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2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2019 classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus system showed high specificity, while attaining also high sensitivity. We hereby analysed the performance of the individual criteria items and their contribution to the overall performance of the criteria. METHODS: We combined the EULAR/ACR derivation and validation cohorts for a total of 1197 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and n=1074 non-SLE patients with a variety of conditions mimicking SLE, such as other autoimmune diseases, and calculated the sensitivity and specificity for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and the 23 specific criteria items. We also tested performance omitting the EULAR/ACR criteria attribution rule, which defines that items are only counted if not more likely explained by a cause other than SLE. RESULTS: Positive ANA, the new entry criterion, was 99.5% sensitive, but only 19.4% specific, against a non-SLE population that included other inflammatory rheumatic, infectious, malignant and metabolic diseases. The specific criteria items were highly variable in sensitivity (from 0.42% for delirium and 1.84% for psychosis to 75.6% for antibodies to double-stranded DNA), but their specificity was uniformly high, with low C3 or C4 (83.0%) and leucopenia <4.000/mm³ (83.8%) at the lowest end. Unexplained fever was 95.3% specific in this cohort. Applying the attribution rule improved specificity, particularly for joint involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Changing the position of the highly sensitive, non-specific ANA to an entry criterion and the attribution rule resulted in a specificity of >80% for all items, explaining the higher overall specificity of the criteria set.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in a large cohort of patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) across the European Union, Turkey, Russia, UK, and North America. METHODS: Patients with a definite diagnosis of AAV who were followed for at least 3 months and had sufficient documentation were included. Data on VTE, including either deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, were collected retrospectively from tertiary vasculitis centers. Univariate and multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Over a median follow up of 63 (29; 101) months, VTE occurred in 278 (9.7%) of 2869 AAV patients with a similar frequency across different countries (from 6.3% to 13.7%), and AAV subtype (granulomatosis with polyangiitis: 9.8%; 95% CI 8.3-11.6, microscopic polyangiitis: 9.6%; 95% CI 7.9-11.4, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: 9.8%; 95% CI 7.0-13.3). Most VTE (65.6%) were reported in the first-year post diagnosis. Multiple factor logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex and age showed that skin (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.92), pulmonary (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04-3.14) and kidney involvement (eGFR 15-60 mL/min/1.73 m2, OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.27-6.47; eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2, OR 6.71, 95% CI 2.94-15.33) were independent variables associated with a higher occurrence of VTE. CONCLUSION: Two thirds of VTE occurred during the initial phase of active disease. We confirmed previous findings from smaller studies that a decrease in kidney function, skin involvement and pulmonary disease are independently associated with VTE.

