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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028623, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 'Core information sets' (CISs) represent baseline information, agreed by patients and professionals, to stimulate individualised patient-centred discussions. This study developed a CIS for use before colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery. DESIGN: Three phase consensus study: (1) Systematic literature reviews and patient interviews to identify potential information of importance to patients, (2) UK national Delphi survey of patients and professionals to rate the importance of the information, (3) international consensus meeting to agree on the final CIS. SETTING: UK CRC centres. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sampling was conducted to ensure CRC centre representation based upon geographical region and caseload volume. Responses were received from 63/81 (78%) centres (90 professionals). Adult patients who had undergone CRC surgery were eligible, and purposive sampling was conducted to ensure representation based on age, sex and cancer location (rectum, left and right colon). Responses were received from 97/267 (35%) patients with a wide age range (29-87), equal sex ratio and cancer location. Attendees of the international Tripartite Colorectal Conference were eligible for the consensus meeting. OUTCOMES: Phase 1: Information of potential importance to patients was extracted verbatim and operationalised into a Delphi questionnaire. Phase 2: Patients and professionals rated the importance information on a 9-point Likert scale, and resurveyed following group feedback. Information rated of low importance were discarded using predefined criteria. Phase 3: A modified nominal group technique was used to gain final consensus in separate consensus meetings with patients and professionals. RESULTS: Data sources identified 1216 pieces of information that informed a 98-item questionnaire. Analysis led to 50 and 23 information domains being retained after the first and second surveys, respectively. The final CIS included 11 concepts including specific surgical complications, short and long-term survival, disease recurrence, stoma and quality of life issues. CONCLUSIONS: This study has established a CIS for professionals to discuss with patients before CRC surgery.

3.
Nephrol Ther ; 15(6): 409-412, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631015

RESUMO

A role for the alternative complement pathway has emerged in the understanding of ANCA vasculitis pathogenesis. Current therapies of ANCA vasculitis are limited by partial efficacy and toxicity and many patients pursue a relapsing course. Improved therapies are needed. Inhibition of the alternative complement pathway component C5a is attractive due to its role in neutrophil activation and migration, and engagement of other inflammatory and thrombotic mechanisms. Two inhibitors of C5a are in clinical development for ANCA vasculitis: avacopan, an oral C5a receptor inhibitor has demonstrated efficacy, safety and steroid sparing in two Phase II trials; and IFX-1, a monoclonal antibody to C5a which is entering Phase II development. Complement inhibition has the potential to contribute to remission induction protocols achieving a higher quality of remission as well as replacing steroids. Confirmation of safety, especially infective risk, and the potential to replace steroids depends on further studies and a role in relapse prevention needs to be explored.

4.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 137, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ear, nose and throat involvement in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is frequently the initial disease manifestation. Previous investigations have observed a higher prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with GPA, and chronic nasal carriage has been linked with an increased risk of disease relapse. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated changes in the nasal microbiota including a detailed analysis of Staphylococcus spp. by shotgun metagenomics in patients with active and inactive granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Shotgun metagenomic sequence data were also used to identify protein-encoding genes within the SEED database, and the abundance of proteins then correlated with the presence of bacterial species on an annotated heatmap. RESULTS: The presence of S. aureus in the nose as assessed by culture was more frequently detected in patients with active GPA (66.7%) compared with inactive GPA (34.1%). Beta diversity analysis of nasal microbiota by bacterial 16S rRNA profiling revealed a different composition between GPA patients and healthy controls (P = 0.039). Beta diversity analysis of shotgun metagenomic sequence data for Staphylococcus spp. revealed a different composition between active GPA patients and healthy controls and disease controls (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.0023, respectively), and between healthy controls and inactive GPA patients and household controls (P = 0.0168 and P = 0.0168, respectively). Patients with active GPA had a higher abundance of S. aureus, mirroring the culture data, while healthy controls had a higher abundance of S. epidermidis. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, generally assumed to be a pathogen of cats and dogs, showed an abundance of 13% among the Staphylococcus spp. in our cohort. During long-term follow-up of patients with inactive GPA at baseline, a higher S. aureus abundance was not associated with an increased relapse risk. Functional analyses identified ten SEED protein subsystems that differed between the groups. Most significant associations were related to chorismate synthesis and involved in the vitamin B12 pathway. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed a distinct dysbiosis of the nasal microbiota in GPA patients compared with disease and healthy controls. Metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that this dysbiosis in active GPA patients is manifested by increased abundance of S. aureus and a depletion of S. epidermidis, further demonstrating the antagonist relationships between these species. SEED functional protein subsystem analysis identified an association between the unique bacterial nasal microbiota clusters seen mainly in GPA patients and an elevated abundance of genes associated with chorismate synthesis and vitamin B12 pathways. Further studies are required to further elucidate the relationship between the biosynthesis genes and the associated bacterial species.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639455

