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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801393

RESUMO

This special article is the fourteenth in an annual series for the Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. The authors thank the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Kaplan, and the editorial board for the opportunity to continue this series; namely, the research highlights of the past year in the specialty of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesiology. The major themes selected for 2021 are outlined in this introduction, and each highlight is reviewed in detail in the main body of the article. The literature highlights in the specialty for 2021 begin with an update on structural heart disease, with a focus on updates in arrhythmia and aortic valve disorders. The second major theme is an update on coronary artery disease, with discussion of both medical and procedural management. The third major theme is focused on the perioperative management of patients with COVID-19, with the authors highlighting literature discussing the impact of the disease on the right ventricle and thromboembolic events. The fourth and final theme is an update in heart failure, with discussion of diverse aspects of this area. The themes selected for this fourteenth special article are only a few of the diverse advances in the specialty during 2021. These highlights will inform the reader of key updates on a variety of topics, leading to improvement of perioperative outcomes for patients with cardiothoracic and vascular disease.

2.
Digit Biomark ; 5(2): 167-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723069

RESUMO

Introduction: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) occurs frequently in patients with neurological disorders and can lead to aspiration, choking, and malnutrition. Dysphagia is typically diagnosed using costly, invasive imaging procedures or subjective, qualitative bedside examinations. Wearable sensors are a promising alternative to noninvasively and objectively measure physiological signals relevant to swallowing. An ongoing challenge with this approach is consolidating these complex signals into sensitive, clinically meaningful metrics of swallowing performance. To address this gap, we propose 2 novel, digital monitoring tools to evaluate swallows using wearable sensor data and machine learning. Methods: Biometric swallowing and respiration signals from wearable, mechano-acoustic sensors were compared between patients with poststroke dysphagia and nondysphagic controls while swallowing foods and liquids of different consistencies, in accordance with the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability (MASA). Two machine learning approaches were developed to (1) classify the severity of impairment for each swallow, with model confidence ratings for transparent clinical decision support, and (2) compute a similarity measure of each swallow to nondysphagic performance. Task-specific models were trained using swallow kinematics and respiratory features from 505 swallows (321 from patients and 184 from controls). Results: These models provide sensitive metrics to gauge impairment on a per-swallow basis. Both approaches demonstrate intrasubject swallow variability and patient-specific changes which were not captured by the MASA alone. Sensor measures encoding respiratory-swallow coordination were important features relating to dysphagia presence and severity. Puree swallows exhibited greater differences from controls than saliva swallows or liquid sips (p < 0.037). Discussion: Developing interpretable tools is critical to optimize the clinical utility of novel, sensor-based measurement techniques. The proof-of-concept models proposed here provide concrete, communicable evidence to track dysphagia recovery over time. With refined training schemes and real-world validation, these tools can be deployed to automatically measure and monitor swallowing in the clinic and community for patients across the impairment spectrum.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663725