5.
Colorectal Dis ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539637

RESUMO

AIM: Vagus nerve stimulation has emerged as a plausible intervention to reduce ileus after surgery. An early development study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the feasibility of self-administered, noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) after major colorectal surgery. METHOD: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was undertaken between 1 January 2018 and 31 August 2019. Forty patients undergoing colorectal surgery for malignancy were allocated equally to Sham and Active stimulation groups. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation was self-administered bilaterally over the cervical surface landmarks for 5 days before and after surgery. Outcomes of interest were postoperative complications and adverse events measured using the Clavien-Dindo scale, treatment compliance, device usability according to the Systems Usability Scale (SUS) and clinical measures of bowel recovery. RESULTS: Forty patients were randomized and one withdrew, leaving 39 for analysis. Postoperative complications occurred in 9/19 (47.4%) participants receiving Sham and 11/20 (55.0%) receiving Active stimulation and were mostly minor. Compliance with treatment before surgery was 4.7 ± 0.9 days out of 5 days in the Sham group and 4.7 ± 1.1 in the Active group. Compliance with treatment after surgery was 4.1 ± 1.1 and 4.4 ± 1.5, respectively. Participants considered the intervention to be 'acceptable' according to the SUS. The most prominent differences in bowel recovery were days to first flatus (2.35 ± 1.32 vs 1.65 ± 0.88) and tolerance of solid diet (2.18 ± 2.21 vs 1.75 ± 0.91) for Sham and Active groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study supports the safety, treatment compliance and usability of self-administered nVNS in patients undergoing major colorectal surgery.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(7): 599-609, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The C5a receptor inhibitor avacopan is being studied for the treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral avacopan at a dose of 30 mg twice daily or oral prednisone on a tapering schedule. All the patients received either cyclophosphamide (followed by azathioprine) or rituximab. The first primary end point was remission, defined as a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) of 0 (on a scale from 0 to 63, with higher scores indicating greater disease activity) at week 26 and no glucocorticoid use in the previous 4 weeks. The second primary end point was sustained remission, defined as remission at both weeks 26 and 52. Both end points were tested for noninferiority (by a margin of 20 percentage points) and for superiority. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients underwent randomization; 166 were assigned to receive avacopan, and 165 were assigned to receive prednisone. The mean BVAS at baseline was 16 in both groups. Remission at week 26 (the first primary end point) was observed in 120 of 166 patients (72.3%) receiving avacopan and in 115 of 164 patients (70.1%) receiving prednisone (estimated common difference, 3.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.0 to 12.8; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.24 for superiority). Sustained remission at week 52 (the second primary end point) was observed in 109 of 166 patients (65.7%) receiving avacopan and in 90 of 164 patients (54.9%) receiving prednisone (estimated common difference, 12.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.6 to 22.3; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.007 for superiority). Serious adverse events (excluding worsening vasculitis) occurred in 37.3% of the patients receiving avacopan and in 39.0% of those receiving prednisone. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis, avacopan was noninferior but not superior to prednisone taper with respect to remission at week 26 and was superior to prednisone taper with respect to sustained remission at week 52. All the patients received cyclophosphamide or rituximab. The safety and clinical effects of avacopan beyond 52 weeks were not addressed in the trial. (Funded by ChemoCentryx; ADVOCATE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02994927.).


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Nipecóticos/uso terapêutico , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Receptor da Anafilatoxina C5a/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácidos Nipecóticos/efeitos adversos , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Rituximab/administração & dosagem
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 744, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436840

RESUMO

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the only blood based protein biomarker at present, used for preoperative screening of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to determine the appropriate curative treatments and post-surveillance screening for tumour recurrence. Current diagnostics for CRC detection have several limitations and development of a highly sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic device is required. The majority of such devices developed to date are antibody-based and suffer from shortcomings including multimeric binding, cost and difficulties in mass production. To circumvent antibody-derived limitations, the present study focused on the development of Affimer proteins as a novel alternative binding reagent for CEA detection. Here, we describe the selection, from a phage display library, of Affimers specific to CEA protein. Characterization of three anti-CEA Affimers reveal that these bind specifically and selectively to protein epitopes of CEA from cell culture lysate and on fixed cells. Kinetic binding analysis by SPR show that the Affimers bind to CEA with high affinity and within the nM range. Therefore, they have substantial potential for used as novel affinity reagents in diagnostic imaging, targeted CRC therapy, affinity purification and biosensor applications.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To define the pattern of cardiac involvement in eosinophilic granulomatosis and polyangiitis (EGPA) and propose an algorithm for heart disease screening. METHODS: Retrospective study of EGPA patients attending a specialized vasculitis clinic (1989-2016). Clinical characteristics and cardiovascular evaluation (CE) results (serum troponin, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance) were collected and compared according to symptoms and inflammatory cardiac disease (ICD). RESULTS: 131 EGPA patients were included, of whom 96 (73%) had undergone CE. The median age was 50 [IQR 38-58] years and 36% showed ANCA+. Asthma preceded diagnosis by a median of 97 [36-240] months. Among the 96 patients who underwent CE, 43% were symptomatic, being dyspnea (47%) and chest pain (29%) the predominant symptoms. In asymptomatic patients, CE reported abnormalities in 45% of cases with a subsequent earlier diagnosis (4 vs 11 months). Overall, 27 patients had EGPA-related ICD (rICD) that was already present at diagnosis in 20 cases, preceded it in 2 cases and developed later in 5. EGPA-rICD patients were younger (46 vs 50 years; p= 0.04), had more frequently abnormal ECG (30.8% vs 2.1%; p< 0.001), negative ANCA (85% vs 69%; NS), higher BVAS score (3 vs 1; p= 0.005), higher eosinophil count (5.60 vs 1.60x109/l; p= 0.029) and higher C reactive protein (52 vs 15 mg/l; p= 0.017). Overall, 11% of cases with EGPA-rICD were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: In our study, 45% of asymptomatic patients had an abnormal baseline cardiac evaluation, which allowed an earlier diagnosis of cardiac disease. We recommend prompt cardiac screening in all EGPA patients, instead of a symptoms-guided algorithm.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence rate and predictors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a population-based cohort with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). DESIGN: The study comprised 325 patients diagnosed with AAV from 1997-2016. All cases of VTE from prior to vasculitis diagnosis to the end of the study period were identified. The Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) was used to assess disease activity at diagnosis. Venous thromboembolisms occurring in a period beginning three months prior to AAV diagnosis were considered to be AAV-related. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of VTE were calculated using the incidence rate in the general population. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients (18%) suffered 69 VTE events. Of these, 48 (81%) suffered AAV-related VTE [deep vein thrombosis (DVT, n = 23), pulmonary embolism (PE, n = 18), and other (n = 9)]. The incidence rate of AAV-related VTE was 2.4/100 person-years (95% CI 1.7-3.0) during 2039 person-years of follow-up. The incidence during the first three months post-AAV diagnosis was 20.4/100 person-years (95% CI 11.5-29.4), decreasing to 8.9 (95% CI 0.2-17.6) and 1.5 (95% CI 0.0-3.5) in months 4-6 and months 7-12 post-AAV diagnosis, respectively. The SIR was 34.2 (95% CI 20.2-48.1) for DVT and 10.4 (95% CI 5.6-15.1) for PE. In multivariate Cox-regression analyses, only age and BVAS were predictive of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate and SIR of AAV-related VTE is high, and higher early in the course of the disease. Vasculitis activity and age are positively associated with VTE.

