipsychotic dose, multiple antipsychotics, higher body mass index, and greater sedation). Patients given high doses of MSs had a less favorable illness course, more behavioral disorganization, poorer functioning, and higher antipsychotic doses. CONCLUSIONS: Schizophrenia patients receiving adjunctive MS treatment in Asian psychiatric centers are more severely ill and less responsive to simpler treatment regimens.

18.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(5): 1133-1136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704300

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a viral infection that has multisystemic physical and psychological complications. The following paper looks at the various challenges seen while treating psychiatric patients during the COVID pandemic. There is a need for physician to be aware of the drug interactions between psychiatric medications and the medications used routinely in the management of COVID. There is also the concern of psychiatric side effects of medications used to manage COVID and medical complications caused by some side effects of psychiatric drugs. The telepsychiatry and telemedicine paradigm has made it mandatory for physicians to be vigilant of the same.

19.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 54: 102291, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659655

RESUMO

COVID-19 has emerged as a global health threat. The catastrophic reaction to a pandemic in spite of knowing the deadly outcomes, has been referred to as the 'social absurdity'. Such reaction creates a negativistic outlook with regard to the infection, thus contributing to chaos and preventing containment. In this article, the current pandemic of COVID-19 is revisited through the lens of Camus' 'La Peste, 1947'. The philosophical roots of social 'absurdity' during a pandemic are critically discussed in the context of death anxiety. Subsequently, ways of reshaping it are highlighted, borrowing from the theories of existentialism and positive psychology.

20.
CNS Spectr ; : 1-25, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594935

RESUMO

This is a report of a joint World Psychiatric Association/International College of Neuropsychopharmacology (WPA/CINP) workgroup concerning the risk/benefit ratio of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. It utilized a selective but, within topic, comprehensive review of the literature, taking into consideration all the recently discussed arguments on the matter and avoiding taking sides when the results in the literature were equivocal. The workgroup's conclusions suggested that antipsychotics are efficacious both during the acute and the maintenance phase, and that the current data do not support the existence of a supersensitivity rebound psychosis. Long-term treated patients have better overall outcome and lower mortality than those not taking antipsychotics. Longer duration of untreated psychosis and relapses are modestly related to worse outcome. Loss of brain volume is evident already at first episode and concerns loss of neuropil volume rather than cell loss. Progression of volume loss probably happens in a subgroup of patients with worse prognosis. In humans, antipsychotic treatment neither causes nor worsens volume loss, while there are some data in favor for a protective effect. Schizophrenia manifests 2 to 3 times higher mortality vs the general population, and treatment with antipsychotics includes a number of dangers, including tardive dyskinesia and metabolic syndrome; however, antipsychotic treatment is related to lower mortality, including cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, the literature strongly supports the use of antipsychotics both during the acute and the maintenance phase without suggesting that it is wise to discontinue antipsychotics after a certain period of time. Antipsychotic treatment improves long-term outcomes and lowers overall and specific-cause mortality.

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