RESUMO

Early identification of atypical infant movement behaviors consistent with underlying neuromotor pathologies can expedite timely enrollment in therapeutic interventions that exploit inherent neuroplasticity to promote recovery. Traditional neuromotor assessments rely on qualitative evaluations performed by specially trained personnel, mostly available in tertiary medical centers or specialized facilities. Such approaches are high in cost, require geographic proximity to advanced healthcare resources, and yield mostly qualitative insight. This paper introduces a simple, low-cost alternative in the form of a technology customized for quantitatively capturing continuous, full-body kinematics of infants during free living conditions at home or in clinical settings while simultaneously recording essential vital signs data. The system consists of a wireless network of small, flexible inertial sensors placed at strategic locations across the body and operated in a wide-bandwidth and time-synchronized fashion. The data serve as the basis for reconstructing three-dimensional motions in avatar form without the need for video recordings and associated privacy concerns, for remote visual assessments by experts. These quantitative measurements can also be presented in graphical format and analyzed with machine-learning techniques, with potential to automate and systematize traditional motor assessments. Clinical implementations with infants at low and at elevated risks for atypical neuromotor development illustrates application of this system in quantitative and semiquantitative assessments of patterns of gross motor skills, along with body temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate, from long-term and follow-up measurements over a 3-mo period following birth. The engineering aspects are compatible for scaled deployment, with the potential to improve health outcomes for children worldwide via early, pragmatic detection methods.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) who use outpatient physical therapy or community wellness services for locomotor training and predict the duration of services, controlling for demographic, injury, quality of life, and service and financial characteristics. We explore how the duration of services is related to locomotor strategy. DESIGN: Observational study of participants at 4 SCI Model Systems centers with survival. Weibull regression model to predict the duration of services. SETTING: Rehabilitation and community wellness facilities at 4 SCI Model Systems centers. PARTICIPANTS: Eligibility criteria were SCI or dysfunction resulting in motor impairment and the use of physical therapy or community wellness programs for locomotor/gait training. We excluded those who did not complete training or who experienced a disruption in training greater than 45 days. Our sample included 62 participants in conventional therapy and 37 participants in robotic exoskeleton training. INTERVENTIONS: Outpatient physical therapy or community wellness services for locomotor/gait training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SCI characteristics (level and completeness of injury) and the duration of services from medical records. Self-reported perceptions of SCI consequences using the SCI-Functional Index for basic mobility and SCI-Quality of Life measurement system for bowel difficulties, bladder difficulties, and pain interference. RESULTS: After controlling for predictors, the duration of services for the conventional therapy group was an average of 63% longer than for the robotic exoskeleton group, however each visit was 50% shorter in total time. Men had an 11% longer duration of services than women had. Participants with complete injuries had a duration of services that was approximately 1.72 times longer than participants with incomplete injuries. Perceived improvement was larger in the conventional group. CONCLUSIONS: Locomotor/gait training strategies are distinctive for individuals with SCI using a robotic exoskeleton in a community wellness facility as episodes are shorter but individual sessions are longer. Participants' preferences and the ability to pay for ongoing services may be critical factors associated with the duration of outpatient services.

6.
J Rehabil Assist Technol Eng ; 8: 20556683211035057, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471545

RESUMO

Introduction: After stroke, upper limb impairment affects independent performance of activities of daily living. We evaluated the usability, functionality, and efficacy of a myoelectric elbow-wrist-hand orthosis to provide support, limit unsafe motion, and enhance the functional motion of paralyzed or weak upper limbs. Methods: Individuals with stroke participated in a single-session study to evaluate the device. Ability to activate the device was tested in supported and unsupported shoulder position, as well as the elbow range of motion, ability to maintain elbow position, and ability to lift and hold a range of weights while using the device. Results: No adverse events were reported. 71% of users were able to operate the device in all three active myoelectric activation modes (Biceps, Triceps, Dual) during testing. Users were able to hold a range of wrist weights (0.5-2 lbs) for 10-120 seconds, with the largest percentage of participants able to hold weights with the device in Biceps Mode. Conclusions: The myoelectric elbow-wrist-hand orthosis improved range of motion during use and was efficacious at remediating upper extremity impairment after stroke. All users could operate the device in at least one mode, and most could lift and hold weights representative of some everyday objects using the device.

7.
Front Neurorobot ; 15: 689363, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539371

RESUMO

Stroke commonly results in gait deficits which impacts functional ambulation and quality of life. Robotic exoskeletons (RE) for overground walking are devices that are programmable to provide high dose and movement-impairment specific assistance thus offering new rehabilitation possibilities for recovery progression in individuals post stroke. The purpose of this investigation is to present preliminary utilization data in individuals with acute and chronic stroke after walking overground with an RE. Secondary analysis on a subset of individuals is presented to understand the mechanistic changes due to RE overground walking. Thirty-eight participants with hemiplegia secondary to stroke were enrolled in a clinical trial conducted at eight rehabilitation centers. Data is presented for four sessions of overground walking in the RE over the course of 2 weeks. Participants continued their standard of care if they had any ongoing therapy at the time of study enrollment. Gait speed during the 10 Meter Walk Test, Gait deviations and the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) data were collected before (baseline) and after (follow-up) the RE walking sessions. Walking speed significantly increased between baseline and follow-up for participants in the chronic (p <0.01) and acute (p < 0.05) stage of stroke recovery. FAC level significantly improved (p < 0.05) and there were significantly fewer (p < 0.05) gait deviations observed for participants in the acute stages of stroke recovery between baseline and follow-up. Secondary analysis on a subset of eight participants indicated that after four sessions of overground walking with the RE, the participants significantly improved their spatial symmetry. The walk time, step count and ratio of walk time to up time increased from first session to the last session for participants in the chronic and acute stages of stroke. The RE was effectively utilized for overground walking for individuals with acute and chronic stroke with varying severity levels. The results demonstrated an increase in walking speed, improvement in FAC and a decrease in gait deviations (from baseline to follow-up) after four sessions of overground walking in the RE for participants. In addition, preliminary data indicated that spatial symmetry and step length also improved after utilization of an RE for overground walking.