11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) requires judicious use of immunosuppression. Novel biomarkers may be useful for monitoring disease activity and treatment response. We assessed the utility of urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) and urinary tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (uTWEAK) for disease activity and treatment response monitoring in South Africans with LN. METHODS: We recruited consenting patients with active LN confirmed on kidney biopsy. Urinary levels of MCP-1 and TWEAK were assayed at baseline and after completion of induction therapy using ELISA methods. We also collected relevant demographic, clinical and biochemical data for patients included in this study. RESULTS: The mean age of patients in this study was 29.8 ± 10.7 years, 60% were patients of mixed ancestry, 70% had proliferative LN and mean spot urine proteinuria at baseline was 0.37 (0.18-0.59) g/mmolCr. At completion of induction therapy, the level of uMCP-1 had reduced to 314.5 (IQR: 197.0-622) pg/mgCr from a baseline of 1092.7 (IQR 578.6-1848) pg/mgCr (P = 0.06) while uTWEAK had reduced to 36.0 (IQR 17.0-88.0) pg/mgCr from 159.0 (IQR: 88.5-295.5) pg/mgCr (P = 0.03). For patients reaching early complete or partial remission (n = 17), both biomarkers had significantly declined in their urine: uMCP-1 (P = 0.018) and uTWEAK (P = 0.015). There was no reduction of both biomarkers in patients not achieving remission and no association between uMCP-1 or uTWEAK with renal histological features. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that uMCP-1 and uTWEAK are elevated in patients with active LN, correlated with the remission status (response to treatment) at the end of induction therapy and can, therefore, be useful for monitoring disease activity and treatment response.

12.
Neuroradiology ; 63(3): 305-316, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392737

RESUMO

The study design of this paper is systematic review. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the existing radiological grading systems that are used to assess cervical foraminal stenosis. The importance of imaging the cervical spine using CT or MRI in evaluating cervical foraminal stenosis is widely accepted; however, there is no consensus for standardized methodology to assess the compression of the cervical nerve roots. A systematic search of Ovid Medline databases, Embase 1947 to present, Cinahl, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ISRCTN and WHO international clinical trials was performed for reports of cervical foraminal stenosis published before 01 February 2020. In collaboration with the University of Leeds, a search strategy was developed. A total of 6952 articles were identified with 59 included. Most of the reports involved multiple imaging modalities with standard axial and sagittal imaging used most. The grading themes that came from this systematic review show that the most mature for cervical foraminal stenosis is described by (Kim et al. Korean J Radiol 16:1294, 2015) and (Park et al. Br J Radiol 86:20120515, 2013). Imaging of the cervical nerve root canals is mostly performed using MRI and is reported using subjective terminology. The Park, Kim and Modified Kim systems for classifying the degree of stenosis of the nerve root canal have been described. Clinical application of these scoring systems is limited by their reliance on nonstandard imaging (Park), limited validation against clinical symptoms and surgical outcome data. Oblique fine cut images derived from three dimensional MRI datasets may yield more consistency, better clinical correlation, enhanced surgical decision-making and outcomes.