RESUMO

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) transmembrane protein transporter is known for conferring resistance to treatment in cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising anti-cancer method involving the use of light-activated photosensitisers to precisely induce oxidative stress and cell death in cancers. ABCG2 can efflux photosensitisers from out of cells, reducing the capacity of PDT and limiting the efficacy of treatment. Many studies have attempted to elucidate the relationship between the expression of ABCG2 in cancers, its effect on the cellular retention of photosensitisers and its impact on PDT. This review looks at the studies which investigate the effect of ABCG2 on a range of different photosensitisers in different pre-clinical models of cancer. This work also evaluates the approaches that are being investigated to address the role of ABCG2 in PDT with an outlook on potential clinical validation.

6.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1193-1197, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388893

RESUMO

The European Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) study group first gathered in Firenze in December 2018. The discussion was centred around the clinical and therapeutic needs in EGPA which still remain unmet. Indeed, EGPA is a puzzling and rare disease which shares clinical features with other anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAVs) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Some of the recommendations published in 2015 are based on data derived from EGPA-related diseases, rather than from EGPA itself, and therefore need to be updated. Thus, the aim of the meeting was to stimulate ongoing research, to promote collaborative European studies and to define the main issues on which future studies should be focused. Current fields of research on EGPA include potential serological biomarkers of disease activity and of specific organ involvement, possible links between different genetic variants and clinical phenotypes, and new therapeutic perspectives. Herein, we give an overview of the meeting with the goal to stimulate an international collaboration and new points of discussion.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e031150, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate whether a wearable remote vital signs monitor could accurately measure heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and temperature in a postsurgical patient population at high risk of complications. DESIGN: Manually recorded vital signs data were paired with vital signs data derived from the remote monitor set in patients participating in the Trial of Remote versus Continuous INtermittent monitoring (TRaCINg) study: a trial of continuous remote vital signs monitoring. SETTING: St James's University Hospital, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 51 patients who had undergone major elective general surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention was the SensiumVitals monitoring system. This is a wireless patch worn on the patient's chest that measures HR, RR and temperature continuously. The reference standard was nurse-measured manually recorded vital signs. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were the 95% limits of agreement between manually recorded and wearable patch vital sign recordings of HR, RR and temperature. The secondary outcomes were the percentage completeness of vital sign patch data for each vital sign. RESULTS: 1135 nurse observations were available for analysis. There was no clinically meaningful bias in HR (1.85 bpm), but precision was poor (95% limits of agreement -23.92 to 20.22 bpm). Agreement was poor for RR (bias 2.93 breaths per minute, 95% limits of agreement -8.19 to 14.05 breaths per minute) and temperature (bias 0.82°C, 95% limits of agreement -1.13°C to 2.78°C). Vital sign patch data completeness was 72.8% for temperature, 59.2% for HR and 34.1% for RR. Distributions of RR in manually recorded measurements were clinically implausible. CONCLUSIONS: The continuous monitoring system did not reliably provide HR consistent with nurse measurements. The accuracy of RR and temperature was outside of acceptable limits. Limitations of the system could potentially be overcome through better signal processing. While acknowledging the time pressures placed on nursing staff, inaccuracies in the manually recorded data present an opportunity to increase awareness about the importance of manual observations, particularly with regard to methods of manual HR and RR measurements.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

11.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is common and burdensome in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study aimed to understand how fatigue changes over time following treatment initiation and determine whether individuals with the poorest prognosis can be robustly identified. METHODS: 149 patients with AAV and new onset disease recruited to two clinical trials (RITUXIVAS and MYCYC) were followed for 18 months. Fatigue was measured at baseline and 6 monthly intervals using the vitality domain of the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire and compared to a cohort of 470 controls. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) determined trajectories of the symptom between which baseline characteristics and on-going fatigue scores were compared. RESULTS: Fatigue levels at diagnosis were worse in patients than controls (median 30 IQR 10, 48 vs 70 IQR 55, 80; p<0.001), with 46% of patients reporting severe fatigue. Fatigue improved after 6 months treatment but remained worse than controls (p<0.001). GBTM revealed varied trajectories of fatigue: low fatigue stable (n=23), moderate baseline fatigue improver (n=29), high baseline fatigue improver (n=61) and stable baseline high fatigue (n=37). Participants who followed stable high fatigue trajectories had lower vasculitis activity compared to improvers but no other demographic or clinical variables differed. CONCLUSION: This study longitudinally measured fatigue levels in patients with AAV. Although, most patients improve following treatment, an important subgroup of patients report persistent high levels of fatigue that does not change. Few clinical or laboratory markers distinguished these patients, suggesting alternative interventions specific for fatigue are required.