8.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 46(12): 1103-1106, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells that often leads to complications including osteolytic bone lesions, nephropathy and neuropathy. Multiple myeloma is only one etiology of many cancer pain conditions that may necessitate interventional pain treatment when refractory to multimodal medications. Notably, local anesthetic systemic toxicity is a rare but life-threatening complication of local anesthetic administered for these interventions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-60-year-old woman presented with multiple myeloma complicated by chronic bone pain and in an acute pain crisis. A fluoroscopic-guided L4-5 epidural catheter was placed with clinical doses of bupivacaine for comfort to undergo MRI of the spine. Soon after, she became tachycardic, tachypneic and hypoxic requiring non-invasive positive pressure airway support. As this respiratory distress was attributed to a large pleural effusion, a pigtail catheter was inserted in the intensive care unit with submaximally dosed lidocaine infiltration. She then developed a left bundle branch block followed by cardiovascular collapse minimally responsive to high-dose inotrope and vasopressor support. Lipid emulsion was started with dramatic therapeutic response and recovery to baseline. A CT of the thoracolumbar spine showed worsening extensive lytic lesions throughout all vertebral bodies and ribs from diffuse myeloma. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with oncologic lesions focal to the thoracolumbar spine may be at higher risk for local anesthetic systemic toxicity from palliative epidurals due to increased cancer-related angiogenesis. Likewise, local anesthetic infiltration for procedures near any malignant sites could have a similar risk and may require lower initial fractionated dosages with increased vigilance.

9.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 124, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of accidental deaths and injuries worldwide. The risk of falling is especially high for individuals suffering from balance impairments. Retrospective surveys and studies of simulated falling in lab conditions are frequently used and are informative, but prospective information about real-life falls remains sparse. Such data are essential to address fall risks and develop fall detection and alert systems. Here we present the results of a prospective study investigating a proof-of-concept, smartphone-based, online system for fall detection and notification. METHODS: The system uses the smartphone's accelerometer and gyroscope to monitor the participants' motion, and falls are detected using a regularized logistic regression. Data on falls and near-fall events (i.e., stumbles) is stored in a cloud server and fall-related variables are logged onto a web portal developed for data exploration, including the event time and weather, fall probability, and the faller's location and activity before the fall. RESULTS: In total, 23 individuals with an elevated risk of falling carried the phones for 2070 days in which the model classified 14,904,000 events. The system detected 27 of the 37 falls that occurred (sensitivity = 73.0 %) and resulted in one false alarm every 46 days (specificity > 99.9 %, precision = 37.5 %). 42.2 % of the events falsely classified as falls were validated as stumbles. CONCLUSIONS: The system's performance shows the potential of using smartphones for fall detection and notification in real-life. Apart from functioning as a practical fall monitoring instrument, this system may serve as a valuable research tool, enable future studies to scale their ability to capture fall-related data, and help researchers and clinicians to investigate real-falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Smartphone , Humanos , Sistemas On-Line , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252030

RESUMO

Orthotic and assistive devices such as knee ankle foot orthoses (KAFO), come in a variety of forms and fits, with several levels of available features that could help users perform daily activities more naturally. However, objective data on the actual use of these devices outside of the research lab is usually not obtained. Such data could enhance traditional lab-based outcome measures and inform clinical decision-making when prescribing new orthotic and assistive technology. Here, we link data from a GPS unit and an accelerometer mounted on the orthotic device to quantify its usage in the community and examine the correlations with clinical metrics. We collected data from 14 individuals over a period of 2 months as they used their personal KAFO first, and then a novel research KAFO; for each device we quantified number of steps, cadence, time spent at community locations and time wearing the KAFO at those locations. Sensor-derived metrics showed that mobility patterns differed widely between participants (mean steps: 591.3, SD =704.2). The novel KAFO generally enabled participants to walk faster during clinical tests ( ∆6 Minute-Walk-Test=71.5m, p=0.006). However, some participants wore the novel device less often despite improved performance on these clinical measures, leading to poor correlation between changes in clinical outcome measures and changes in community mobility ( ∆6 Minute-Walk-Test - ∆ Community Steps: r=0.09, p=0.76). Our results suggest that some traditional clinical outcome measures may not be associated with the actual wear time of an assistive device in the community, and obtaining personalized data from real-world use through wearable technology is valuable.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé , Acelerometria , Tornozelo , Humanos , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Caminhada
12.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 660583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149379