13.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 133: 94-100, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the approach to participant coenrolment in publicly funded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to consider its impact on study recruitment. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study of the UK National Institute for Health Research Journals Library was undertaken. RCTs funded between 2010 and 2019 were eligible. The reporting of coenrolment criteria was assessed through inspection of publicly available study protocols. Where present, the approach to coenrolment was examined, including circumstances in which it was permitted/prohibited and the mechanism for decision-making. For completed RCTs, the impact on recruitment was explored by comparing rates of early recruitment (completion before the expected end date) and extensions (completion after the expected end date) between studies, which did and did not permit coenrolment. RESULTS: Of 219 eligible protocols, coenrolment was addressed in 94 (42.9%). Twenty-three (24.5%) of these did not allow recruitment to multiple studies, while 71 (75.5%) permitted it according to a series of caveats, including considerations of study outcomes, intervention type, and patient burden. The final decision for coenrolment rested with the local recruitment team in 57 (60.6%) and with the central organizing team in 37 (39.4%). Early completion of recruitment occurred in 8 of 64 (12.5%) RCTs where coenrolment was permitted and 5 of 20 (25.0%) where it was not (P = 0.285). An extension to recruitment time was required in 31 of 64 (48.4%) RCTs where coenrolment was permitted and 9 of 11 (45.0%) where it was not (P = 0.788). CONCLUSIONS: The reporting of coenrolment in protocols of publicly funded RCTs is infrequent, and where present, the approach to decision-making is widely variable. In this study, policies of coenrolment were not associated with gains in trial recruitment.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113013, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508539

RESUMO

Polyoctopamine (POct), an amine-functionalised non-conducting polymer, as the transducer layer in an electrochemical biosensor, is presented. This polymer offers versatile covalent coupling either through thiol linker conjugation, carboxyl or aldehyde functional groups without the requirement of pre- or post-surface activation. The colorectal cancer biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was selected as the target analyte, whilst an antibody and a synthetic binding protein, an Affimer, were used as distinct bioreceptors to demonstrate the versatility of polyoctopamine as a transducer polymer layer for oriented immobilisation of the bioreceptors. The electrodeposited polymer layer was characterised using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and on-sensor chemiluminescent blotting. The performance of optimised POct-based biosensors were tested in spiked human serum. Results showed that the electropolymerisation of octopamine on screen printed gold electrode generates a thin polymer film with low resistance. Close proximity of the immobilised bioreceptors to the transducer layer greatly enhanced the sensitivity detection. The sensitivity of the smaller monomeric bioreceptor (Affimer, 12.6 kDa) to detect CEA was comparable to the dimeric antibody (150 kDa) with limit of detection at 11.76 fM which is significantly lower than the basal clinical levels of 25 pM. However, the Affimer-based sensor had a narrower dynamic range compared to the immunosensor (1-100 fM vs. 1 fM - 100 nM, respectively). All electrochemical measurements were done in less than 5 min with small sample volumes (10 µl). Hence, polyoctopamine features a simple fabrication of impedimetric biosensors using amine-functionalisation technique, provides rapid response time with enhanced sensitivity and label-free detection.