12.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 394-398, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291610

RESUMO

ANCA associated vasculitis is a serious, very often recurrent disease that despite the current standard treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and either cyclophosphamide or rituximab, patients have a nine-fold increased mortality risk in the first year compared with healthy controls, attributed to infections, vasculitis activity, and renal disease. During the last few years, novel findings have suggested that activation of the complement system, in particular the alternative complement system, has a significant role in ANCA associated vasculitis pathogenesis. Detection of several components of this system in the circulation and urine reflects disease activity, and thus may be useful for clinical prognosis and to set up personalised treatments. In fact, some components of the complement system, such as C5a, might be potential targets for therapy. In this Review an update on clinical evidence for the role of complement activation in AAV is provided and subsequently we discuss potential therapeutic strategies that target complement components and open the way for clinical use of this target therapy in the near future.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Animais , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Rituximab/farmacologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e028635, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To capture stakeholders' theories concerning how and in what contexts robot-assisted surgery becomes integrated into routine practice. DESIGN: A literature review provided tentative theories that were revised through a realist interview study. Literature-based theories were presented to the interviewees, who were asked to describe to what extent and in what ways those theories reflected their experience. Analysis focused on identifying mechanisms through which robot-assisted surgery becomes integrated into practice and contexts in which those mechanisms are triggered. SETTING: Nine hospitals in England where robot-assisted surgery is used for colorectal operations. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four theatre staff with experience of robot-assisted colorectal surgery, including surgeons, surgical trainees, theatre nurses, operating department practitioners and anaesthetists. RESULTS: Interviewees emphasised the importance of support from hospital management, team leaders and surgical colleagues. Training together as a team was seen as beneficial, increasing trust in each other's knowledge and supporting team bonding, in turn leading to improved teamwork. When first introducing robot-assisted surgery, it is beneficial to have a handpicked dedicated robotic team who are able to quickly gain experience and confidence. A suitably sized operating theatre can reduce operation duration and the risk of de-sterilisation. Motivation among team members to persist with robot-assisted surgery can be achieved without involvement in the initial decision to purchase a robot, but training that enables team members to feel confident as they take on the new tasks is essential. CONCLUSIONS: We captured accounts of how robot-assisted surgery has been introduced into a range of hospitals. Using a realist approach, we were also able to capture perceptions of the factors that support and constrain the integration of robot-assisted surgery into routine practice. We have translated these into recommendations that can inform future implementations of robot-assisted surgery.

16.
RMD Open ; 5(1): e000905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245051

RESUMO

Introduction: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a subset of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis with distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical features and treatment responses. Rituximab is a licensed therapy for granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis but there is limited experience of rituximab in EGPA. Methods: EGPA patients from a tertiary centre who received rituximab for mostly refractory EGPA or in whom cyclophosphamide was contra indicated were studied. A standardised dataset was collected at time of initial treatment and every 3 months for 24 months. Response was defined as a Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) of 0 and partial response as ≥50% reduction in BVAS from baseline. Remission was defined as a BVAS of 0 on prednisolone dose ≤5 mg. Results: Sixty-nine patients (44 female) received rituximab between 2003 and 2017. Improvement (response and partial response) was observed in 76.8% of patients at 6 months, 82.8% at 12 months and in 93.2% by 24 months, while relapses occurred in 54% by 24 months, with asthma being the most frequent manifestation. The median BVAS decreased from 6 at baseline to 1 at 6 months, and 0 at 12 and 24 months. Prednisolone dose (mg/day, median) decreased from 12.5 to 7, 7.5 and 5 at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. ANCA positive patients had a longer asthma/ear, nose and throat (ENT) relapse-free survival time and a shorter time to remission. Discussion: Rituximab demonstrated some efficacy in EGPA and led to a reduction in prednisolone requirement, but asthma and ENT relapse rates were high despite continued treatment. The ANCA positive subset appeared to have a more sustained response on isolated asthma/ENT exacerbations.

17.
J Biophotonics ; 12(11): e201900055, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240824

RESUMO

Ultrashort pulse lasers offer great promise for tissue resection with exceptional precision and minimal thermal damage. Surgery in the bowel requires high precision and minimal necrotic tissue to avoid severe complications such as perforation. The deployment of ultrashort lasers in minimally invasive or endoscopic procedures has been hindered by the lack of suitable optical fibres for high peak powers. However, recent developments of hollow core microstructured fibres provide potential for delivery of such pulses throughout the body. In this study, analysis of laser ablation via a scanning galvanometer on a porcine colon tissue model is presented. A thermally damaged region (<85 µm) and fine depth control of ablation using the pulse energies 46 and 33 µJ are demonstrated. It is further demonstrated that such pulses suitable for precision porcine colon resection can be flexibly delivered via a hollow core negative curvature fibre (HC-NCF) and again ablation depth can be controlled with a thermally damaged region <85 µm. Ablation volumes are comparable to that of early stage lesions in the inner lining of the colon. This study concludes that the combination of ultrashort pulses and flexible fibre delivery via HC-NCF present a viable route to new minimally invasive surgical procedures.