RESUMO

Transcutaneous spinal cord electrical stimulation (tSCS) is an emerging technology that targets to restore functionally integrated neuromuscular control of gait. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel filtering method, Artifact Component Specific Rejection (ACSR), for removing artifacts induced by tSCS from surface electromyogram (sEMG) data for investigation of muscle response during walking when applying spinal stimulation. Both simulated and real tSCS contaminated sEMG data from six stroke survivors were processed using ACSR and notch filtering, respectively. The performance of the filters was evaluated with data collected in various conditions (e.g., simulated artifacts contaminating sEMG in multiple degrees, various tSCS intensities in five lower-limb muscles of six participants). In the simulation test, after applying the ACSR filter, the contaminated-signal was well matched with the original signal, showing a high correlation (r = 0.959) and low amplitude difference (normalized root means square error = 0.266) between them. In the real tSCS contaminated data, the ACSR filter showed superior performance on reducing the artifacts (96% decrease) over the notch filter (25% decrease). These results indicate that ACSR filtering is capable of eliminating artifacts from sEMG collected during tSCS application, improving the precision of quantitative analysis of muscle activity.

13.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980495

RESUMO

Soft, skin-integrated electronic sensors can provide continuous measurements of diverse physiological parameters, with broad relevance to the future of human health care. Motion artifacts can, however, corrupt the recorded signals, particularly those associated with mechanical signatures of cardiopulmonary processes. Design strategies introduced here address this limitation through differential operation of a matched, time-synchronized pair of high-bandwidth accelerometers located on parts of the anatomy that exhibit strong spatial gradients in motion characteristics. When mounted at a location that spans the suprasternal notch and the sternal manubrium, these dual-sensing devices allow measurements of heart rate and sounds, respiratory activities, body temperature, body orientation, and activity level, along with swallowing, coughing, talking, and related processes, without sensitivity to ambient conditions during routine daily activities, vigorous exercises, intense manual labor, and even swimming. Deployments on patients with COVID-19 allow clinical-grade ambulatory monitoring of the key symptoms of the disease even during rehabilitation protocols.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 88, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with transfemoral amputations who are considered to be limited community ambulators are classified as Medicare functional classification (MFCL) level K2. These individuals are usually prescribed a non-microprocessor controlled knee (NMPK) with an appropriate foot for simple walking functions. However, existing research suggests that these individuals can benefit from using a microprocessor controlled knee (MPK) and appropriate foot for their ambulation, but cannot obtain one due to insurance policy restrictions. With a steady increase in older adults with amputations due to vascular conditions, it is critical to evaluate whether advanced prostheses can provide better safety and performance capabilities to maintain and improve quality of life in individuals who are predominantly designated MFCL level K2. To decipher this we conducted a 13 month longitudinal clinical trial to determine the benefits of using a C-Leg and 1M10 foot in individuals at K2 level with transfemoral amputation due to vascular disease. This longitudinal clinical trial incorporated recommendations prescribed by the lower limb prosthesis workgroup to design a study that can add evidence to improve reimbursement policy through clinical outcomes using an MPK in K2 level individuals with transfemoral amputation who were using an NMPK for everyday use. METHODS: Ten individuals (mean age: 63 ± 9 years) with unilateral transfemoral amputation due to vascular conditions designated as MFCL K2 participated in this longitudinal crossover randomized clinical trial. Baseline outcomes were collected with their current prosthesis. Participants were then randomized to one of two groups, either an intervention with the MPK with a standardized 1M10 foot or their predicate NMPK with a standardized 1M10 foot. On completion of the first intervention, participants crossed over to the next group to complete the study. Each intervention lasted for 6 months (3 months of acclimation and 3 months of take-home trial to monitor home use). At the end of each intervention, clinical outcomes and self-reported outcomes were collected to compare with their baseline performance. A generalized linear model ANOVA was used to compare the performance of each intervention with respect to their own baseline. RESULTS: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements were observed in gait performance, safety, and participant-reported measures when using the MPK C-Leg + 1M10 foot. Most participants were able to achieve higher clinical scores in gait speed, balance, self-reported mobility, and fall safety, while using the MPK + 1M10 combination. The improvement in scores were within range of scores achieved by individuals with K3 functional level as reported in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with transfemoral amputation from dysvascular conditions designated MFCL level K2 benefited from using an MPK + appropriate foot. The inference and evidence from this longitudinal clinical trial will add to the knowledgebase related to reimbursement policy-making. Trial registration This study is registered on clinical trials.gov with the study title "Functional outcomes in dysvascular transfemoral amputees" and the associated ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01537211. The trial was retroactively registered on February 7, 2012 after the first participant was enrolled.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Articulação do Joelho , Microcomputadores , Idoso , Amputação , Amputados , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Caminhada
15.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 147: 109796, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992411