15.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The primary aim was to explore the perceived barriers that lower limb amputees and service providers face when accessing or providing rehabilitation services. The secondary aim was to describe the lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in the Western Area of Sierra Leone in 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mixed methodology was employed, involving the collection of amputation data from surgical logbooks and interviews with amputees (n = 10) and group discussion and interviews with service providers (n = 11). RESULTS: Of the 37 primary lower limb amputations (49% men, 51% women; median age 56 years; 62% transtibial and 35% transfemoral amputations) 86% were for diabetic and vascular causes. Barriers to accessing services included poor transportation access, high service fees, rural living, gender and a lack of government support. Insufficient funding and supplies, skilled staff shortages and a lack of local training programmes were frequently reported barriers to providing rehabilitation services. CONCLUSIONS: A low prioritisation means rehabilitation services are underfunded, resulting in numerous barriers to both accessing and providing amputee rehabilitation services. Subsidised services and an outreach programme may improve access for patients. Increased funding and local training programmes are needed to improve service delivery. Implications for Rehabilitation Comprehensive and accessible amputee rehabilitation services can enable people with amputations to regain their independence and aid their participation in their community and workplace. There are numerous barriers to both accessing and providing amputee rehabilitation services in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, chiefly financial. We recommend a revised effort by the Sierra Leonean government to implement the progressive policies on disability they have already adopted into law, which will aid the improvement of amputee rehabilitation services. New education and training programmes for all levels of prosthetic and orthotic professions are needed to secure the future of prosthetics and orthotics in Sierra Leone.

16.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 60: 654-659, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304582

RESUMO

Aim: Cutaneous abscesses are one of the most common acute general surgery presentations. This study aimed to understand the current practice in the management of cutaneous abscesses in the United Kingdom (UK), once the decision has been made that acute surgical incision and drainage (I&D) is required. Method: General surgeons from across the UK were surveyed on their opinions on the optimum management of cutaneous abscesses. Outcomes measured included anaesthesia, incision technique, antibiotic administration, departmental abscess pathways, and post-drainage management. A combination of Likert scales, multiple-choice questions, and short answer questions were used. Comparisons were made of Likert scales between regions using a two-sample independent t-test. The survey was peer reviewed and distributed through the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) network between April and June 2018. Results: Sixty-one responses were collected from surgeons throughout the UK. Of these respondents, 69% indicated that cutaneous abscesses would always or usually require a General Anaesthetic (GA) for treatment, and 82% indicated that abscesses were at least sometimes not treated until the next day due to a lack of resources. While 79% of surgeons stated that pus swabs are always or are usually taken, 44% of respondents never or rarely chased the results. The main indications for giving antibiotics were sepsis/systemically unwell patients, and cellulitis. 31% of responding centres had an abscess management protocol, and 82% of respondents confirmed that they would always pack the abscess wound post-operatively. Conclusion: 'Incision and drainage' is currently the most widely used technique for the surgical management of cutaneous abscess. However, this study demonstrates the significant variability in the use of anaesthesia, antibiotics, packing and the use of protocols to guide and streamline patient management.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Only a third of patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are ANCA-positive, mainly directed against MPO. ANCA directed against PR3 are rarely found in EGPA. We aimed to examine the significance of PR3-ANCA in EGPA. METHODS: We set up a retrospective European multicentre cohort including 845 patients. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analysed and compared according to ANCA status. RESULTS: ANCA status was available for 734 patients: 508 (69.2%) ANCA-negative, 210 (28.6%) MPO-ANCA and 16 (2.2%) PR3-ANCA. At baseline, PR3-ANCA patients, compared with those with MPO-ANCA and ANCA-negative, less frequently had active asthma (69% vs 91% and 93%, P = 0.003, respectively) and peripheral neuropathy (31% vs 71% and 47%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had cutaneous manifestations (63% vs 38% and 34%, P = 0.03) and pulmonary nodules (25% vs 10% and 8%, P = 0.046), and lower median eosinophil count (1450 vs 5400 and 3224/mm3, P < 0.0001). Vasculitis relapse-free survival was shorter for PR3-ANCA (hazard ratio 6.05, P = 0.005) and MPO-ANCA patients (hazard ratio 1.88, P = 0.0002) compared with ANCA-negative patients. CONCLUSION: PR3-ANCA EGPA patients differ from those with MPO-ANCA and negative ANCA, and share clinical features with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. This suggests that PR3-ANCA EGPA could be a particular form of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality, with outcomes modified by treatment and an incidence that may be increasing. We examined temporal changes in incidence and mortality during 2000-15 using nationwide healthcare registries. METHODS: Patients with incident AAV were identified using International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10) codes and grouped according to inclusion year (Period 1: 2000-04, Period 2: 2005-09, Period 3: 2010-15). Log link cumulative incidence regression adjusted for age, sex, renal function, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and advanced disease severity were used to model survival. RESULTS: We identified 1631 patients (52% male), corresponding to an incidence of 18.5 persons/million/year (Period 1: 15.1, Period 2: 18.5, Period 3: 21.4). The slope of incident serologic ANCA testing was steeper than that of AAV (P = 0.002). Mean [standard deviation (SD)] age was 60.2 (16.7) years and mean (SD) follow-up was 6.8 (4.7) years. A total of 571 (35%) patients died (5-year mortality of 22.1%), with an absolute risk ratio (ARR) for Periods 2 and 3 compared with Period 1 of 0.80 [confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.98, P = 0.031] and 0.39 (CI 0.31-0.50, P < 0.001). About 274 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [16.8% (Period 1: 23.3%, Period 2: 17.6%, Period 3: 12.5%)], with ARR decreasing over time: Period 2 0.61 (CI 0.42-0.87, P = 0.007) and Period 3 0.57 (CI 0.39-0.83, P = 0.003). The overall risk of death associated with ESRD or chronic kidney disease was 1.74 (CI 1.29-2.37, P < 0.001) and 1.58 (CI 1.21-2.07, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of ANCA testing and AAV diagnosis increased over the test period. Falls over time in mortality and ESRD risk may relate to earlier diagnosis and changes in treatment practice.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Following a maintenance course of rituximab (RTX) for ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), relapses occur on cessation of therapy, and further dosing is considered. This study aimed to develop relapse and infection risk prediction models to help guide decision making regarding extended RTX maintenance therapy. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of AAV who received 4-8 grams of RTX as maintenance treatment between 2002 and 2018 were included. Both induction and maintenance doses were included; most patients received standard departmental protocol consisting of 2× 1000 mg 2 weeks apart, followed by 1000 mg every 6 months for 2 years. Patients who continued on repeat RTX dosing long-term were excluded. Separate risk prediction models were derived for the outcomes of relapse and infection. RESULTS: A total of 147 patients were included in this study with a median follow-up of 63 months [interquartile range (IQR): 34-93]. Relapse: At time of last RTX, the model comprised seven predictors, with a corresponding C-index of 0.54. Discrimination between individuals using this model was not possible; however, discrimination could be achieved by grouping patients into low- and high-risk groups. When the model was applied 12 months post last RTX, the ability to discriminate relapse risk between individuals improved (C-index 0.65), and once again, clear discrimination was observed between patients from low- and high-risk groups. Infection: At time of last RTX, five predictors were retained in the model. The C-index was 0.64 allowing discrimination between low and high risk of infection groups. At 12 months post RTX, the C-index for the model was 0.63. Again, clear separation of patients from two risk groups was observed. CONCLUSION: While our models had insufficient power to discriminate risk between individual patients they were able to assign patients into risk groups for both relapse and infection. The ability to identify risk groups may help in decisions regarding the potential benefit of ongoing RTX treatment. However, we caution the use of these prediction models until prospective multi-centre validation studies have been performed.