18.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(21): 1-76, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of fistula surgery is to eradicate the disease while preserving anal sphincter function. The efficacy of the Surgisis® anal fistula plug (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN, USA) in the treatment of trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano has been variably reported. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a randomised comparison of the safety and efficacy of the Surgisis anal fistula plug in comparison with surgeon's preference for the treatment of trans-sphincteric anal fistulas. DESIGN: A randomised, unblinded, parallel-arm, prospective, multicentre clinical trial. SETTING: Hospitals in the UK NHS involving colorectal surgeons accredited by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients suffering from trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano of cryptoglandular origin. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised on a 1 : 1 basis to either the fistula plug or the surgeon's preference [e.g. fistulotomy, cutting seton, advancement flap or ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) procedure]. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was quality of life as measured by the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life (FIQoL) questionnaire at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures included clinical and radiological fistula healing rates, faecal incontinence rates, complications rates, reintervention rates and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Between May 2011 and March 2016, 304 participants were recruited (152 fistula plug vs. 152 surgeon's preference). No difference in FIQoL score between the two trial groups was seen at the 6-week, 6-month or 12-month follow-up. Clinical evidence of fistula healing was reported in 66 of 122 (54%) participants in the fistula plug group and in 66 of 119 (55%) participants in the surgeon's preference group at 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed fistula healing in 54 of 110 (49%) participants in the fistula plug group and in 63 of 112 (56%) participants in the surgeon's preference group. Variation in 12-month clinical healing rates was observed: 55%, 64%, 75%, 53% and 42% for fistula plug, cutting seton, fistulotomy, advancement flap and LIFT procedure, respectively. Faecal incontinence rates were low at baseline, with small improvement in both groups post treatment. Complications and reinterventions were frequent. The mean total costs were £2738 [standard deviation (SD) £1151] in the fistula plug group and £2308 (SD £1228) in the surgeon's preference group. The average total quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gain was much smaller in the fistula plug group (0.829, SD 0.174) than in the surgeon's preference group (0.790, SD 0.212). Using multiple imputation and probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and adjusting for differences in baseline EuroQol-5 Dimensions, three-level version utility, there was a 35-45% chance that the fistula plug was as cost-effective as surgeon's preference over a range of thresholds of willingness to pay for a single QALY of £20,000-30,000. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include a smaller sample size than originally calculated, a lack of blinding that perhaps biased patient-reported outcomes and a lower compliance rate with MRI at 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The Surgisis anal fistula plug is associated with similar FIQoL score to surgeon's preference at 12-month follow-up. The higher costs and highly uncertain and small gains in QALYs associated with the fistula plug mean that this technology is unlikely to be considered a cost-effective use of resources in the UK NHS. FUTURE WORK: Further in-depth analysis should consider the clinical and MRI characteristics of fistula-in-ano in an attempt to identify predictors of fistula response to treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78352529. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 21. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

19.
JCI Insight ; 52019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lymphocyte-depleting antibody alemtuzumab is a highly effective treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); however 50% of patients develop novel autoimmunity post-treatment. Most at risk are individuals who reconstitute their T-cell pool by proliferating residual cells, rather than producing new T-cells in the thymus; raising the possibility that autoimmunity might be prevented by increasing thymopoiesis. Keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin) promotes thymopoiesis in non-human primates. METHODS: Following a dose-tolerability sub-study, individuals with RRMS (duration ≤10 years; expanded disability status scale ≤5·0; with ≥2 relapses in the previous 2 years) were randomised to placebo or 180mcg/kg/day palifermin, given for 3 days immediately prior to and after each cycle of alemtuzumab, with repeat doses at M1 and M3. The interim primary endpoint was naïve CD4+ T-cell count at M6. Exploratory endpoints included: number of recent thymic-emigrants (RTEs) and signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs)/mL of blood. The trial primary endpoint was incidence of autoimmunity at M30. FINDINGS: At M6, individuals receiving palifermin had fewer naïve CD4+T-cells (2.229x107/L vs. 7.733x107/L; p=0.007), RTEs (16% vs. 34%) and sjTRECs/mL (1100 vs. 3396), leading to protocol-defined termination of recruitment. No difference was observed in the rate of autoimmunity between the two groupsConclusion: In contrast to animal studies, palifermin reduced thymopoiesis in our patients. These results offer a note of caution to those using palifermin to promote thymopoiesis in other settings, particularly in the oncology/haematology setting where alemtuzumab is often used as part of the conditioning regime. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01712945Funding: MRC and Moulton Charitable Foundation.

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