RESUMO

d-Tagatose, a potential low calorific substitute for sucrose, can be produced by bioconversion of d-galactose catalysed by l-arabinose isomerase. l-Arabinose isomerase from Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is unique for its ability to catalyse bioconversion reactions under mesophilic conditions. However, d-galactose not being a natural substrate for l-arabinose isomerase is catalysed at a slower rate. We attempted to increase the biocatalytic efficiency of Shewanella sp. l-arabinose isomerase by rational design to enhance galactose isomerisation activity. In silico molecular docking, analysis has revealed that F279 is sterically hindering the binding of d-galactose at the C6 position. Substitution of bulky Phe residue with smaller hydrophilic residues such as Asn and Thr increased the galactose isomerase activity by 86 % and 12 % respectively. At mesophilic conditions, F279N mutant catalysed the bioconversion of d-galactose more efficiently than l-arabinose, indicating a shift in substrate preference.


Assuntos
Aldose-Cetose Isomerases , Shewanella , Aldose-Cetose Isomerases/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Galactose , Hexoses , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Shewanella/genética
16.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 18(1): 58, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that disinhibition and/or hyperexcitation of the brainstem descending pathways and intraspinal motor network diffuse spastic synergistic activation patterns after stroke. This results in simplified or merged muscle sets (i.e., muscle modules or synergies) compared to non-impaired individuals and this leads to poor walking performance. However, the relations of how these neuromuscular deficits influence gait quality (e.g., symmetry or natural walking patterns) are still unclear. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the relations of modular neuromuscular framework and gait quality measures in chronic stroke individuals. METHODS: Sixteen chronic post-stroke individuals participated in this study. Full lower body three-dimensional kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were concurrently measured during overground walking at a comfortable speed. We first examined changes in gait quality measures across the number of muscle modules using linear regression model. Then, a stepwise multiple regression was used to investigate the optimal combination of the neuromuscular parameters that associates with gait quality measures. RESULTS: We observed that subjects who had a lower number of muscle modules revealed reduced function (i.e., speed) and greater asymmetry in the kinematic parameters including limb length, footpath area, knee flexion/extension, and hip abduction/adduction (all p < 0.05). We also found that the combination of input variables from the modular neuromuscular control framework significantly associated with gait quality measures (average [Formula: see text]). Those variables included variability accounted for ([Formula: see text]) information from the muscle modules and area under the EMG envelope curves of the quadriceps (i.e., rectus femoris and vastus lateralis) and tibialis anterior muscles. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that there exists a significant correlation between the neuromuscular control framework and the gait quality measures. This study helps to understand the underlying mechanism of disturbances in gait quality and provides insight for a more comprehensive outcome measure to assess gait impairment after stroke.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Feminino , , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893178