20.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(6): 1314-1325, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive review of outcome measures used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) could advance trial conductance for this disease. METHODS: A systematic literature review of outcome measures (as specified in methods section as primary and/or secondary outcomes) in RCTs of AAV was conducted. Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception until April 30, 2019 for RCTs enrolling patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and/or microscopic polyangiitis. Outcome measures were organized according to domains (e.g. disease activity) and instruments [e.g. Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS)]. RESULTS: Out of 1101 identified records, 68 RCTs were eligible. Disease activity was an outcome domain collected in 67 (98%) of the RCTs. The BVAS was the most widely used instrument for disease assessment but definitions for remissions and relapse varied for the purpose of primary endpoint definitions. Damage, most often assessed by the Vasculitis Damage Index, was an outcome in 30 (44%) of the RCTs. Mortality was specified as an outcome in 26 (38%) studies. The following outcome domains were assessed: patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in 28 (41%), drug exposure/safety in 58 (85%), and biomarkers [acute phase reactants, ANCA levels] in 24 (35%). Timing for outcome assessment differed substantially, with 3, 6, or 12 months being the most frequent time points. CONCLUSION: Outcome measures used in trials in AAV commonly included vasculitis-specific tools for disease assessment, but with heterogeneity in endpoint-definitions and timing of assessments. Other core outcomes in AAV, including PROs, and damage measures, are often omitted in AAV trials.

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