RESUMO

Capabilities in continuous monitoring of key physiological parameters of disease have never been more important than in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Soft, skin-mounted electronics that incorporate high-bandwidth, miniaturized motion sensors enable digital, wireless measurements of mechanoacoustic (MA) signatures of both core vital signs (heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature) and underexplored biomarkers (coughing count) with high fidelity and immunity to ambient noises. This paper summarizes an effort that integrates such MA sensors with a cloud data infrastructure and a set of analytics approaches based on digital filtering and convolutional neural networks for monitoring of COVID-19 infections in sick and healthy individuals in the hospital and the home. Unique features are in quantitative measurements of coughing and other vocal events, as indicators of both disease and infectiousness. Systematic imaging studies demonstrate correlations between the time and intensity of coughing, speaking, and laughing and the total droplet production, as an approximate indicator of the probability for disease spread. The sensors, deployed on COVID-19 patients along with healthy controls in both inpatient and home settings, record coughing frequency and intensity continuously, along with a collection of other biometrics. The results indicate a decaying trend of coughing frequency and intensity through the course of disease recovery, but with wide variations across patient populations. The methodology creates opportunities to study patterns in biometrics across individuals and among different demographic groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Taxa Respiratória , Sons Respiratórios , SARS-CoV-2 , Tecnologia sem Fio , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica
18.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 9: 4900311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Controlling the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic largely depends on scaling up the testing infrastructure for identifying infected individuals. Consumer-grade wearables may present a solution to detect the presence of infections in the population, but the current paradigm requires collecting physiological data continuously and for long periods of time on each individual, which poses limitations in the context of rapid screening. Technology: Here, we propose a novel paradigm based on recording the physiological responses elicited by a short (~2 minutes) sequence of activities (i.e. "snapshot"), to detect symptoms associated with COVID-19. We employed a novel body-conforming soft wearable sensor placed on the suprasternal notch to capture data on physical activity, cardio-respiratory function, and cough sounds. RESULTS: We performed a pilot study in a cohort of individuals (n=14) who tested positive for COVID-19 and detected altered heart rate, respiration rate and heart rate variability, relative to a group of healthy individuals (n=14) with no known exposure. Logistic regression classifiers were trained on individual and combined sets of physiological features (heartbeat and respiration dynamics, walking cadence, and cough frequency spectrum) at discriminating COVID-positive participants from the healthy group. Combining features yielded an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI=[0.92, 0.96]) using a leave-one-subject-out cross validation scheme. Conclusions and Clinical Impact: These results, although preliminary, suggest that a sensor-based snapshot paradigm may be a promising approach for non-invasive and repeatable testing to alert individuals that need further screening.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tosse/diagnóstico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Quarentena , Caminhada , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
19.
Brain Sci ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652677

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies suggests that a novel neuromodulation technique targeting the spinal circuitry enhances gait rehabilitation, but research on its application to stroke survivors is limited. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics of spinal motor-evoked responses (sMERs) from lower-limb muscles obtained by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) after stroke compared to age-matched and younger controls without stroke. Thirty participants (ten stroke survivors, ten age-matched controls, and ten younger controls) completed the study. By using tSCS applied between the L1 and L2 vertebral levels, we compared sMER characteristics (resting motor threshold (RMT), slope of the recruitment curve, and latency) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles among groups. A single pulse of stimulation was delivered in 5 mA increments, increasing from 5 mA to 250 mA or until the subjects reached their maximum tolerance. The stroke group had an increased RMT (27-51%) compared to both age-matched (TA: p = 0.032; MG: p = 0.005) and younger controls (TA: p < 0.001; MG: p<0.001). For the TA muscle, the paretic side demonstrated a 13% increased latency compared to the non-paretic side in the stroke group (p = 0.010). Age-matched controls also exhibited an increased RMT compared to younger controls (TA: p = 0.002; MG: p = 0.007), suggesting that altered sMER characteristics present in stroke survivors may result from both stroke and normal aging. This observation may provide implications for altered spinal motor output after stroke and demonstrates the feasibility of using sMER characteristics as an assessment after stroke.

20.
Assist Technol ; : 1-14, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571072

RESUMO

A multi-site study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the Keeogo™ exoskeleton as a mobility assist device for use in the clinic and at home in people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Twenty-four participants were randomized in a two-stage cross-over design that evaluated the immediate effects of using the exoskeleton in the clinic and the cumulative effects of training and home use. Immediate effects were quantified by comparing 1) physical performance with|without (W|WO) the device during a battery of mobility tests, and 2) physical activity levels at home (actigraphy) for one month, two weeks W|WO the device. Cumulative effects were quantified as change in physical performance W and WO over time. WOMAC and other self-report scales were measured and usability assessed. There were no immediate effects on physical performance or physical activity at home; however, there were cumulative effects as indicated by improved stair time (p = .001) as well as improved WOMAC pain (p = .004) and function (p = .003). There was a direct relationship between improved physical function and improved WOMAC pain (r = -.677, p < .001) and stiffness (r = .537, p = .007). Weight and battery life were identified as important to usability. A full-scale RCT with more participants, longer study period, and better usage monitoring is warranted.

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